Colorado

District walks the talk on performance pay

Harrison Superintendent Mike Miles with students at Monterey Elementary School

COLORADO SPRINGS – In a little less than four years, Mike Miles has upended a district known mostly for poverty and poor performance and created a home for some of the state’s boldest education reforms.

This week, even as critics lament the timidity of the state’s Race to the Top effort around teacher quality, Harrison School District 2 is preparing to launch a merit-pay plan that differs markedly from longer-running and better-known efforts in Denver and Douglas County.

Incentives play no part in the plan created by Miles, the superintendent here since 2006. There are no bonuses for teaching in struggling schools. Teachers don’t pocket a couple thousand bucks more if their students do better than expected on state tests.

Instead, teachers in Harrison will soon have their entire salaries based on a combination of their annual evaluations and their students’ academic progress.

No longer will teachers get annual raises for another year on the job or for taking more college classes – the way most districts in Colorado and across the country pay their instructors.

These changes are made easier by the fact that Harrison teachers do not have collective bargaining rights.

Once the new plan launches, Miles estimates only about 20 percent of teachers will get a raise every year. But starting pay will be higher and those raises, when they come, will be bigger – $3,000 to $4,000 initially and then $6,000 to $10,000.

“In almost any district in Colorado, even if your evaluation is not satisfactory, unless you are removed from the classroom, you will get a raise,” Miles said. “That is the key question – if you’re not proficient, why should you get the same exact advancement as a proficient teacher?”

A new career ladder

Teachers in Harrison District 2, which enrolls 11,000 students just south of Colorado Springs District 11, now start at $32,914 and can make up to $68,039 if they earn a doctorate and work 27 years.

Under the new plan, teachers start at $35,000 and can earn up to $90,000.

There are nine levels for teachers under the new plan, from “Novice” to “Master.”

“It is possible for a person to go from year to year and make it from novice to master in nine years,” Miles said. “That is unlikely. The performance standards are pretty high.”

Harrison Superintendent Mike Miles

Moving from one level to the next gets progressively harder. For the first step, from “Novice” to “Progressing I,” a teacher needs only a satisfactory evaluation. Every other step requires evidence of student academic progress.

After a teacher achieves level 4 or “Proficient,” which pays $48,000, other factors are considered, such as whether a teacher is showing leadership by coaching or mentoring others.

“What we’re saying is, you have to be good at your classroom stuff, you have to be good at achievement,” Miles said, “but if you want to make the higher money, you’ve got to be a leader, you’ve got to contribute, you’ve got to keep learning.”

Continuing education does matter on the new ladder. To get to $90,000, a teacher needs at least a master’s degree as “evidence of lifelong learning,” another factor considered at the higher end.

Paying for the plan

Principals in the Harrison district’s 25 schools are now working on placing their teachers on one of those nine levels.

No current teacher will make less under the new system, even if they’re placed at a lower level. And, no teacher will get a raise of more than $8,000 in the initial placement round.

“Everybody who’s been here one year, next year, they’ll be making $38,000,” Miles said. “So already, there’s going to be a huge pay increase on the earlier end of the scale.”

The plan is expected to cost $1 million more per year, taken largely from stipends and bonuses now paid to teachers.

Up to $350,000 will come from eliminating the extra pay given to secondary teachers who serve as department chairs. Another $250,000 will come from getting rid of the rewards given to teachers who are absent fewer than seven days during the school year.

“We’re saying look, like any other professional, you shouldn’t need attendance incentives,” Miles said. “If you want to do well, come to work.”

Harrison has 710 teachers and 90 percent – or 640 to 650 – will be paid in the new system starting this fall. The district is still figuring out a plan for those in specialized areas such as speech pathologists.

Based on estimated teacher placements, 15 to 20 percent of Harrison’s teachers will not see a difference in pay next year. Of those who do, the average raise will be $2,200 to $2,300.

Another 15 to 20 percent are expected to be placed in the highest levels, earning at least $54,000.

How achievement is measured

Harrison District 2 is just south of Colorado Springs District 11

Placement – and advancement – under the plan is based on combining an evaluation of a teacher’s classroom performance and a review of student achievement.

The two components are worth roughly equal in advancing in the first two levels – so a “Progressing” on an evaluation and a “Proficient” on the achievement review will land a teacher in the middle, or the “Progressing II” level.

But to reach the proficient level, a teacher must be proficient in both evaluation and achievement.

Harrison’s achievement review is multi-faceted, relying on national, state, district and school tests. Each review has eight areas and adds up to a total of 48 points.

In all but one area, where the teacher picks a goal, the teacher gets to choose the best of several different ways of looking at the results.

For example, with the state CSAP exams, the teacher can pick results of her class by status – at least 50 percent of students passed the exam, for example. Or she can pick results by growth – the median growth percentile of the class was 50 or higher in each discipline taught.

One area looks at schoolwide results, rather than a single class, and other areas consider “academic peer groups,” where students in a class are compared to other students with similar academic progress.

In other words, it’s complex.

“Frankly, it’s over 100 pages and … it does initially overwhelm you,” said Laura Stephens, a social studies teacher at Sierra High School and the president of the Harrison Education Association.

Union approval not required

In Harrison, Miles does not need the union’s approval.

School board members have repeatedly approved the plan as it’s moved from concept to paper and, in a vote earlier this month, launched it officially for fall 2010.

Deborah Hendrix, the board’s president, and two other incumbents on the five-member board were re-elected in the midst of talks about the plan.

“We did not back off moving forward with this because of the elections,” Hendrix said. “All three of us were re-elected with a very good margin and many of our conversations with voters were very encouraging.”

Neither Stephens nor Mike Stahl, head of the Pikes Peak Education Association, which includes Harrison, said they oppose the plan.

But, “We do feel like it’s been dictated to us,” Stephens said, “even though we may embrace it.”

Stahl said teachers, if asked what they would do with $1 million, would never have said, “Pay us more.”

“I don’t think that’s the motivator for teachers,” he said. “I think they would have said, why don’t you reduce my class size? Or, why don’t you take something off my plate? Not, would you pay us more?”

He also points out that research on whether merit pay boosts student achievement is inconclusive.

“I’m not saying I’m opposed to it necessarily,” Stahl said. “I just think that a greater level of collaboration means a greater level of success and there hasn’t been that. It was a done deal the minute it came out past his lips.”

Building up to merit pay

While public talks about the pay plan began last fall, Miles said the reforms he started nearly four years ago have set the stage.

One of the key pieces, which has drawn attention across the state, is a dramatic change in how teachers are evaluated.

Harrison School Board President Deborah Hendrix

State law requires teachers be observed in their classroom only once or twice a year and that they be given one of two ratings – satisfactory or unsatisfactory.

The result is that few teachers or districts take them seriously. An Ed News analysis found nearly 100 percent of teachers in Colorado’s largest districts were rated satisfactory in each of the past three years.

But in Harrison, Miles has made instructional leadership the focus of principals’ jobs – they must observe teachers in their classrooms eight to 16 times each year.

On a recent Wednesday at Harrison’s Bricker Elementary, Principal Amy McCord visited several classrooms, clipboard in hand, marking “spot observation” forms that would later go to teachers.

Last February, 73 percent of classroom teachers in Harrison said the instructional feedback they received “mostly” or “definitely” helped them improve their instruction.

The focus on instruction has been a change for many principals – a little less than half are new since Miles became superintendent.

“There was a huge philosophical shift on how we do business as administrators and what our role is,” said Carmel Middle School Principal Tina Vidovich. “A lot of things didn’t go away, it certainly did add to what we were doing. But I think it set our priorities straight.”

‘We’re ready’

A closer scrutiny of classroom work is linked with a more nuanced evaluation tool.

For Harrison teachers, there’s still an unsatisfactory rating but satisfactory now has six different possibilities, from progressing to proficient to exemplary.

Last year, 22 percent of probationary teachers in Harrison who received evaluations were not proficient. Ten percent of non-probationary teachers – meaning they’d been in the classroom at least three years – also were not proficient.

For Miles, the logical next step is to pay teachers differently based on those different evaluation results.

“The reason why this is pay for performance is that you actually will get compensated differently,” he said. “One of the philosophical things we have to get over in our profession is we are so tied to equity … and it is so hard for some teachers to say, look, I’m getting a raise and that person isn’t.”

Adding achievement into the mix makes sense because the district has created an assessment system and trained principals and teachers in using the data, he said.

Even electives teachers use tests and are being included. Art teachers across the district, for example, assign their students a common art project; out-of-district art teachers then score them.

“You should not tie compensation to evaluation unless the rest of these things are in place,” Miles said. “If you’re not giving instructional feedback, there’s no way to have an effective evaluation system. If you don’t have an effective evaluation system then you won’t have a good professional development plan. If you don’t have instructional leadership, you can’t do any of these.

“We have worked on this for three and a half years, four years, so we are ready to tie these two together,” he said. “People think it’s just throwing one more thing on top of a broken system and it ain’t going to work. But our system is aligned.”

To learn more:

Click here to see a snapshot of Harrison District 2’s demographics and student performance.

Click here to read Harrison Superintendent Mike Miles’ description of the new pay plan

Click here to see brief descriptions of four other merit pay plans in Colorado.

Nancy Mitchell can be reached at nmitchell@pebc.org or 303-478-4573.

What's Your Education Story?

As the 2018 school year begins, join us for storytelling from Indianapolis educators

PHOTO: Dylan Peers McCoy/Chalkbeat
Sarah TeKolste, right, and Lori Jenkins at a Teacher Story Slam, in April.

In partnership with Teachers Lounge Indy, Chalkbeat is hosting another teacher story slam this fall featuring educators from across the city.

Over the past couple of years, Chalkbeat has brought readers personal stories from teachers and students through the events. Some of our favorites touched on how a teacher won the trust of her most skeptical student, why another teacher decided to come out to his students, and one educator’s call to ramp up the number of students pursuing a college education.

The event, 5:30 p.m. Thursday, Sept. 13, is free and open to the public — please RSVP here.

Event details:

5:30 p.m. to 7:30 p.m.
Thursday, Sept. 13, 2018
Tube Factory artspace
1125 Cruft St., Indianapolis, IN 46203
Get tickets here and find more on Facebook

More in What's Your Education Story?

School safety

Hiring more security officers in Memphis after school shootings could have unintended consequences

PHOTO: Jahi Chikwendiu/The Washington Post/Getty Images

Tennessee’s largest district, Shelby County Schools, is slated to add more school resource officers under the proposed budget for next school year.

Superintendent Dorsey Hopson earmarked $2 million to hire 30 school resource officers in addition to the 98 already in some of its 150-plus schools. The school board is scheduled to vote on the budget Tuesday.

But an increase in law enforcement officers could have unintended consequences.

A new state law that bans local governments from refusing to cooperate with federal immigration officials could put school resource officers in an awkward position.

Tennessee Education Commissioner Candice McQueen recently reminded school personnel they are not obligated to release student information regarding immigration status. School resource officers employed by police or sheriff’s departments, however, do not answer to school districts. Shelby County Schools is still reviewing the law, but school board members have previously gone on the record emphasizing their commitment to protecting undocumented students.

“Right now we are just trying to get a better understanding of the law and the impact that it may have,” said Natalia Powers, a district spokeswoman.

Also, incidents of excessive force and racial bias toward black students have cropped up in recent years. Two white Memphis officers were fired in 2013 after hitting a black student and wrestling her to the ground because she was “yelling and cussing” on school grounds. And mothers of four elementary school students recently filed a lawsuit against a Murfreesboro officer who arrested them at school in 2016 for failing to break up a fight that occurred off-campus.

Just how common those incidents are in Memphis is unclear. In response to Chalkbeat’s query for the number and type of complaints in the last two school years, Shelby County Schools said it “does not have any documents responsive to this request.”

Currently, 38 school resource officers are sheriff’s deputies, and the rest are security officers hired by Shelby County Schools. The officers respond and work to prevent criminal activity in all high schools and middle schools, Hopson said. The 30 additional officers would augment staffing at some schools and for the first time, branch out to some elementary schools. Hopson said those decisions will be based on crime rates in surrounding neighborhoods and school incidents.

Hopson’s initial recommendation for more school resource officers was in response to the school shooting in Parkland, Florida, that killed 17 people and sparked a wave of student activism on school safety, including in Memphis.

Gov. Bill Haslam’s recent $30 million budget boost would allow school districts across Tennessee to hire more law enforcement officers or improve building security. Measures to arm some teachers with guns or outlaw certain types of guns have fallen flat.


For more on the role and history of school resource officers in Tennessee, read our five things to know.


Sheriff’s deputies and district security officers meet weekly, said Capt. Dallas Lavergne of the Shelby County Sheriff’s Office. When the Memphis Police Department pulled their officers out of school buildings following the merger of city and county school systems, the county Sheriff’s Office replaced them with deputies.

All deputy recruits go through school resource officer training, and those who are assigned to schools get additional annual training. In a 2013 review of police academies across the nation, Tennessee was cited as the only state that had specific training for officers deployed to schools.