Are Children Learning

Explaining the ISTEP debate: 6 reasons why the test ballooned

PHOTO: Alan Petersime
Frustrations with repeated problems with ISTEP have lawmakers looking for solutions.

The Indiana legislature is moving fast to cut at least three hours from the state ISTEP after two weeks of sharp words and behind-the-scenes negotiations over its length. Lawmakers are expected to rush a bill through both houses for the governor to sign next week to make the changes.

But with kids just days away from taking the exam, some are still asking: what caused the blow up?

The answer is a little complicated, but here are six reasons why ISTEP more than doubled in length from last year:

1. When standards change, tests must also change.

A big fight over Indiana’s academic standards last year ended when the state rapidly changed course and adopted quickly assembled new standards.

That disrupted a carefully coordinated plan in place since 2010 for the Indiana to adopt Common Core Standards along with 45 other states and use a shared exam that would test student knowledge with results that would be comparable across the country.

When Gov. Mike Pence and state Superintendent Glenda Ritz took office in 2012, Indiana had already adopted Common Core. Schools were putting it in place grade by grade, and a new Common Core-linked exam was scheduled to replace ISTEP this year.

But Pence was wary of the shared test — called the Partnership for the Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers or PARCC — and ordered the state to withdraw from the consortium creating the test in 2013. Six months later, both Pence and Ritz supported the idea of Indiana dropping out of Common Core and endorsed new locally made standards that were adopted last April.

Like Common Core,  Indiana’s new academic standards are more in-depth and ask students to do more analysis and critical thinking.

A test matching those expectations was needed in a hurry. Instead of taking years to adapt to the new standards and create the new exam, Indiana tried to do the whole process in a matter of months. That meant asking a lot of the 2015 ISTEP.

2. This year’s test had two extra goals — add questions to match the new standards and help create a test to replace ISTEP in 2016.

More difficult standards naturally meant Indiana needed a more difficult test. But there wasn’t time to completely overhaul ISTEP this year.

Instead, ISTEP was modified for this year to add several extra features. Many of the new standards were similar to the old standards, so many questions roughly matched the style and difficulty of past ISTEP exams. But new questions were added to also test students on new, tougher concepts included in the new standards, which were designed to make sure they graduate high school ready for college and careers.

The online version of ISTEP, for example, includes more advanced testing methods that ask kids to not only answer multiple-choice questions, but also answer questions in new ways, such as by dragging and dropping points on a graph or using drop-down menus.

Finally, this year’s ISTEP had one more job: Try out some questions that could be used on the 2016 exam.

But there was a problem. Indiana law requires release each year of all essay or short-answer test questions that are used in scoring. This would turn out to be a big factor in the length of the test.

3. A huge number of questions on this year’s test actually don’t count in a student’s score.

When test questions are released to the public they are effectively retired. They can never be used again on ISTEP.

So for this year’s exam, there were two big sets of essay and short answer questions: one group that counted toward each student’s score and must be released plus a large second set being tried out for use in 2016 that wouldn’t count.

Trying out questions is important. Test makers examine how students score on them to look for unexpected surprises. Questions they ask include: Was the question harder or easier for students than predicted? Was there reason to believe it was confusing to children? Was there any evidence the question was unfair to certain groups of students?

Trying out enough questions to be able to make a completely new test for 2016 was the main factor that caused what is normally a six-hour test to swell to more than 12 hours this year. All along, however, this was intended as a one-year problem. Future state exams are expected to be only slightly longer than the six-hour tests of the past.

The legislature appears poised to waive for one year the requirement that all essay and short-answer questions be released. This would allow some of this year’s questions to be reused so there could be far fewer extra questions that don’t count.

4. A longer test means more school days devoted to testing.

Indiana students don’t take all of ISTEP at once. They take sections of the exam in smaller doses over several days.

At its Feb. 4 meeting, the state board increased the number of days schools are allowed to use to give the test. The tests will be given over the course of almost a month, beginning Feb. 25 and ending in late March, followed by another set of testing days over three weeks at the end of April into May.

Schools can choose how to split up the parts of the test. Students might take just one section per day or do more depending on what teachers and principals decide. Danielle Shockey, the state’s deputy superintendent, said a testing day could take many shapes. In some schools, student take one 35-minute test section each day. In some schools, they spend an hour each day on testing. Other schools may do more.

“They have a long window of time,” Shockey said. “They can take one session a day if they so choose. It’s a local choice.”

5. Test makers had to consider that ISTEP is plays a critical role in school A-to-F grades and teacher evaluation ratings.

ISTEP is used to measure two things: how much students know of the content they were expected to learn this year, and how much they’ve improved from a previous year. Both factor into how Indiana measures the quality of schools with its A-to-F grading system, as well as how it evaluates teachers.

To determine a school’s A-to-F grade, the state considers both the percentage of students who pass ISTEP and how much students improved from last year. For teachers, the state expects to see their students’ test scores improve over the prior year.

When tests are roughly the same each year — measuring the same standards and using similar types of questions — it is easier to gauge how much students improved from the prior year. But when the standards change and the questions are crafted differently, test makers have to add extra questions to help determine each student’s improvement from the last test.

This spring’s test will include a few questions in English and math that are specifically designed to estimate roughly on what grade level each student best fits. For example, a fourth grade test might include a few third grade level questions and a few fifth grade level questions. Some students might do well on only the third grade questions but poorly on harder questions. Others might do well on all the questions, even the more challenging fifth grade questions.

Those extra questions help the test makers better estimate whether the student improved a little, a lot or not at all over the prior year. However, those extra questions also lengthen the test, but only by minutes, not hours, Michele Walker, testing director for the education department, said. The legislature agreed they were worth keeping — those questions will remain under the plan to shorten ISTEP.

6. Then, there’s the social studies question.

The federal No Child Left Behind Act, signed into law by President Bush in 2002, requires states to test students in English and math each year in grades 3 to 8, and once in high school, and also in science once during elementary, middle and high school.

Noticeably absent? Social studies.

Although Indiana’s social studies ISTEP test is only given to fifth- and seventh-graders each year, accounting for about an hour of testing for those grades, Pence’s test consultants recommended cutting that subject to reduce testing time further since it is only required by state law. That means the legislature could make an exception for this year.

State board members were divided on this idea. Some worried that it would send the message that social studies is not important. Others argued one hour for just two grades doesn’t add much test taking time.

But the legislature liked the idea of reducing test time further this way, so the Indiana Department of Education has told schools to expect the social studies exam to be optional this year. That means some students will take it, if the school decides they should, and others will be allowed to drop it for this year only.

appropriate instruction

Special education in tumult as Adams 14 faces resignations, parent complaints

Javier Abrego, superintendent of Adams 14 School District, speaks to parents at a forum April 17, 2018. (Photo by Hyoung Chang/The Denver Post)

Just weeks from the end of the school year, Ed Collins found out that his 7-year-old son was not getting all the instruction he was supposed to get to address his attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Collins said the school in Adams 14 owed his son 18 days of instruction. Much of the time lost was due to suspensions that were contrary to his child’s special education plan, he said.

Likewise, Samantha Ochoa recently found out that her son, a freshman at Adams City High School, is failing all of his classes. Under a plan to address his learning disability, Ochoa said, the school owes him 650 hours of instruction.

The two parents’ stories are among many in the Adams 14 school district in Commerce City, which has had a tumultuous year with special education. A mass midyear exodus of top administrators and teachers has led to confusion at schools, a rotating crew of substitutes, gaps in services, and students not getting the education and support they need.

According to federal law, students who are identified with special needs must receive appropriate help so they can learn. Legally, schools must follow those students’ individualized education plans, although complaints don’t often go to court.

Javier Abrego, the superintendent of Adams 14, a district under a state plan for turnaround, and school principals refused to discuss the issues parents raise. To protect student privacy, school officials generally do not comment on the cases of individual students. But in a prepared statement, Abrego wrote that the district is “not aware of any IEP non-compliance concerns” – even though people have raised issues at school board meetings and during a community meeting earlier this month.

The silence of the district administration is a change for a district whose previous special education staff was dubbed “the dream team.”

“They were able to take a situation, whether it was brought to them by the parent or someone else and say, ‘let’s figure this out,’” said Paula Christina, a child and family advocate for ARC of Adams County, a nonprofit that helps families of special needs children. “You don’t always have that collaboration and skill set with all the districts.”

“It really saddens me to see how things have fallen apart,” Christina said. “Something is not working at the top level at the administration.”

Instead of responding to parents’ charges, district officials have highlighted efforts to teach students at some schools social and emotional skills. But one principal said that while the work is beneficial, it doesn’t help students with severe needs.

The staffing problems in the district have, as of April, included administrators. The district’s director of student services – who oversees special education – resigned, leaving for an assistant director job in Denver. On the next tier, three special education coordinators who help schools create and troubleshoot plans for students with special needs also resigned and will leave at the end of the school year.

Many special education teachers also have left, although officials would not provide numbers. Anecdotally, other administrators, teachers, and union officials say it has been a bad year.

According to a roster of special education teachers still working in late April, two elementary schools had just one teacher left, although the schools also have paraprofessionals.

Hanson Elementary School, where the district’s records show there are 50 students on special needs plans, has one teacher certified to teach special education. Rose Hill Elementary, which has 60 students with special needs plans — including some in a program for students with severe needs from across the district — also had just one teacher as of April, down from three at the start of the year.

That has led to a succession of substitutes filling in.

At Rose Hill, Collins said that his 7-year-old’s classroom teacher has helped his son a lot, but his assigned special education staffer is always changing, something that is particularly rough for his son.

“They’ve been using substitutes,” Collins said. “He doesn’t like change. I’m a single parent. His mom’s gone and his older sisters are with their mom. So he thinks that everybody that cares about him leaves him.”

Families say change is difficult for many children with special needs.

Because special education teachers are considered a hard-to-staff position across the country, many teachers and parents worry about filling so many positions by next school year.

Superintendent Abrego’s prepared statement notes the district is “exploring all options, including incentives to attract special education professionals to the district.” A spokesman also said the district will reconsider appropriate staffing levels once a new director of student services has been hired.

One change that has already been planned is to move the special needs program from Rose Hill to Central Elementary school next year in an effort to get more space and to pool resources of both schools special needs programs.

Apart from staffing, parents and teachers claim there are also problems in the district’s process for identifying students who have special needs, and then gaps in serving them.

Ochoa’s son at Adams City High School, for example, went through most of the school year with teachers unaware that he had a plan for his special needs and needed accommodations, she said.

“They kept assuring me everything was good,” Ochoa said. “That they were modifying his work. But they weren’t.”

The district recently offered Ochoa’s son a one-on-one tutor to help make up the instructional time, but it will likely go into the summer. Ochoa said her son is weary of the plan.

“He tells me, ‘Mom, I feel stupid, I just want to drop out,’” Ochoa said.

Other parents and teachers point to gaps in services for students with severe emotional or social needs.

Because of budget limitations, district officials say that they can only afford to have a districtwide program at one school for students with severe social or emotional needs. This year, that program is serving middle school students.

Kim Cini, the district’s assistant director of student services, said there aren’t many students identified with severe emotional or social needs in elementary or high school, but for those that are, the special education teams at schools can determine how to serve that student in a regular classroom, or if absolutely necessary, students can be sent to get services out of the district.

Currently there are 25 Adams 14 students that the district is paying to receive services elsewhere. That’s down from 38 out-of-district placements last year.

But integrating those students into regular classrooms can be challenging. Barb McDowell, president of the teachers union in Adams 14, said that in those cases teachers need help from qualified special education staff. Without it, McDowell said teachers are also seeing more behavior issues among all students.

With the district’s turmoil, parents complain that their children’s needs are being overlooked. Shelly Hebel said her 14-year-old daughter, who was diagnosed with severe anxiety, depression, and a learning disability, could have used more mental health help specific to her social and emotional needs this year.

Instead, Hebel found out recently that Adams City High School wasn’t following her daughter’s special education plan. Among the requirements of the plan, Hebel said, teachers needed to allow the girl to leave classes early so she could walk across the campus before hallways are crowded. The girl’s emotional problems got so bad, she stopped going to classes.

Hebel said her oldest daughter had similar issues years ago and ended up dropping out of school, so she says this time she’s not taking chances. She is pulling her daughter out of school and will send her to the district’s alternative high school next year.

Meanwhile the district’s assistant director of student services, Cini, is trying to keep other projects moving forward, which she said could help improve services in the district.

“I know that intervention and prevention is our ticket out of constant crisis,” Cini said.

Union president McDowell said some teachers blame this year’s problems in part on cuts made in the current school year to the number of mental health professionals such as counselors and psychologists at schools.

“There was a lot of pushback on that, so next year every school will have a full-time mental health worker,” Cini said. “Everybody’s going to have that.”

In Adams 14, district officials say the responsibility of making sure a student’s plan is being followed belongs to each principal.

Annie Fahnestock, a special education teacher who resigned in January from Rose Hill, said the schools need more oversight.

“It was all left up to the coordinators and the director of special education,” Fahnestock said.

Christina said that she has seen changes that concern her, including instances where principals haven’t been as receptive to suggestions or the district’s ideas about inclusion of students in general education classrooms.

In November, for example, parents complained that the new school administration at Rose Hill was discriminating against students in the districtwide program for severe needs and making them feel unwelcome.

Her nonprofit group provided a training at the school, including for the principal and other staff, on how to talk about disability and how to be sensitive to students’ needs.

Teacher Fahnestock said the district’s special education coordinators and director came to her school often to share their concerns about special education programming with her principal.

“But in the end, it was more like it’s her building,” Fahnestock said. “So she gets final say.”

beyond high school

Report: Memphis students from poor families less likely to have access to advanced coursework

PHOTO: By Glenn Asakawa/The Denver Post via Getty Images

While most high school students in Tennessee’s largest district have access to advanced courses to prepare them for college, most of those classes are concentrated in schools with more affluent families.

Of the 14 high schools in Shelby County Schools that offer more than 40 advanced classes, all but one have a lower percentage of students from poor families than the district.

Those schools educate slightly more than half of high school students in the Memphis district. In contrast, about a quarter of high school students are in schools with 20 or fewer advanced courses, according to a new district report.

District officials say those course offerings in the 2017-18 school year are closely correlated with the size of the school: The larger the student population, the more likely the school is to offer advanced courses. The concentration of schools with more affluent students was not examined in the report.

PHOTO: Shelby County Schools

The findings are scheduled to be presented at next week’s school board meeting as part of the district’s monthly check-in on various statistics on teaching and student learning.

Taking advanced classes in high school introduces students to college-level coursework and in many cases allows them to skip some college classes — saving students thousands of dollars. And because students from low-income families, who make up about 59 percent of Shelby County Schools, lag behind their more affluent peers in college enrollment, they are encouraged to take more advanced courses.

Advanced courses include programs such as such as Advanced Placement, dual enrollment, International Baccalaureate, and honors courses.

Jessica Lotz, the district’s director of performance management who will present the report, said this year’s numbers are better than last year. Since her last report on the topic, three schools now offer advanced courses for the first time.

Staffing is the biggest barrier to offering more advanced courses, she said. So, additional teacher trainings are planned for the summer.

And district plans are underway to increase the number of students taking those courses. The district is also pursuing federal funds to help students from low-income families pay for dual enrollment courses, and also encouraging area colleges to lower the number of students needed to take a class so that smaller schools can participate.

The number of students taking advanced courses is part of the state Department of Education measure of a being ready for college, or a “ready graduate,” under its new accountability plan.

Scroll down to the bottom of this story for a full chart on the number of advanced courses by high school.

Here are the 14 schools with 40 or more advanced courses each:

  • White Station High (143 advanced courses)
  • Central High (116)
  • Middle College High (98)
  • Germantown High (95)
  • Cordova High (79)
  • Overton High (75)
  • Ridgeway High (74)
  • Bolton High (56)
  • Southwind High (55)
  • Whitehaven High (52)
  • Hollis F. Price Middle College High (46)
  • Kingsbury High (45)
  • Memphis Virtual School (43)
  • East High (42)

Note: The number of courses offered refers to unique advanced courses that are available at a given school, not the total number of times/sections the same course is offered for different groups of students.

Four high schools did not offer any advanced courses: Legacy Leadership Academy, a charter school; The Excel Center, an adult learning school; Newcomer International Center, a new high school program for immigrant students; and Northwest Prep Academy, an alternative school.

Of the advanced courses, International Baccalaureate, a high-profile certification program for high school students worldwide, was the least common. Just three more affluent high schools — Ridgeway, Germantown, and Bolton — offered those courses, according to the district’s data.

Dual enrollment, another category of advanced courses, are taught in partnership with an area college and count toward a postsecondary degree. Though the share of Shelby County Schools students taking dual enrollment courses has increased from about 5 to 9 percent since 2014, the percentage slightly decreased this year compared to last school year.

Most of the high schools, offer a total of 183 dual enrollment courses. But only four of the 16 charter schools in the report offered those classes.

About half of high schools in the district offer a total of 194 Advanced Placement courses, which culminate in a test at the end of the year that can count toward college credit if students score well enough. Most of those classes are concentrated in seven more affluent schools.

Those schools are:

  • White Station High (39 AP courses)
  • Central High (20)
  • Cordova High (15)
  • Kingsbury High (13)
  • Overton High (13)
  • Whitehaven High (11)
  • Southwind High (10)

Honors courses, which count toward an advanced high school diploma but do not count for college credit, were the most common with just over 1,000 across the district. Only seven schools, which were either charter schools or alternative schools, did not offer any honors courses.

One of Shelby County Schools’ goals is to increase the percentage of students prepared for college by 2025. Currently, about 90 percent of students who graduate from the district would be required to take remedial classes in college because of low ACT scores, according to state data. That’s usually a sign that their high school did not adequately prepare them for college classes.

A state report released last fall examining where students go after high school showed that 56 percent of Shelby County Schools’ graduating class of 2016 went on to enroll in a four-year college or university, community college, or technical college. That’s compared to 63 percent of students statewide.

One of the report’s recommendations to boost that number was to improve partnerships with universities and increase the number of advanced course offerings — a recommendation Lotz emphasized Tuesday.

Shelby County Schools partners with the following universities and colleges for dual enrollment courses: Bethel University, Christian Brothers University, LeMoyne Owen College, Southwest Tennessee Community College, Tennessee College of Applied Technology, University of Memphis, and William Moore College of Technology (Moore Tech)

Below you can find the advanced course offerings at each district-run and charter school in Shelby County Schools. Below that you can view the district’s full report.