School Finance

Tuition, debt dominate higher ed budget hearing

Key legislators signaled concern about tuition levels during a budget hearing Thursday, even though state colleges have promised to keep 2014-15 increases below 6 percent.

Colorado college campus montage
From left, Colorado State University in Fort Collins, the University of Colorado-Boulder and the Auraria Higher Education Center.

Institutional debt was the other focus of the daylong hearing before the Joint Budget Committee, an annual marathon at which college leaders get to pitch their institutions to the people who write the annual state budget.

The upcoming 2014-15 budget year looks to be a good one for the state higher education system, at least in comparison to the recent past.

Lt. Gov. Joe Garcia, who also heads the Department of Higher Education, touted the Hickenlooper administration’s proposed $100 million increase in higher education spending for 2014-15.

“This a request for a serious reinvestment in higher education,” he said, calling it the largest “in anyone’s memory” but adding the increase is “dwarfed by the cuts of the last decade.”

The administration’s proposal presumes that college and university governing boards won’t raise 2014-15 tuition by more than 6 percent. A 2010 tuition flexibility law gave institutions the power to raise tuition by up to 9 percent a year for five years. Larger increases are allowed if approved by the Colorado Commission on Higher Education. That law expires in two years. Tuition increases have averaged about 10 percent a year over the last few years.

Governing boards “have all agreed that they will use this money to mitigate their tuition increases,” Garcia said. “Most of them said it won’t be that high.” Individual institutions promised as much in their written responses to committee questions.

But that didn’t necessarily reassure lawmakers.

Impact of 6% tuition hike
  • $257 at community colleges
  • $345 at Metro
  • $430 at Adams, CSU-Pueblo, Fort Lewis, Mesa, Western, UNC
  • $559 at CSU-Fort Collins
  • $621 at CU-Boulder

Source: JBC

“I gain no comfort in this 6 percent deal” because larger increases are possible in future years, said Rep. Frank McNulty, R-Highlands Ranch. “To me it’s a bait and switch. … We need to increase the state’s commitment to higher education … and not rely on things like a handshake agreement to limit tuition increases for one year, which by the way happens to be an election year.” (Democratic Gov. John Hickenlooper is expected to see reelection next year.)

Denver Democratic Sen. Pat Steadman, JBC vice chair, was worried about the tuition flexibility law, wondering if it should be repealed early.

Garcia responded, “This year I would not encourage this body to change the existing statute.” He suggested that policymakers take the next year to study and discuss the issue, including whether the legislature wants to get back into the complex and politically tricky business of setting tuition, as it used to do.

“It’s time to revisit that conversation, either now … or next year,” Steadman said.

College debt worries aired

The other serious issue raised at Thursday’s hearing was the debt load being carried by some state colleges.

Chart shows where colleges rate on evaluation of financial health. (Click to see larger version.)
Chart shows where colleges rate on evaluation of financial health. (Click to see larger version.)

During a briefing last week, JBC staff analyst Amanda Bickel laid out an report that showed six out of 10 state institutions were “in relatively weak financial health” as of 2011-12, primarily because of high debt loads. She cited Adams State University in Alamosa and Western State Colorado University as particularly troubled.

As state construction funds dried up in recent years, colleges increasingly turned to issuing bonds, some to be repaid by student fees, to renovate and construct buildings. “Both Western and Adams have spent aggressively on cash-funded new construction in recent years, Bickel wrote.

On a 0-10 scale, Bickel listed Adams and Western as below 0. She recommended that policy makers continue to monitor the financial health of state colleges, keep a closer eye on bonds that are backed by the state and discuss whether small colleges should be taken over by larger systems.

Thursday’s hearing provided the first opportunity for college leaders and JBC members to discuss the issue face-to-face.

Interim President Brad Baca told lawmakers, “We do recognize that Western faces some challenges. … We are highly leveraged. … We can’t deny that.”

But he said that Western’s trustees have increased university reserves and that rising enrollment and student fee income also will help. “I feel very confident [that] we’re positioned to not be in any danger of missing any payment.”

“The actions we’ve taken over the last two years are working,” said trustee chair Todd Wheeler.

Trustee Gregg Rippy, a former legislator, also warned against combining Western with a larger system. Creating independent boards several years ago was “one of the best things” the legislature’s done for higher education, he said.

JBC member Rep. Cheri Gerou, R-Evergreen, was sympathetic but said, “We need a little bit more help from you, and a firm action plan would be great.”

Adams leaders were even more bullish about their plans to increase enrollment and stabilize finances.

“The rumors of our demise are greatly exaggerated,” said President David Svaldi. “Small rural institutions struggle.”

Noting that Adams had a decade of enrollment declines before creation of a strategic plan several years ago, Svaldi said campus upgrades were necessary, and “The risk of doing nothing was greater than the risk of borrowing in a time of historic low interest rates.”

Metro’s Jordan raises ticklish issue

While Hickenlooper’s proposed budget is seen as a welcome boost for higher education, it would distribute money to colleges based on an existing formula that’s the product of past political compromises among the state’s often-fractious colleges and universities.

Chart shows estimated per-student state support under the 2014-14 higher ed budget plan. (Click to view larger version.)
Chart shows estimated per-student state support under the 2014-14 higher ed budget plan. (Click to view larger version.)

Among other things, the formula doesn’t fully compensate colleges for enrollment growth, long a sore point for President Steve Jordan of Metro State University, which has been one of the faster growing campuses.

Jordan raised that issue Thursday, arguing that the formula needs to be fixed before a planned college performance funding system kicks in later this decade. (See this EdNews story for background on that plan.)

That needs to be done “so there will be a level playing field,” Jordan said.

Sen. Nancy Todd, D-Aurora, agreed with Jordan, saying Metro and the community colleges “are at the bottom of the barrel” in per-student support from the state.

Gerou was less sympathetic, telling Jordan that other colleges also have financial needs and “the world does not revolve just around Denver. … You may feel like you’re suffering right now, but I don’t think you’d trade places with Western State or that you’d trade places with Adams State.”

Jordan merely replied that he believes there needs to be similar per-student funding among similar institutions.

Average per-student support from the state would be $4,976 under Hickenlooper’s budget plan, but Metro and the community colleges would receive only about $3,000 per student.

Attempting to change the college allocation formula during the 2014 legislative session would be politically difficult, but JBC chair Rep. Crisanta Duran, D-Denver, asked Jordan for more information on the issue. She asked him for “a specific plan” on how the formula could be improved. “That information would be very helpful.” Duran’s District 5 includes the Metro campus.

Thursday’s hearing was just the second step in a long process leading to legislative approval of a 2014-15 state budget in late April. Among other steps, updated state revenue forecasts that will be issued next week and in March will affect the budget debate, both for higher education and other state programs.

Colorado Votes 2018

Amendment 73: Understanding the tax increase for education on your Colorado ballot

PHOTO: Erica Meltzer/Chalkbeat
Thousands of Colorado teachers protested for more education funding in April. What will voters say in November?

Colorado voters face an important education decision this November: whether to approve a major statewide tax increase for schools. This request represents the third time in recent years that Colorado voters have been asked to put more money into schools.

The last two times, they gave a resounding no. Amendment 73 comes on the heels of teacher protests here and around the nation that have raised awareness of low pay and other unmet classroom needs.

Proponents of the measure say Colorado schools can’t keep doing more with less and need new revenue to do right by students. Opponents say that raising taxes will hurt the state’s economic prosperity without necessarily improving student outcomes.

Here’s what you need to know to make a decision:

What does Amendment 73 do?

This measure would create a graduated income tax for people earning more than $150,000 a year and would raise the state corporate tax rate. It also would change the assessment rate — the portion of your property value that is taxed — for commercial and residential property.

Altogether, these changes are projected to raise an additional $1.6 billion a year for preschool through 12th-grade education. That’s in addition to the roughly $9.7 billion in federal, state, and local money that Colorado will spend this year on schools.

The amendment raises the base amount Colorado is required to spend on each student, and it also dedicates money to preschool spots, full-day kindergarten, students with disabilities, those learning English, and those identified as gifted and talented.

Why is this on the ballot?

Colorado’s Taxpayer’s Bill of Rights requires that all tax increases be approved by voters. As for this particular tax increase, Colorado funds its schools below the national average, and since the Great Recession, state lawmakers have diverted to other areas billions of dollars constitutionally due to education.

Proponents of the measure believe the only way to adequately fund Colorado schools is to tap into an additional revenue source, like these tax increases.

Opponents counter that administrative spending has grown faster than student population and teacher salaries, and that the state and school districts could free up money for classrooms by setting new priorities.

I see amendments and propositions on my ballot. What’s the difference?

Propositions become laws and can be changed by the legislature. Amendments become part of the state constitution and can only be changed by another vote of the people. Amendments need the approval of 55 percent of voters to pass, a higher bar than propositions that only require a simple majority.

How will the money be spent? What guarantees do we have that it will reach the classroom?

Amendment 73 requires that new money “supplement and not supplant” existing funding. That means the legislature cannot redirect current spending on education and replace it with this new funding source. The amendment says the legislature should adopt a new formula for distributing money to districts that takes into account student and district characteristics, but it doesn’t lay out exactly what that should look like.

In the meantime, Amendment 73 describes specific uses for $866 million in new revenue:

  • Base spending per student will go up from $6,769 to $7,300, a 7.8 percent increase
  • Funding for full-day kindergarten. Right now, districts get a little more than half a student’s worth of funding for each kindergarten student.
  • An 8.3 percent increase for preschoool, bringing the total to $131 million
  • A 6.8 percent increase for special education, bringing the total to $296.1 million
  • An 80 percent increase for gifted and talented programs, bringing the total to $22.5 million
  • A 93 percent increase for English language learners, bringing the total to $41.6 million

The extra money that districts currently receive for students with disabilities, those learning English and those identified as gifted accounts for a fraction of the additional cost of educating them, particularly in the case of students with more significant disabilities. Districts have to use tracking codes to account for this money and ensure it goes to its intended purpose. In some districts, additional money might translate into better services for these students, while others might use the additional dedicated funding to free up other money.

That leaves $738.6 million that can be spent on public education as determined by the legislature. Once that money lands in school district coffers, they have broad discretion over how to spend it. This is by design and part of an effort to get buy-in from around the state. Many school boards have passed non-binding resolutions promising to spend the money on teacher pay, more mental health supports for students, and lower class sizes.

In turn, opponents have criticized the lack of specificity as a blank check that won’t necessarily increase teacher salaries or improve student outcomes.

A recent analysis from EdChoice found that since 1992, teacher salaries in Colorado had fallen even as per-student funding and the number of administrators had increased. Colorado Department of Education records show that instructional staff — teachers, counselors, speech language pathologists, school nurses — increased by 14 percent between 2006 and 2016 while administrative staff increased by 34 percent. School administrators argue these positions are necessary to support the work that teachers do and keep districts in compliance with a host of new state and federal regulations. In smaller districts, administrators often wear multiple hats. When we ask teachers about this issue, some of them share the concern that too much money gets spent on central administration, even as they also believe schools need more money overall

You can look up how much your district spends here.

What does it mean when people say Colorado schools are ‘underfunded’? Compared to what? How underfunded?

There are several different ways to look at this. The National Education Association, the country’s largest teachers union, ranks Colorado 28th in per pupil spending when state, local, and federal money is combined and puts Colorado about $758 per student below the national average. Education Week does a more complex ranking that takes into account regional cost differences and puts Colorado nearly $2,800 below the national average. Colorado teacher salaries are among the least competitive in the nation, making it hard to recruit and retain educators. More than 100 of Colorado’s 178 school districts operate on four-day weeks.

Back in 2000, after previous years of budget cuts, Colorado voters passed a constitutional amendment that requires school funding to increase by population plus inflation. But starting with the Great Recession, Colorado lawmakers have not allocated all the money required by that amendment. Over the past 10 years, Colorado schools have missed out on $7.5 billion the law requires them to receive. The courts have upheld this budget maneuver. Money from Amendment 73 could not be reallocated during the next downturn, protecting schools but potentially creating other budget problems for the state.

Colorado also gets low marks on equity. Colorado spends much less money on education than most states with similar levels of wealth and economic activity. Per-student spending varies widely around the state, with rich districts often getting more state money than poor ones. Some districts have convinced voters to approve local property tax increases, while other have not — or have such low tax bases that voters would need to take on large increases to generate much benefit. The additional funding from these local tax increases varies from $32 to $5,024 per student.

Amendment 73 wouldn’t change these structural problems with school funding. It would give state lawmakers more money with which to level the playing field. Right now, sending more money to some districts would require reducing funding to others, creating a political minefield.

Will I pay more in income taxes if Amendment 73 passes?

People who earn up to $150,000 a year will keep paying the same 4.63 percent state income tax rate they do now. Those earning more will pay a sliding increase starting at 5 percent for income from $150,001 to $200,000 up to 8.25 percent for income over $500,000. Someone with taxable income of $200,000 would pay an extra $185 a year, while someone with $1 million in taxable income would pay an extra $24,395, according to a fiscal analysis by the state.

The increases will affect about 8 percent of individual and joint income tax filers. Amendment 73 does not include a provision to adjust the income threshold for inflation, so it’s possible that more taxpayers will pay these higher rates in the future.

This change would generate most of the new revenue under Amendment 73.

What’s the effect on corporate taxes?

Amendment 73 would raise the corporate income tax rate from 4.63 percent to 6 percent. You can see how that compares to other states’ corporate income tax rates here. The average corporate income taxpayer would owe an additional $14,139, according to state fiscal analysts.

Would Amendment 73 raise my property taxes?

This is a complicated question. Amendment 73 does not raise property tax rates anywhere in the state. But if it passes, residential property owners will pay more in 2019 than they otherwise would have, while owners of non-residential property will pay less.

Amendment 73 fixes the assessment rate at 7 percent for residential and 24 percent for non-residential property. That’s lower than it is now, but other constitutional provisions would have pushed the residential rate even lower in 2019. 

Exactly how much more or less you pay will depend on your property value, real estate trends in your community, and local tax rates.

This represents a partial fix to a complicated fiscal problem that has bedeviled Colorado lawmakers and the administrators of rural taxing entities — school districts, fire protection districts, and others — for years.

In Colorado, your property is assessed at close to market value, but your local tax rate only applies to a portion of that value. That’s the assessment rate. Another constitutional provision known as the Gallagher Amendment ensures that non-residential property owners always pay a larger share of property taxes than homeowners. Since 1982, when the Gallagher Amendment was approved by voters, property values along Colorado’s developed Front Range have skyrocketed, putting the assessment ratios between residential and other property seriously out of whack. Those ratios apply statewide, and many rural communities have seen their already sparse tax base hollowed out.

In the case of schools, that’s meant the state government has had to backfill more and more money that used to be generated by local taxes. Amendment 73 includes a provision to hold the assessment rates steady just for schools for two reasons. One is that it provides property tax relief to ranchers and farmers, which the measure’s backers hope bolsters support in parts of the state that are traditionally more hostile to tax increases. The other is that it ensures the new tax revenue generated by the amendment doesn’t just backfill an ever-deepening hole in rural districts.

Residential assessment rates will continue to drop for other taxing entities, creating an even more complex system, unless the state succeeds in a more comprehensive Gallagher fix.

Don’t schools get a lot of marijuana money already?

The bulk of marijuana tax revenue for education goes to a program that helps schools pay for buildings and construction repairs. Districts apply and compete for grant money from the program, and in most cases have to put up some portion of the project’s cost. 

Starting this year, 12.59 percent of marijuana tax revenue is also set aside for the regular education budget. That’s about $20 million a year at current rates. Marijuana money is also set aside for various grant programs including one that schools can use to help pay for health professionals such as counselors or nurses. As the state collects more marijuana revenue, the amounts set aside for the grant programs has increased.

However, the marijuana money available to schools represents a tiny fraction of total education spending, and most of it can’t be spent on basic needs like teacher salaries or classroom materials.

 

recruitment and retention

School districts counting on public support for higher teacher pay to pass new tax increases

Teacher Christina Hafler and her two-year-old daughter Emma join hundreds of other educators at a rally outside the State Capitol to call for increased eduction funding on April 16, 2018 in Denver, Colorado. (Photo by RJ Sangosti/The Denver Post)

Most school districts asking voters to approve local tax increases for schools this November have one thing in common: They are promising that money will go to raise teacher pay.

Polls show voters are inclined to support increasing teacher pay this year, following several high-profile walkouts across the country where teachers shared their struggles with working multiple jobs, and paying out of their own pocket to outfit their classrooms or help feed hungry students.

“Right now you got a pretty clear majority of people saying, teachers deserve more,” said Keith Frederick, who conducts polls for school districts and other government bodies to determine if they should put requests on the ballot. “Voters are very interested, these days anyway, they’re interested in their community schools, higher teacher pay.”

Many officials from those districts say the pay they offer simply isn’t keeping up with nearby districts, meaning a harder time recruiting and retaining teachers. Salaries and employee benefits take up the largest chunk of school district budgets.

School districts in Aurora, Jeffco, Westminster, Douglas County and Sheridan are among the districts making a local request this November. Ballots have been mailed out this week, and voters will start to decide if the request is worth a local tax increase.

Statewide, teacher pay in Colorado ranks below national average.

But measuring how competitive teacher compensation actually is among districts can be complicated. Surveys and studies show that salaries alone do not account for what keeps teachers in their job or what makes them leave. And how teachers get paid in some districts is complicated, based sometimes on their evaluations, or performance of their students, or school, or the difficulty in filling the job they’re in.

Then there are other work conditions that can be considered benefits. The school district based in Brighton moved this year to a four-day school week after failing to pass several tax measures. Although the change will only result in small savings, the district claims it’s a new way to attract teachers without having to raise pay.

But looking at state data for last year, most districts that have the highest starting salaries or average pay for teachers, including Cherry Creek, Boulder, and Poudre, also have the lowest teacher turnover.

Average teacher pay and teacher turnover rates

 

DISTRICT Average Pay Percent Teacher Turnover
Thompson $49,572 16.8 %
Poudre $54,140 9.7 %
Douglas County $53,080 13.4 %
Elizabeth $40,471 23.2 %
Littleton $66,399 9.5 %
Aurora $54,742 26.2%
Cherry Creek $71,711 10.1 %
Sheridan $49,535 35.9 %
Denver $50,757 20.3 %
Jeffco $57,154 14 %
Westminster $58,976 19.1 %
Adams 12 $59,511 12.8 %
Boulder $75,220 10.33 %
Pueblo 60 $47,617 18.3 %
Pueblo 70 $49,328 13.6 %

*Source: Colorado Department of Education. Districts in bold have a tax request tied to teacher pay on this November’s ballot.

None of those three districts are requesting local tax increases this year, but their neighboring districts, including in Douglas County, Elizabeth, Jeffco and Thompson, are.

The contrasts between districts can be large. In the neighboring Poudre and Thompson districts, the difference in the average pay is about $5,000, and the difference in starting salaries is even larger. Higher-paying Poudre has a teacher turnover rate of less than 10 percent. In lower-paying Thompson, the turnover rate is about 17 percent.

The Thompson district is requesting a $13.8 million mill levy override to raise teacher pay, and to purchase new books and technology. The district is also requesting a $149 million bond for building maintenance, security improvements and a new school.

Some of the districts requesting tax increases this year have failed to win voter approval before, including Thompson, Westminster and Jeffco. Although several factors including the political culture of the districts influence the vote, highlighting what voters value — like boosting teacher salaries — might improve the chances of voter approval.

Although most of the local tax measures don’t face organized opposition, criticism of a statewide tax measure for schools might impact other questions down the ballot. Critics of the statewide school measure have said that districts are not under obligation to use the money to pay teachers more, and worry that new money could go into administrative costs instead.

Some districts are trying to create assurances for voters.

Aurora Public Schools agreed to language in its contract with the teachers union that requires the district to set aside at least $10 million from new mill levy revenue, if approved, to give teachers a 3 percent raise starting in January. Remaining money would go into creating a new teacher salary schedule.

The Jeffco school board passed a resolution that commits a certain percentage of new tax revenue for teacher pay. The tax measure also includes language prohibiting use of that revenue for administrative budgets.

Even if districts do use the money for increasing salaries, most districts likely have to negotiate with their employee unions to decide just how to do it — whether it’s raising base salary, giving across-the-board raises, or creating new systems that reward certain teachers.

Several school boards across the state also passed resolutions committing to certain items that would get funding first if voters approve the state ballot request for new school funding. One common, top priority among those is improving salaries.

Denver’s school leaders said they would use the largest portion of the proposed new state revenue for teacher salaries. Negotiations there have been heated, as district leaders insist the state measure needs to pass in order for the district to come closer to meeting the union’s demands.