Follow Up

These 16 school districts haven’t updated their teacher contracts to comply with evaluation law, report finds

Some of Colorado’s largest school districts have not updated contract language governing layoffs to factor in teacher performance as required by state law, according to a new report.

Such layoffs are exceedingly rare — and representatives from two districts named in the Independence Institute report said they would follow the law if the situation arose.

The report, released Monday by the Denver-based libertarian think tank, found 16 school districts including Denver and St. Vrain have provisions in their teacher contracts that violate the state’s educator effectiveness laws.  

Passed with bipartisan support in 2010, Colorado’s educator effectiveness law changed the way schools were supposed to evaluate teachers, and lay them off if necessary.

That provision of the law went into effect in 2012 and requires schools to include a teacher’s performance as a factor in deciding whom to lay off if teaching positions must be cut.

The report says that 16 school districts — slightly less than half of all the Colorado school districts that negotiate with teachers unions — are not considering performance when they need to reduce the overall number of teachers.

A true “reduction in force,” when a district must make layoffs, is a rare event, said Ross Izard, the author of the report.

Michelle Berge, deputy general counsel for Denver Public Schools, said the district’s policy has long expired and is not enforceable.

“DPS had the option to renegotiate new provisions regarding (layoffs) in order to align with SB191 requirements,” Berge wrote in an email. “We elected not to do so because we have been projecting student enrollment growth for so many years that we knew we would not have the conditions for a reduction in force.”

Officials from DPS were unable to identify the last time the district had to use across-the-board layoffs. The district has cut teaching jobs at individual schools.

The St. Vrain School District last laid off teachers about nine years ago, said Ella Padilla, assistant superintendent of human resources.

Like Denver, the district has not prioritized updating that section of its teachers contract due to resources, she said. She added, “state law trumps the district’s agreement.”

Padilla said she believes the district is in compliance with all other provisions of the state’s effectiveness law.

Izard said just because a school district hasn’t hasn’t had to lay off teachers in recent memory doesn’t mean it can’t happen.

“The economy is volatile,” he said, noting a sluggish economic forecast for the state.

One school district named in the report said it has updated its policies. In 2014, The Cherry Creek School District wrote a new “displacement” policy that outlines how teacher positions are eliminated.

It “does address using evaluations to determine how teachers would be dismissed in the event the board of education took formal action to eliminate positions,” said Tustin Amole, the district’s spokeswoman. “And it would require board action to eliminate positions to start the layoff process which is outlined in the policy.”

Here are the 16 districts the report says has out for out of date policies:

  • Boulder Valley School District
  • Brighton 27J
  • Centennial R-1
  • Center 26 JT
  • Cherry Creek School District
  • Denver Public Schools
  • Gunnison Watershed RE-1J
  • Lake County R-1
  • Mapleton Public Schools
  • Pueblo County 70
  • Salida R-32J
  • St. Vrain Valley School District
  • Summit RE-1
  • Telluride R-1
  • Trinidad 1
  • Westminster Public Schools

Update: This post has been updated to reflect new information from the Cherry Creek School District. An earlier version said the district has not updated its policy, but it has. This post has also been updated to better reflect when a reduction in force can occur. 

boosting literacy

A new Memphis nonprofit sees training teachers in dyslexia therapy as key to closing literacy gap for all

PHOTO: Caroline Bauman
Memphis Delta Preparatory charter school is one of four schools working with ALLMemphis to develop stronger literacy curriculum.

A new nonprofit organization says educators must be better trained to recognize and teach students with learning disorders like dyslexia if they are to raise reading proficiency throughout Memphis.

Michelle Gaines and Krista L. Johnson founded ALLMemphis in June to boost overall reading comprehension and fill a gap they see in local classrooms — the lack of training for teachers in approaches proven to help students with dyslexia, a disorder from which many Memphis students are likely struggling.

The pair now work, for free, with about 500 students in four Memphis elementary charter schools and have trained 29 educators.

About one in five children in Tennessee are dyslexic, but until last year, early screenings weren’t required in local schools. Students with dyslexia have difficulty recognizing words and sounds and spelling, but can learn how to read with a specific multisensory approach that combines touch, sound and sight.

But even when the disorder is caught early, schools often don’t have the proper training or tools to address it. Gaines and Johnson say their organization can change that and even benefit students who aren’t dyslexic.

Specifically, ALLMemphis trains teachers in the Orton-Gillingham multi-sensory approach to reading that is common in dyslexia therapy but is rarely a part of public school curriculum in Tennessee.

“This approach is the gold standard when it comes to dyslexia therapy, but we believe it can benefit children’s reading ability regardless whether or not they are dyslexic,” Johnson said. “Our mission is to impact the third-grade reading crisis, and we believe this can do it.” 

PHOTO: Darius Williams
Krista L. Johnson

The latest data shows that two out of three Memphis third-graders aren’t reading on grade level. Shelby County Schools officials have set a goal of to have 90 percent of students reading on grade level by 2025.

ALLMemphis trained teachers and coaches in Orton-Gillingham over the summer and works with the educators throughout the year. Gaines and Johnson also work with individual students in the classrooms. The organization will be tracking student data throughout the year, and the initial results are encouraging.

While working for the Bodine School in Memphis, a private school that serves students with dyslexia, Gaines and Johnson piloted their teacher-training model at KIPP Memphis Collegiate Elementary for the last two years. They left Bodine to form ALLMemphis in June and brought on Megan Weinstein shortly after to oversee data evaluation.

Johnson said ALLMemphis will work with their current four schools for the next three years, with hopes of adding new schools every year. Eventually, the plan is to charge schools a minimal fee.

Gaines said the initial data after two years showed that KIPP students who worked with ALLMemphis showed more growth overall on MAP score data than their peers, especially in first and fourth grades.

PHOTO: Darius Williams
Michelle Gaines

“What’s so exciting is that the data shows this can work in an urban, whole-class setting,” Gaines said. “We know that as we grow, we want to continue offering supports that are relevant to teachers. We write and give teachers lesson plans and we work with coaches on assessments. The point is for our program to be an asset, not a burden.”

Catherine Norman, a teacher at KIPP Collegiate, said the training changed the way she thought about literacy and armed her with strong lesson plans, too.

“What I appreciate most about Orton-Gillingham is that it incorporates lots of different learning styles in one lesson,” Norman said. “The training is really expensive when a teacher does it on their own, but the fact they (ALLMemphis) have trained every K-3 teacher at our school is crazy in a good way. It makes me really excited because it provides a lot of opportunities that our kids wouldn’t get otherwise.”  

Schools currently working with ALLMemphis are KIPP Memphis Academy Elementary, Collegiate Elementary and Preparatory Elementary and Memphis Delta Preparatory.

teacher trap

America’s teachers don’t move out of state much. That could be bad for students.

PHOTO: Shaina Cavazos

Certification rules can make moving to a new state a serious hassle for teachers.

That might explain a recent finding: Teachers are significantly less likely to move between states than others with similar jobs — and past research suggests that students suffer as a result.

The study, which uses national data from 2005 to 2015 and was released this week through the National Bureau of Economic Research, appears to be the first to document how frequently teachers move states compared to those in other occupations.

Teaching stands out: Relative to jobs requiring a similar level of education, teachers were 45 percent less likely to move to different state, but only 5 percent less likely to move a long distance within a given state. This suggests that teachers aren’t averse to moving — there are just strong incentives to not cross state lines.

That “may limit the ability of workers to move to take advantage of job opportunities,” the researchers write. That’s consistent with research on the Oregon–Washington border, where teachers were more likely to move long distances in their own state than shorter distances across the state line.

Winning permission to teach in a new state sometimes requires re-taking coursework and taking new certification exams. There may be good reasons for that — for instance, states that are particularly attractive to teachers may want to maintain especially high standards but it’s also a complicated process to navigate.

“Web-surfing became my life, through hard-to-navigate state department of education websites and portals that looked like something I had created back in my college sophomore computer science class in 1998,” wrote one teacher in a recent piece for Education Week, describing her efforts to meet new requirements after moving from Florida to Massachusetts.

This matters because the rules may keep teachers who move from re-entering the classroom altogether. A national survey found that among people who had left teaching but were considering re-entering the classroom, 40 percent identified “state certification reciprocity” as a key factor in their consideration.

That, in turn, affects students. One analysis has found that schools near state borders perform consistently worse on standardized tests — perhaps because certification and other rules limit the pool of potential teachers. Research has also shown that teachers perform best when they find a good “fit” with a school, and certification rules may make that harder.

Certification rules are not the only factor in play. Teachers’ decisions may also be influenced by retirement plans that aren’t easily portable and rules that would require them to give up seniority and tenure protections when they move.

It doesn’t have to work this way. The study finds that people in other professions, like medicine, are freer to move and have certifications that easily transfer between states. But the idea of a national “bar exam” for educators hasn’t ever gained traction.

A handful of states have agreed to accept one another’s certifications, and a provision in ESSA would allow federal money to go toward the efforts.

As for the teacher, Megan Allen, who struggled with Massachusetts’ rules — and had 10 years of experience and a National Board certification? She left public education as a result. “I didn’t feel like I was valued for any of the expertise that I had earned, worked hard for, and proved,” she wrote.