How I Teach

This fourth-grade teacher doesn’t take away recess or use points to manage the class. Instead she’s built a culture of respect.

PHOTO: Liz Fitzgerald
Liz Fitzgerald teaches fourth grade at Sagebrush Elementary School in the Cherry Creek district.

How do teachers captivate their students? Here, in a feature we call How I Teach, we ask great educators how they approach their jobs. You can see other pieces in this series here.

Liz Fitzgerald, a fourth-grade teacher at Sagebrush Elementary in the Cherry Creek School District, used to hang flags and posters to represent all the different cultures represented by her students. Then she decided that wasn’t enough.

She wanted her students to know they were in a safe place regardless of their background or opinions. She worked with them to create a classroom built on acceptance and civility — even when viewpoints diverge.

Fitzgerald is one of 15 teachers who were selected for the inaugural Colorado Teaching Policy Fellowship operated by the national nonprofit Teach Plus. The nine-month program aims to involve teacher leaders in state-level education policy discussions, including how the state responds to the Every Student Succeeds Act, the new federal education law.

This interview has been condensed and lightly edited.

Why did you become a teacher?

I always wanted to do something important and that made the world a better place. I see education as one of the very few universal human experiences, and so it has always struck me as a place where we, as a society, can make the most impact. If we can guarantee that every person has access to an excellent educational experience with highly effective teachers, I think we can create a lot of change in our country and our world. I wanted to be part of that!

What does your classroom look like?

I spent the first four years of my career in a school where most of my students rarely ventured outside of their neighborhood. My students lived five miles from downtown, yet many of them had never been there. I wanted to find a way to bring the world to them and introduce my students to life beyond their neighborhood. I started decorating my library with travel posters, I hung up flags from countries that represented my students’ backgrounds, and I started incorporating ideas, traditions, and stories from all around the world into my curriculum.

As I grew past my second year of teaching, I realized that hanging up flags and posters of students’ cultures was only one piece of celebrating who they are and encouraging them to explore new ways of thinking. I wanted the classroom to be more than superficially welcoming but emotionally safe as well. So today, my classroom still has many of these artifacts, but we also write and hang agreements of how we will treat one another. We refer back to these agreements on our rough days and celebrate them on our good days. We have words and phrases on the walls that help us share our truths but also consider the perspective of others. I hope that this creates a safe and welcoming space yet also stretches all of us to grow.

What apps/software/tools can’t you teach without? Why?

One aspect of my master’s program was learning and utilizing the Seven Norms of Collaboration. As I practiced these norms in working with adults, I realized that my students were capable of using them too. Instead of a classroom management system that takes away points, recess, or stamps, I decided to approach this year differently. I adapted the Seven Norms of Collaboration to meet the needs of my students, and then I spent the first weeks of school teaching my students our norms and expectations of working together.

Today, if you walk into my classroom, you see students setting social and academic goals for themselves, collaborating in groups, and monitoring progress toward their goals. Our discipline problems have been minimal — the occasional spat at recess — and I feel like our classroom community is built on deep respect. My students are comfortable living in a state of cognitive dissonance, and we have guidelines for how we disagree respectfully with one another. I cannot imagine teaching any other way, and most importantly, I hope that these are skills that stick with them for the rest of their lives.

How do you plan your lessons?

Every lesson begins with the evaluation of my students’ current level of understanding. Sometimes this is a formal process of pre-assessment, while other times it consists of analyzing patterns of student performance. Either way, I try to be very thoughtful in the objective that I am trying to teach, how to adjust for students who may struggle, and how to extend the lesson for students who quickly master the material. I work with my grade-level team and my English Language co-teacher to determine where each lesson fits into our curriculum maps as well as best practices for teaching.

I use the workshop model in every subject, so I try to keep my mini-lesson at approximately 15-20 minutes and allow for 30-50 minutes of student work time. This large chunk of time allows me to conference with students one-on-one or in small groups and really modify or extend the lesson as needed. Similarly, it allows students to spend the majority of time doing what they need the most — practicing and engaging in their own learning!

What qualities make an ideal lesson?

The words of my first principal echo in my head — “Intro, model, check, release” — and I still think those are the four most important parts: engage students in a lesson, model the skill, check student progress on the skill, and release students to work. But my favorite lessons are the ones where students take the lead, make connections to a previous concept, or take over the conversation. I LOVE watching my students engage in respectful disagreements among themselves and arrive at new learning in a natural way.

How do you respond when a student doesn’t understand your lesson?

I love the workshop model because it allows me to meet the needs of all my students. During that large period of student work time, I can meet one-on-one with students, modify or provide support as necessary, and ultimately help that child reach the objective. I try to stay very calm and patient, validate the student’s hard work, and hold the same high expectation. I want students to feel comfortable asking for help and empowered that they can achieve.

What is your go-to trick to re-engage a student who has lost focus?

I think it is so important to remember that no one can have their best day every day. When a student has lost focus, I try to keep this in mind. Part of our classroom is the expectation to “Pay Attention to Yourself,” monitor your emotions, and make deliberate choices when you notice something is off.

When students are having a rough day, I remind them of this expectation and work with them to determine appropriate next steps. Knowing my students really helps with this. I know that some of them need to be coached into a minute of physical activity, others need one minute to doodle, while others may need to take a quick lap around our school.

How do you maintain communication with the parents?

I send an email every Monday with classroom celebrations, a detailed schedule of our week (special events, homework…etc), upcoming notes or events, and questions for families to discuss with their students at home. These questions include everything from probes about our classroom content to reflections about what was challenging for students. My hope is that by including specific questions, parents feel more connected to what happens in our classroom and can have meaningful conversations about our classroom at home!

I also complete rounds of family check-ins every few weeks. During these check-ins, I call every parent in my classroom and share student progress, anecdotes, and any concerns I have. This time also allows me to hear what is on the minds of parents and make sure that no frustration, concern, or question goes unheard. I have found that these check-ins help develop my relationship with each parent and our trust in each other.

What are you reading for enjoyment?

I’ve always loved historical fiction, and I have been enjoying a few new titles thanks to our school staff’s book club. Recently we read When the Moon Was Low, which is the story of a family fleeing Afghanistan, which gave us a lot of perspective on the experiences of many of our families and community members. We also have read Yellow Crocus about a white woman growing up with a black wet nurse and their very different searches for freedom.

What’s the best advice you ever received?

The summer before my first year of teaching, I read a book titled Teaching with Love and Logic. The authors wrote that a student “will do anything for a teacher that they love, even things they wouldn’t do for themselves.” I believe so much in the power of building a positive, meaningful relationship with every student, and that it can be the difference-maker in a classroom. Even on my frustrated days, I remind students that in this classroom they are loved, they are believed in, and they matter, and if nothing else, I hope they take that with them at the end of the day.

How I Teach

Prayers, precision and push-ups: A special ed teacher puts his unusual background to work in the classroom

Caleb Asomugha embraces his students while on a field trip.

Caleb Asomugha’s professional life has taken many turns. He spent time exploring his faith in seminary, is a member of the Army Reserve and ran his own fitness business as a personal trainer.

Asomugha’s latest venture: Teaching special education at Academy for Young Writers in East New York, where he is halfway through his first year. Now, he uses prayerful patience and military precision to execute classroom lessons — and he isn’t afraid to hit the floor for push-ups with students who need to get their energy out.

“That just helps them refocus,” Asomugha said. “Kids like to move. They get bored sitting in one place.”

Asomugha made his way to the classroom through New York City Teaching Fellows, an alternative certification pathway for new graduates and career-changers, and has been mentored through NYC Men Teach, Mayor Bill de Blasio’s initiative to draw more men of color into the education profession. Asomugha and a fellow teacher recently landed a grant through NYC Men Teach to create an honors program that will expose students to different career options and link them with young professionals for mentoring.

Asomugha co-teaches math, science and band, along with an “enrichment” class designed to help students work on reading and math skills — all in an integrated sixth-grade classroom.

Here’s how he works with his teaching partners to meet the needs of his students with disabilities, and how Asomugha draws on his varied life experiences while in the classroom.

This interview has been condensed and lightly edited.

Why did you become a teacher?

I was a personal trainer doing pretty well, and I just felt that I was not doing enough in life to give back and to leave an impact. So I decided to get into teaching in order to fulfill those inner desires to inspire kids, specifically from low-income communities, to be able to achieve greater in life.

What is one of your favorite lessons to teach? How did you come up with the idea?

We put a stack of 50 note cards on different students’ desks. We told them they had 10 minutes to build a structure that reaches 16 inches high, and they were only able to use a certain amount of tape. [The structure had to] support the weight of a teddy bear for 10 seconds.

The students, they quickly were doing their thing. And a lot of their structures, when we went around and tested it, were not able to maintain the weight. So after that, we had the students investigate. We had websites pre-loaded for them to research different structures and what contributes to their strength.

After their investigations, they had an opportunity to refine their design. We retested it and I would say about 90 percent of their structures supported the object for the time limit. Afterwards, we had the students reflect on what they did and we reviewed vocabulary.

I got that idea from a professional development seminar from Urban Advantage, a program that helps teachers strengthen their science instruction.

You have to collaborate with four different teachers to plan your lessons. What’s that like?

I have the opportunity to share a trusted relationship with each of these teachers that gives me the liberty to either offer insight on their teaching practice or have them offer suggestions to mine. However, this does not come without its challenges, [such as] making the time to meet with four different teachers throughout an already busy week.

My role specifically is to modify content for students with learning disabilities or who need information broken down a little more. In these instances, I sometimes prepare a breakout location within the classroom or in a separate classroom where students who need further assistance (not just students with specific learning disabilities) can come and receive a slower paced, more detailed lesson that may include visual cues, manipulatives [like blocks or other props] and activities. Also, because I am a traveling teacher, which means I travel to most classes with my students, I have a better sense of what lessons will engage the students best.

What’s your go-to trick to re-engage a student who has lost focus?

From my experience, students usually lose focus with the lesson when they are either fidgety, tired or bored. In these cases, my go-to trick to re-engage that student is to take them outside and give them an opportunity to get their blood flowing. Sometimes it’s a water break and other times I’ll do a light exercise with them if they choose — push-ups, jumping jacks.

However, if it is the rare case that the entire class is off, then I will give them a quick brain break. In this 3-5 minute period, I will have them either do a fun class activity, a breathing exercise or a quick game. This time is also really critical for me to take a mental assessment of why the students are disengaged. Sometimes, I will have to add quick tweaks to the lesson or modify the length of the student work. In most cases, each of these strategies work.

How do you get to know your students and build relationships with them? 

One way that I am able to build relationships with them is with my boxing club. A lot of my male students are in that boxing club. We have forged a great relationship and obviously that carries into the classroom.

In any after-school club, a lot of teachers and facilitators will find the students are a little more relaxed and a little more able to be open with their coaches … I have some of the richest conversations with kids after school, just because it’s their time to be competitive, their time to engage in teamwork — and they look to me for advice as a coach, and not just a teacher. It just opens up the levels of trust.

I also take advantage during lunch, as much as possible, to go down with the kids and talk about how they’re doing. I’ll ask a student, “What’s going on? How was school today? What’s on your mind?” A student will tell me either they’re good, or this-or-that is bothering them, and what should they do about it. That’s such a vital opportunity for me, because that can be a time where I can add an intervention right on the spot, before it escalates into something more serious.

Fill in the blank. I couldn’t teach without my __________. Why?

My cell phone, because I’m always in contact with parents. I have a lot of my parents’ cell phone numbers programmed in my phone — and vice versa, they have mine. Much of my success thus far has been because of parent engagement. I try as much as possible to stay in contact with my students’ parents.

Can you think of a time when contact with a student’s family changed your perspective or approach?

I have tons of those, but there is one from recently. There was one student who we had been having a lot of trouble with. This student not only was being very disruptive in class, but the student would often come to class late. We tried a lot of times to get in touch with the parents, but it turned out that both parents worked a ton and they weren’t able to come up to the school for a parent conference.

Me and another teacher decided to go on a home visit, and that was a really great time because we were able to sit with the parents and the student, and get down to the root of why the student’s behavior is the way it is. We were able to, all together, set goals for the student — goals for which the student was able to add input.

After that meeting, that student’s behavior has become a ton better.

Most of the success I’ve experienced as a first-year teacher is because of parent engagement. That has been my go-to as a teacher.

How I Teach

When the class is off-task, this fourth-grade teacher knows it’s probably time for Justin Timberlake

PHOTO: Cynthia Rimmer
Cynthia Rimmer, a fourth grade teacher at Fraser Valley Elementary School in the East Grand School District, works with students.

How do teachers captivate their students? Here, in a feature we call How I Teach, we ask great educators how they approach their jobs. You can see other pieces in this series here.

For Cynthia Rimmer, a fourth-grade teacher at Fraser Valley Elementary in Granby, building relationships with students is one of the best parts of the job. She eats lunch with them, reads to them, asks about their hobbies and attends their out-of-school events when possible.

Rimmer is one of 24 teachers selected for the 2016-17 Colorado Educator Voice Fellowship, an initiative of the national nonprofit America Achieves. The program, which also includes principals, aims to involve educators in policy conversations and decisions.

This interview has been condensed and lightly edited.

Why did you become a teacher?
I became a teacher because I love helping kids: to learn, to reach their goals, to realize their dreams, to help them to develop into the people they are capable of becoming.

I had several teachers growing up that made a big impact on my life, but none was more influential than my third grade teacher, Ms. Deanna Masciantonio. She not only taught me about space and fractions, but more importantly, she taught me how to communicate and resolve conflict, and how treat friends. She made us feel special and valued. I still carry her lessons with me today.

What does your classroom look like?
My classroom is a warm and organized space where everyone can feel comfortable learning and working together. Student writing and artwork is displayed on the walls and there are a variety of seating options where students can go to work independently or collaboratively in partners or in groups.

Fill in the blank. I couldn’t teach without my __________. Why?
Sense of humor. Teaching children can be overwhelming at times. It is important to be able to take a step back, remember what is important, and enjoy the moments we have with these incredible young students.

What is one of your favorite lessons to teach? How did you come up with the idea?
Last year, my teaching partner and I worked with our physical education teacher to create a project where students researched topics related to the Coordinated School Health Standards. While the students created their projects, I was able to address a variety of English Language Arts standards, as well as working on the students’ technology and presentation skills.

How do you respond when a student doesn’t understand your lesson?
I have tried to create an environment where students are encouraged to take academic risks and mistakes are celebrated. When someone doesn’t grasp a concept, we work together to understand things in new and different ways, making sure to address the student’s variety of learning styles.

How do you get your class’s attention if students are talking or off task?
When individual students are talking or off task, often times they simply need a quick pat on the shoulder or a friendly reminder to refocus. Some students may need a quick brain break or a few laps on the exercise bike to get back on track.

When the entire class is off task, I stop and reflect on what is happening. Often times the directions were unclear, or the students were being pushed too hard, and we all need to make time for a brain boost. But sometimes, we just need to stop and dance. Our favorite class dance break this year is Justin Timberlake’s, “Can’t Stop the Feeling.” After a few minutes of singing and dancing, the students are ready to tackle the most challenging math problems.

How do you get to know your students and build relationships with them? What questions do you ask or what actions do you take?
Building relationships with students is one of the most important and one of my favorite parts of being a teacher. Talking to the students, having lunch together, telling them about myself, reading to them, getting to know about their interests and hobbies, and letting them see that I am a real person all help build healthy relationships. I also try to attend the students’ outside events whenever possible, which I’ve found goes a long way in creating a trusting and long-lasting relationship.

Tell us about a memorable time — good or bad — when contact with a student’s family changed your perspective or approach.
In one memorable meeting, a parent requested that I move her son into a more challenging reading group. Although test scores and classroom observations didn’t dictate this switch, the parent shared some struggles that the family had recently dealt with that she felt were holding her son back from doing his best.

After I changed her child’s grouping on a trial basis, the student began to flourish. He developed more confidence and began to work harder, quickly becoming a role model and a positive leader. Parents love their children and want what’s best for them. When we take the time to partner with parents and understand where they are coming from, great things can happen.

What are you reading for enjoyment?
I just finished Fish in a Tree by Lynda Mullay Hunt. I enjoy reading the books my students are reading so that we can discuss our excitement for the stories together. I recently started My Grandmother Asked Me To Tell You She’s Sorry by Fredrik Backman. I enjoyed his book A Man Called Ove and I hope this book will just as charming.

What’s the best advice you ever received?
About 20 years ago I was considering pursuing another career. A trusted friend and mentor advised me to re-enter the teaching profession. I can’t thank her enough for that wise counsel.