In the Classroom

Indiana may add honors for bilingual graduates

PHOTO: Alan Petersime
The IPS board gave approval for the district to house a new dual-language immersion charter school next year.

Efforts to boost foreign language learning in Indiana are winning strong support at the Statehouse this year.

Republicans and Democrats on the House Education Committee today praised a bipartisan bill that would add a special seal of accomplishment to the diplomas of high school graduates who learned a second language well enough to qualify as fully bilingual.

Senate Bill 267 is co-authored by Sen. Dennis Kruse, the Republican chairman of the Senate Education Committee from Auburn, and the Senate’s Democratic leader, Sen. Tim Lanane of Anderson.

The bill would award the graduation seal for what it calls “biliteracy” when a student takes a minimum number of credit hours in English and foreign language classes and passes a foreign language exam. The Indiana State Board of Education would specify how many credits are needed and choose the test if the bill becomes law.

Biliteracy is intended to require that students go beyond simply being able to converse in a second language.

“It’s the ability to speak, read, write and understand two different languages,” said Pamela Gemmer, a retired Indianapolis Public Schools teacher who spoke in favor of the bill on behalf of the Indiana Foreign Language Teachers Association and two other groups.

“It’s bipartisan,” Gemmer said, “and it doesn’t cost. We want our youngsters to be proud of their ability to function in a second language.”

Students learning English as a second language could also earn the seal if they can demonstrate proficiency in both their native language and English, Lanane said.

“It’s recognition for an individual who can show proficiency in two languages,” he said. “It is to encourage our students to be biliterate.”

The bill would recognize students who can show they are bilingual in “modern languages” but also in Latin, American Sign Language, Native American languages and other “native languages.”

But the bill could soon go further to encourage foreign language learning.

Committee Chairman Rep. Robert Behning, R-Indianapolis, said he planned to amend Senate Bill 267 when the committee meets again on Thursday so it would also establish a dual language immersion pilot program. A vote is also expected on Thursday.

Behning authored House Bill 1635, which would create a pilot program to establish programs that would allow students to learn half the day in a foreign language like Chinese, Spanish or French.

He modeled the program after a similar effort in Utah, which he said has spurred widespread dual-language immersion, especially in Chinese languages.

Behning traveled to China last year said he returned believing more Hoosier children learning Chinese languages could give the state an advantage as that country becomes an increasingly important U.S. trading partner.

But House Bill 1635, he said, has been assigned to the budget-making Senate Appropriations Committee and he is unsure of its fate there. So instead he hopes to pair the immersion pilot idea with the graduation seal by creating a broader version of Senate Bill 267 to encourage language learning in two ways.

Both ideas have lots of support among legislators. Senate Bill 267 passed the Senate last month 50-0 and House Bill 1635 passed the House 95-0.

Representatives of the Indiana Department of Education and the Indiana Federation of Teachers also both testified for the bill today.

The federation’s lobbyist, Sally Sloan, said she believed the graduation seal will have the impact its advocates are hoping for.

“I think it will be a huge motivator for students and helps fill a need for students with a passion for languages,” she said. “It will help the global economy too.”

try try again

Why this Bronx middle school believes in second — and third — chances

PHOTO: Christina Veiga
Vincent Gassetto, the principal M.S. 343, hugs a staff member after winning the Teaching Matters prize in July 2017.

Teachers at M.S. 343 in the South Bronx had a problem: Their lessons weren’t sticking.

Students initially would test well on fundamental concepts — such as multi-digit long division or calculating the rate of change. But that knowledge seemed to melt away on follow-up exams just months or even weeks later.

The solution that teachers developed, based on providing constant feedback to students and encouraging regular collaboration among staff, has helped M.S. 343 beat district averages on standardized tests. It has also landed the school a $25,000 prize.

This week, M.S. 343 won the Elizabeth Rohatyn Prize, which is awarded to public schools that foster great teaching. Presented by the nonprofit Teaching Matters, the award money will go toward building a digital platform that students and teachers can use to track their progress from anywhere, at any time.

The work at M.S. 343 starts with determining which skills teachers will emphasize and test throughout the year. Working together, teachers draw on what they already know about which concepts are most likely to trip students up, contribute to success in later grades or appear on standardized tests. A key concept could be understanding ratios in sixth grade or mastering scientific notation by eighth grade.

“It’s all in the teachers’ hands,” said Principal Vincent Gassetto.

Students are regularly tested with “learning targets.” But they’re also given three chances to prove they’ve mastered the skills. Gassetto said the approach is backed by neuroscience, which suggests the best way to learn is to use the knowledge multiple times, instead of cramming for a single test.

“That actually tells the brain: You’re being tested on this, it’s important. And that stores it in a part of the brain that’s easily retrievable,” he said.

Only the highest score will be recorded, which serves a different purpose: boosting students’ confidence in themselves as learners.

“We’re celebrating their progress, not necessarily the end result,” math teacher Lola Dupuy explained in a video the school produced. “It can be very confusing for a student to receive a failing grade and very discouraging for them if they don’t know … what they’re doing wrong and what they need to do to improve it.”

In between tests, each department comes together to analyze students’ answers. They zero in on common misconceptions and come up with a list of questions for students to ask themselves when reviewing their work.

Using the questions as a guide, it’s up to the students to figure out where they went wrong, often by working in groups with peers with varying skill levels.

“Students are more engaged in their work and the outcomes are better because they’re self-reflecting,” Dupuy said.

M.S. 343’s approach also gets at a common knock on testing: The results are rarely used to improve teaching and students often don’t have the opportunity to learn from their mistakes. At M.S. 343, teachers spend entire weeks meeting as a team to go over results and fine-tune their instruction. That time, Gassetto said, is a valuable resource.

“Most of the time, when you give a big assessment,” Gassetto said, “you’re testing, but for what purpose? We don’t do that. If we’re going to ask kids to sit down and take an assessment, we need to look at it and get it back to them right away, so it’s useful.”

draining the pool

New York City principals balk at plan to place teachers in their schools; some vow to get around it

PHOTO: Maura Walz
A social studies class at New Design High School, where Scott Conti is principal.

Many New York City principals are unhappy that the city is planning to place teachers directly into their schools — and in some cases, they’re vowing resistance.

Department of Education officials announced last week that they would place up to half of the 822 teachers who currently do not have positions into jobs that haven’t been filled by Oct. 15. Those teachers are part of the Absent Teacher Reserve, a collection of educators moved to the pool for disciplinary reasons or when their positions were eliminated. They remain on the city payroll in an arrangement that has generated political tension for years.

The move by the city reverses Chancellor Carmen Fariña’s promise in 2014 to avoid “forced placement” and raises questions about principals’ already fraying sense of autonomy. The city claims the plan is not forced placement because it would only apply to vacancies, as opposed to displacing teachers who are already employed. Regardless, many principals aren’t on board.

Some say they’ll avoid any attempt to place teachers at their schools, even if that means obscuring open jobs from the city’s hiring systems past October.

“I’m going to make sure my school doesn’t have a vacancy,” said one Bronx principal who wished to remain anonymous due to the sensitive nature of the topic. “I’m not going to post a vacancy if someone will place an ATR there. I’ll be as strategic as I can and figure out another way.”

Some principals raised concerns about the quality of the teachers in the pool. Education department officials could not readily provide the percentage of teachers in the pool who are there for disciplinary reasons, but a 2014 report estimated it at 25 percent. The same report said another third had received unsatisfactory ratings and half hadn’t held a classroom position in two years or more.

“Many of them have been coming from schools that have been closed down or subject areas that were cut,” said Scott Conti, principal of New Design High School in Manhattan. “The majority of them were at schools that were highly dysfunctional.” He noted that some may have been out of the classroom for years and not getting proper professional development, effectively hindering their performance as teachers.

Conti said he did hire a teacher from the ATR pool three years ago, through the standard procedure he would use to hire other teachers. He objects to the idea of being forced to hire someone whose effectiveness he could not fully judge.

“It’s never good when somebody from outside a school decides to fill in a vacancy in a school,” Conti said. “ It’s scary that some teacher could be put in your school that you have no choice about.”

Other principals were more harsh. One Bronx principal said multiple experiences working with ATR teachers sent to the school for monthly rotations in the past left the impression that those in the reserve are “not qualified, with very few exceptions.” Other principals agreed, suggesting that if the teachers were high-quality candidates, they probably would have found positions on their own.

To circumvent the new policy, some principals said they might check in with all their teachers early in the hiring period to be aware of potential future vacancies. If there is a vacancy in October, others said they’d consider hiring a long-term substitute to fill the position rather than leaving it open to an ATR placement.

The city says the new approach will be more stable than having teachers in the ATR rotate monthly, and will allow schools to more closely support and supervise the teachers in their building. It plans to work closely with principals on the hiring.

“We will work to find the right fit, and hear and work through concerns that they might have,” education department spokesman Will Mantell told Chalkbeat last week. “But ultimately, we do have discretion to place an educator in a vacancy that exists, and it kind of makes sense.”

Schools will still have final say over whether the teachers are permanently hired. If at the end of the school year, the teacher is rated as “effective” or “highly effective” in the observation portion of their evaluation — performed by principals or other school administrators — that teacher will be permanently hired to that school.

It is unclear if any of the ATR teachers placed into schools this coming fall could have a background of poor disciplinary conduct, or if the teachers placed would come solely from the share that are in the pool because they were excessed.

“The DOE has discretion on which educators in the ATR pool are appropriate for long-term placement, and may choose not to assign educators who have been disciplined in the past,” education officials said.

Last year, the city offered an incentive system to encourage schools to hire from the ATR pool. During that school year, 372 teachers were hired from the ATR pool under a DOE policy that subsidized the cost of the teachers’ first-year salaries by 50 to 100 percent. Those incentives will not be offered with the placements expected this fall.

Daniel Russo, principal of Walton Avenue School in the Bronx, said he has had positive experiences with the two teachers he hired from ATR pool in previous years. He added that though ATR teachers sometimes have a gap because they are coming from a different school — and sometimes not a high-performing school — his school is able to fill that gap and assimilate the teacher to the school’s culture and expectations.

Still, he noted, finding the right fit between candidates and schools could be a “challenging undertaking” for the city.

New Design’s Conti fears that challenge will disproportionately fall on schools like his that struggle with fluctuating enrollment.

“These teachers are not going to end up at Lab, they will end up at places like New Design where the positions will open up,” Conti said, referring to the selective and successful NYC Lab School for Collaborative Studies. “Schools with the most unstable populations, serving the neediest kids is where the low-functioning teachers will end up.”