Dealing with discipline

Former Newark schools chief Cami Anderson’s new mission: getting schools to rethink student discipline

PHOTO: Governor's Office/Tim Larsen
Cami Anderson when she was superintendent of schools in Newark, New Jersey.

After a rocky tenure as superintendent of the Newark Public Schools, Cami Anderson is now working with charter networks and school districts to reform school discipline, she told Chalkbeat.

Called the Discipline Revolution Project, Anderson’s new initiative aims to help schools reduce suspensions and move away from exclusionary discipline practices.

“There’s an increasing awareness in the reform community, charter and district, that our punitive approach to discipline is very costly to some kids, but there’s not enough talk about what we’re moving towards,” she said in an interview at the New Schools Venture Fund summit. “There’s too much talk about what we’re moving away from.”

Anderson is the former Newark schools superintendent who was appointed in 2011 just as the district received a highly publicized $100 million gift from Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg. Her work in Newark, especially a plan to close a number of the district’s schools, made her a lightning rod for controversy until she resigned under pressure in 2015.

Her new focus on school discipline comes as charter schools have faced pressure to reduce their suspension rates, particularly so-called “no excuses” charters, which often produce high test scores and use a strict disciplinary approach.

Anderson sees an opportunity to get schools to change their practices and wants to ensure discussion translates into action.

“It seems like a conversation is happening … and it’s an important opportunity,” she said. “I want to make sure it’s filled with content. My big fear is that it will stay as a philosophical [one].”

Anderson convened a group of leaders last week from charter networks and school districts, including from Denver Public Schools, Tennessee’s state-run Achievement School District and charter networks such as Uncommon Schools and Summit Public Schools.

Specifically, Anderson is hoping to offer tools for leaders interested in improving discipline practices, help schools use discipline data more effectively, and facilitate discussions among school and district leaders.

Charter schools, like traditional public schools, are dramatically more likely to suspend black students and students with disabilities. Advocates argue that exclusionary discipline hurts students and feeds a “school-to-prison” pipeline. This has caused a number of school districts and some charter school leaders to vow to reduce suspensions and emphasize alternatives like restorative justice.

Others within the charter movement have pushed back, including Success Academy’s Eva Moskowitz.

“Lax discipline won’t strike a blow for civil rights,” Moskowitz wrote in the Wall Street Journal. “Instead it will perpetuate the real civil-rights violation — the woeful failure to educate the vast majority of the city’s minority children and prepare them for life’s challenges.”

Anderson says she’s not saying suspensions should be eliminated altogether, but that schools should put a greater emphasis on preventing student misbehavior in the first place. She also argues that suspensions are simply an ineffective way to address misbehavior.

“Students have to be accountable for their behavior. They just need to be accountable in a way that that they’re going to learn from it,” Anderson said. “Putting them out is almost never the way for that to happen.”

Indeed, there is little evidence that exclusionary discipline has its intended impact, though there is also limited rigorous research on the efficacy of alternatives.

After leaving Newark, Anderson started her own education consulting firm and has worked with charter schools on improving their services for students with disabilities. Anderson said she doesn’t know yet whether her school-discipline initiative will grow into a standalone organization. Last week’s convening, essentially the project’s launch, was funded by the New Schools Venture Fund and the Walton Foundation. (Walton is also a supporter of Chalkbeat.)

“Part of it is going to be responding to what people say they got out of it and what they want moving forward,” she said.

Movers & shakers

Tennessee taps high-profile school superintendent as deputy ed commissioner

PHOTO: Marta W. Aldrich
Kingsport City Schools Superintendent Lyle Ailshie (center) participates in a 2015 panel discussion on the state of education in Tennessee. The event was organized by the State Collaborative on Reforming Education.

Preparing students for college and the workforce is core to Gov. Bill Haslam’s education agenda, and Tennessee is now turning to one of its go-to district leaders to oversee part of that work.

Lyle Ailshie

Kingsport City Schools Superintendent Lyle Ailshie will be the state’s new deputy education commissioner over college, career and technical education, Commissioner Candice McQueen announced Wednesday.

He’ll also oversee the State Department of Education’s work over teacher preparation, licensure and effectiveness at a time when Tennessee is stepping up efforts to improve and align teacher training programs with the state’s needs.

A 35-year educator, Ailshie has led districts in Kingsport and Greeneville for 17 years. He is a past president of the Tennessee Organization of School Superintendents and was named Tennessee’s Superintendent of the Year in 2005.

Ailshie (pronounced Al-SHYE’) most recently served as chairman of a key state committee helping to revise Common Core standards for math and English language arts to make them more Tennessee-centric. Those standards will reach classrooms this fall.

He also served on the working group of education stakeholders who helped state education leaders develop Tennessee’s school accountability plan under the new federal education law, the Every Student Succeeds Act.

Ailshie is a frequent participant on state panels hosted by the department and by the State Collaborative on Reforming Education, a Nashville-based research and advocacy group founded by former U.S. Sen. Bill Frist.

Beginning in mid-August, he will oversee the state division that includes school counselors, career and technical education, student readiness, work-based learning, student leadership programs and Pathways Tennessee, an industry partnership to link education to labor market needs and trends. In addition, he’ll run the division that oversees teachers and leaders.

The appointment is part of a reorganization that moves both divisions from the oversight of Chief Academic Officer Vicki Kirk, who will serve with Ailshie on the commissioner’s leadership team. The changes follow the departure earlier this year of Danielle Mezera, who served as assistant commissioner of college, career and technical education. She’ll be replaced by Casey Haugner Wrenn, who has been with the division since 2012.

College and career readiness has been an education focus under Haslam’s administration and McQueen’s strategic plan.

In 2013, the governor announced his Drive to 55 initiative to get 55 percent of Tennesseans equipped with a college degree or certificate by 2025. Two years later, McQueen unveiled a five-year strategic plan for K-12 education with goals that include getting the majority of high school graduates from the Class of 2020 to earn a postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree. Currently, about a fourth of the state’s graduates complete postsecondary programs, while almost 60 percent enroll in them.

Other components of the strategic plan include revamping teacher preparation and focusing the role of high school counselors, both of which will come under Ailshie’s purview in his new job.

opinion

Chancellor Fariña on why losing mayoral control ‘would mean chaos, gridlock and corruption’

PHOTO: Patrick Wall

As the leader charged with providing a high-quality education to 1.1 million New York City students, I have to be honest with you:

Our school system is headed for disaster. You may have heard something in the news about mayoral control. Let me explain what it is and why losing it would be devastating.

The state government must act to keep the mayor in charge of our schools by June 30. If they don’t, the entire system will slide back into the old, decentralized structure we had before. That would mean chaos, gridlock and corruption. I should know, I’ve been working in city schools since the 1960s. I saw what happened before 2002 when we put the mayor in charge.

First and foremost, today, the leadership of our schools makes sense. I am accountable for continued progress in our schools and the mayor is my boss. That means New Yorkers know exactly who to blame if things aren’t going well and exactly who to call when they need something done. It also means that the largest school system in the nation has an executive with real power to shake things up, innovate on behalf of students and families, and make wholesale changes that benefit all corners of the city.

If Albany lets mayoral control lapse, there will be no one accountable for progress. Our schools have never been stronger, and all that we have accomplished together will be at risk. Instead, power will be in the hands of 32 separate community school boards. That will mean a mountain of new red tape and surging costs due to inefficiency. According to the Independent Budget Office, costs dropped 22 percent after mayoral control was enacted in 2002.

But that’s not the worst of it. The most catastrophic thing is how our students will suffer.

With 32 separate entities in charge of the “system,” it will be nothing more than a constant struggle for resources. Some communities will win and some will lose. Some communities will get more than their share and some will be asked to do with much less. If parents think that’s unfair, who can they complain to?

Having 32 separate school boards is ripe for corruption. Isolated districts are small enough to be taken over by factions who aren’t putting the best interest of kids first. In the past, these boards too frequently ended up as personal property that could be bartered and traded, and used to reward cronies. Under the old system, entire districts did not have well-trained teachers or necessary materials. This isn’t just speculation – again, I was there.

Managers, appointed by the local school boards, inflated the price of contracts to generate lucrative kickbacks that took money directly away from students and siphoned money from taxpayers. One district alone stole $6 million from students, paying 81 employees for jobs they never showed up to. In another, school safety was entrusted to a high-level gang member.

Before mayoral control, graduation rates hovered around 50 percent and many schools simply were not safe. Students in the city consistently did worse than their peers across the state on standardized tests.

In the 15 years since mayors have controlled the school system, New Yorkers have seen a turnaround that has been nothing less than stunning.

Right now, New York City’s graduation rate is the highest in history. The drop-rate rate is the lowest it has ever been. For the first time ever, our students beat the rest of the state on English tests. Crime in schools has fallen 35 percent over the last five years. And we have the highest-ever college enrollment rate.

Mayor de Blasio has brought change to every district in the city. In two short years, we have added free, full-day, high-quality pre-K for every 4-year-old. Now, we are working to do the same with 3-K, instruction for 3-year-olds.

We have after-school programs for every middle schooler and we’ve made investments in school facilities—guaranteeing that every classroom is air conditioned and every school has a gym. All of these accomplishments, and many others, are a direct result of mayoral control.

I want to be clear: This isn’t about the mayor I work for. Mayoral control is vital for New Yorkers no matter who the mayor is.

There is only one proven way to run the New York City school system — that’s putting our schools in the hands of a duly elected, accountable leader, the mayor of New York. The future of our City is at stake unless Albany takes immediate action.

Carmen Fariña is chancellor of the New York City Department of Education.