Are Children Learning

Explaining the ISTEP debate: 6 reasons why the test ballooned

PHOTO: Alan Petersime
Frustrations with repeated problems with ISTEP have lawmakers looking for solutions.

The Indiana legislature is moving fast to cut at least three hours from the state ISTEP after two weeks of sharp words and behind-the-scenes negotiations over its length. Lawmakers are expected to rush a bill through both houses for the governor to sign next week to make the changes.

But with kids just days away from taking the exam, some are still asking: what caused the blow up?

The answer is a little complicated, but here are six reasons why ISTEP more than doubled in length from last year:

1. When standards change, tests must also change.

A big fight over Indiana’s academic standards last year ended when the state rapidly changed course and adopted quickly assembled new standards.

That disrupted a carefully coordinated plan in place since 2010 for the Indiana to adopt Common Core Standards along with 45 other states and use a shared exam that would test student knowledge with results that would be comparable across the country.

When Gov. Mike Pence and state Superintendent Glenda Ritz took office in 2012, Indiana had already adopted Common Core. Schools were putting it in place grade by grade, and a new Common Core-linked exam was scheduled to replace ISTEP this year.

But Pence was wary of the shared test — called the Partnership for the Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers or PARCC — and ordered the state to withdraw from the consortium creating the test in 2013. Six months later, both Pence and Ritz supported the idea of Indiana dropping out of Common Core and endorsed new locally made standards that were adopted last April.

Like Common Core,  Indiana’s new academic standards are more in-depth and ask students to do more analysis and critical thinking.

A test matching those expectations was needed in a hurry. Instead of taking years to adapt to the new standards and create the new exam, Indiana tried to do the whole process in a matter of months. That meant asking a lot of the 2015 ISTEP.

2. This year’s test had two extra goals — add questions to match the new standards and help create a test to replace ISTEP in 2016.

More difficult standards naturally meant Indiana needed a more difficult test. But there wasn’t time to completely overhaul ISTEP this year.

Instead, ISTEP was modified for this year to add several extra features. Many of the new standards were similar to the old standards, so many questions roughly matched the style and difficulty of past ISTEP exams. But new questions were added to also test students on new, tougher concepts included in the new standards, which were designed to make sure they graduate high school ready for college and careers.

The online version of ISTEP, for example, includes more advanced testing methods that ask kids to not only answer multiple-choice questions, but also answer questions in new ways, such as by dragging and dropping points on a graph or using drop-down menus.

Finally, this year’s ISTEP had one more job: Try out some questions that could be used on the 2016 exam.

But there was a problem. Indiana law requires release each year of all essay or short-answer test questions that are used in scoring. This would turn out to be a big factor in the length of the test.

3. A huge number of questions on this year’s test actually don’t count in a student’s score.

When test questions are released to the public they are effectively retired. They can never be used again on ISTEP.

So for this year’s exam, there were two big sets of essay and short answer questions: one group that counted toward each student’s score and must be released plus a large second set being tried out for use in 2016 that wouldn’t count.

Trying out questions is important. Test makers examine how students score on them to look for unexpected surprises. Questions they ask include: Was the question harder or easier for students than predicted? Was there reason to believe it was confusing to children? Was there any evidence the question was unfair to certain groups of students?

Trying out enough questions to be able to make a completely new test for 2016 was the main factor that caused what is normally a six-hour test to swell to more than 12 hours this year. All along, however, this was intended as a one-year problem. Future state exams are expected to be only slightly longer than the six-hour tests of the past.

The legislature appears poised to waive for one year the requirement that all essay and short-answer questions be released. This would allow some of this year’s questions to be reused so there could be far fewer extra questions that don’t count.

4. A longer test means more school days devoted to testing.

Indiana students don’t take all of ISTEP at once. They take sections of the exam in smaller doses over several days.

At its Feb. 4 meeting, the state board increased the number of days schools are allowed to use to give the test. The tests will be given over the course of almost a month, beginning Feb. 25 and ending in late March, followed by another set of testing days over three weeks at the end of April into May.

Schools can choose how to split up the parts of the test. Students might take just one section per day or do more depending on what teachers and principals decide. Danielle Shockey, the state’s deputy superintendent, said a testing day could take many shapes. In some schools, student take one 35-minute test section each day. In some schools, they spend an hour each day on testing. Other schools may do more.

“They have a long window of time,” Shockey said. “They can take one session a day if they so choose. It’s a local choice.”

5. Test makers had to consider that ISTEP is plays a critical role in school A-to-F grades and teacher evaluation ratings.

ISTEP is used to measure two things: how much students know of the content they were expected to learn this year, and how much they’ve improved from a previous year. Both factor into how Indiana measures the quality of schools with its A-to-F grading system, as well as how it evaluates teachers.

To determine a school’s A-to-F grade, the state considers both the percentage of students who pass ISTEP and how much students improved from last year. For teachers, the state expects to see their students’ test scores improve over the prior year.

When tests are roughly the same each year — measuring the same standards and using similar types of questions — it is easier to gauge how much students improved from the prior year. But when the standards change and the questions are crafted differently, test makers have to add extra questions to help determine each student’s improvement from the last test.

This spring’s test will include a few questions in English and math that are specifically designed to estimate roughly on what grade level each student best fits. For example, a fourth grade test might include a few third grade level questions and a few fifth grade level questions. Some students might do well on only the third grade questions but poorly on harder questions. Others might do well on all the questions, even the more challenging fifth grade questions.

Those extra questions help the test makers better estimate whether the student improved a little, a lot or not at all over the prior year. However, those extra questions also lengthen the test, but only by minutes, not hours, Michele Walker, testing director for the education department, said. The legislature agreed they were worth keeping — those questions will remain under the plan to shorten ISTEP.

6. Then, there’s the social studies question.

The federal No Child Left Behind Act, signed into law by President Bush in 2002, requires states to test students in English and math each year in grades 3 to 8, and once in high school, and also in science once during elementary, middle and high school.

Noticeably absent? Social studies.

Although Indiana’s social studies ISTEP test is only given to fifth- and seventh-graders each year, accounting for about an hour of testing for those grades, Pence’s test consultants recommended cutting that subject to reduce testing time further since it is only required by state law. That means the legislature could make an exception for this year.

State board members were divided on this idea. Some worried that it would send the message that social studies is not important. Others argued one hour for just two grades doesn’t add much test taking time.

But the legislature liked the idea of reducing test time further this way, so the Indiana Department of Education has told schools to expect the social studies exam to be optional this year. That means some students will take it, if the school decides they should, and others will be allowed to drop it for this year only.

Momentum

Memphis moves from problem child to poster child on Tennessee’s new school improvement list

PHOTO: Brad Vest/The Commercial Appeal
Memphis has been a hub of local, state, federal, and philanthropic school improvement work since Tennessee issued its first list of "priority schools" in 2012.

The city that has been the epicenter of Tennessee’s school improvement work since 2012 got encouraging news on Friday as fewer Memphis schools landed on the state’s newest list of troubled schools.

Forty-three public schools in Memphis were designated “priority schools,” compared to 57 in 2014 and 69 in 2012.

Meanwhile, more schools in Nashville, Chattanooga, and Jackson were among the 82 placed on priority status, either for being ranked academically in the state’s bottom 5 percent or having a graduation rate of less than 67 percent. They are now eligible for a share of $10 million in state grants to pay for extra resources this year — but also interventions as harsh as state takeover or closure.

Half of the schools are new to the list but won’t face takeover or closure. Those school communities will begin working with the state education department to develop district-led improvement plans, a change from previous years.

Charter schools face the most dire consequences for landing on the list if they’re authorized by local districts. In Memphis, seven will close at the end of the school year, impacting more than 1,700 students:

  • City University School Girls Preparatory
  • Du Bois Elementary of Arts Technology
  • Du Bois Middle of Arts Technology
  • Du Bois Middle of Leadership Public Policy
  • Granville T. Woods Academy of Innovation
  • Memphis Delta Preparatory
  • The Excel Center (adult education)

Two other priority-status high schools already closed their doors in May. They were operated by former city schools superintendent Willie Herenton’s W.E.B. DuBois charter network.

This was the first priority list issued under Tennessee’s new system for holding schools and districts accountable and is based mostly on student test scores from 2015-16 and 2016-17. No negative results from last school year were factored in because of emergency state legislation passed to address widespread technical problems that disrupted Tennessee’s return to online testing in the spring.

The distribution of more priority schools beyond Memphis was notable.

“Shelby County in particular has had some momentum … (but) we have other districts that have not had that same momentum,” said Education Commissioner Candice McQueen during a morning call with reporters.

She praised Shelby County Schools for “changing the landscape” in Memphis by closing at least 15 priority schools since 2012 and for creating its own Innovation Zone to improve other schools. Another catalyst, she said, was the 2012 arrival of Tennessee’s Achievement School District, which has taken over dozens of low-performing Memphis schools and assigned them to charter networks, spurring a sense of urgency.

But student gains have been better under the iZone than within the state-run district. Of the 25 priority schools absorbed by the iZone, 16 have moved off of priority status, compared to eight that have been taken over by the state. 

“When you really try and find great school leaders and great teachers, when you extend time, when you focus on professional development, and when you also focus on accountability, good things are going to happen in schools,” said Brad Leon, a Shelby County Schools strategist who supervised the iZone in its early years.

Of the 43 Memphis schools on the newest list, less than two-thirds are within Shelby County Schools, and five of those could be eligible for state takeover, according to Antonio Burt, who oversees priority school work for Tennessee’s largest district. He declined to name them.

The state Board of Education signed off on the priority list on Friday during a special meeting. The board also approved its 2018 list of “reward schools” to acknowledge a fifth of the state’s public schools for student achievement and academic growth in the last year.

Tennessee’s priority list is issued every three years, and this was the third one since 2012. But unlike with the two earlier rosters, 2018 priority status does not necessarily put a school on track for state takeover. That’s now an option of last resort as the state seeks to be more collaborative with local school leaders.

PHOTO: Ruma Kumar
Shelby County Schools Superintendent Dorsey Hopson visits classrooms and students in 2015. He’s led Tennessee’s largest district since 2013.

“Our new school improvement model takes a student-focused, evidence-based approach to tailor interventions for our priority schools,” said McQueen, who promised to work closely with school communities to provide new resources. 

Those new resources will be welcomed in Memphis, where Shelby County Schools has absorbed the cost of continuing interventions even as federal and state grants expire.

“At the end of the day, we’re very proud of the work, but we’re not satisfied,” said Superintendent Dorsey Hopson. “We’re going to keep on working.”

In Nashville, Mayor David Briley called the increase from 15 to 21 priority schools “unacceptable” and promised to make swift improvements in the state’s second largest school system.

Below is a sortable 2018 list, and you can learn more about the state’s 2018 accountability work here.

Priority schools

Struggling Tennessee schools find out Friday if they could face state intervention

PHOTO: Marta W. Aldrich
Tennessee's 2018 list of priority schools will chart the state's school improvement strategies, investments, and interventions for at least the next year. The state issued earlier priority lists in 2012 and 2014.

School communities hovering at the bottom on student achievement have been watching anxiously to see how they could fare under Tennessee’s new system for holding schools and districts accountable.

They’ll begin to find out on Friday when the Education Department releases its 2018 list of “priority schools” in Tennessee’s bottom 5 percent, the threshold for determining state investments such as extra money — and interventions as harsh as takeover and even closure.

The unveiling will come as the state Board of Education signs off on the list during a specially called meeting.

The 2018 priority list will be the state’s first in four years, as well as the first under a new accountability system developed in response to a 2015 federal education law. The roster will chart the state’s school improvement strategies, investments, and interventions for at least the next year.

Underperforming charter schools could face the toughest consequences. Those making the list will be shuttered next spring if they were authorized by local school districts. (Tennessee has state-authorized charters too, but those schools face closure only if they rank at the bottom in both 2018 and 2021.)

Calculating this year’s priority list — which initially was supposed to factor in the last three years of student test scores — has not been simple.

Because technical problems marred Tennessee’s return to online testing this spring, state lawmakers passed legislation ordering that the most recent scores can’t be used to place new schools on the priority list or move them into the state’s Achievement School District for assignment to charter networks. Instead, the newest priority schools are based mostly on student achievement from the two prior school years. However, a school on the 2014 list could potentially come off the new roster if its scores were good this year.

The legislation doesn’t mean that some repeat priority schools can’t be taken over by the state based on previous years’ test results. However, most of those are expected to continue under their current state-monitored school improvement plans. Schools that are new to the list will have to develop similar plans in collaboration with the Education Department.


READ: One state, three lists of troubled schools — another consequence of Tennessee’s testing mess


The newest priority lineup will be among a flurry of school accountability lists being released on Friday. The State Board also will sign off on “reward schools” that have achieved the highest performance or made extraordinary progress since last year, as well as a district roster that rates 145 Tennessee school systems based on a multitude of new measures under the state’s education plan as part of the federal Every Student Succeeds Act, or ESSA.

You can find the list of schools at risk of making the newest priority list here.