Future of Work

Parents, educators worry new diploma options exclude kids with special needs

PHOTO: Alan Petersime

Parents and educators pleaded with the Indiana State Board of Education on Wednesday to correct new proposed diploma options that could make graduating more for difficult for students with special needs and a state law that they argue could rob students of equal access to the high school diplomas that fit them best.

“By increasing the graduation requirements in math and science in both new (diploma) options, we are once again making it more difficult for students to earn their high school diplomas,” said Jeff Huffman, a Noblesville parent of a student with special needs. “Not every student is destined for college. Not every student needs to be proficient in Algebra and biology to get a good paying job.”

Students starting high school in 2018 would have three diploma options instead of four under a plan approved recently by the Commission on Higher Education — a “college and career ready” diploma, an “honors” diploma or a “workforce ready diploma.” Currently there are four diploma options: general, Core 40, Core 40 honors and career and technical honors diplomas. The new diplomas both include more credit hours and, in the first two cases, higher expectations for coursework.

“What we wanted to do is make sure we had academic rigor and we could streamline the process,” said Teresa Lubbers, Indiana’s commissioner for higher education. “We could, earlier, make this clear to students and families that this is what they’d need to do and actually make sure that while providing maximum choice for selection that you did this in a way that is providing structure as well.”

But by eliminating the general diploma, parents said, students with special needs might not get the support they need, and they might endure additional hardship as they work to complete the more specific, rigorous diploma.

“I hope you will send them back to the drawing board and include the current general diploma in this mix,” Huffman said. “It’s what’s best for students and what’s best for Indiana.”

Speakers at the meeting, including representatives from the Indiana School Counselors Association and members of the state’s advisory committee on special education, also called for inclusion of the general diploma in the new diploma offerings, as well as requiring schools to offer all diplomas so students, and parents, have more choices.

Indiana state law doesn’t require all school districts to offer all available diploma options. That means some districts might currently only offer the Core 40 diploma, suggested for students who want to go on to four-year colleges or professional fields, and not a general diploma, which is recommended for those seeking more basic jobs.

Students who earn a general diploma but attend schools that don’t offer it can be stuck can end up without a diploma, instead earning a certificate that doesn’t demonstrate significant academic progress. That can leave them unprepared for future jobs that want to see those academic accomplishments. Certificates can vary district by district, student by student.

However, Lubbers suggested that for the small percentage of students who qualify for the certificate, the state could possible change it to make it more specific, thus communicating a more defined set of skills to employers. She said she heard from employers that the general diploma was not a “good proxy for what students should know.”

The remarks from parents and educators prompted state Superintendent Glenda Ritz to call a special meeting of the board in October to spend more time discussing the diplomas. A final decision on the diplomas must be made by the board in December.

“I wholeheartedly feel that (students) should be afforded the right to have a workforce-ready diploma,” Ritz said.

Board member Vince Bertram agreed, although that move would require a change in state law, Ritz said.

“If we are going to establish these diplomas for our students … we need to give them access to these diplomas,” Bertram said. “While I fully appreciate and support local autonomy … to not make the workforce-ready diploma available to students is, I think, irresponsible.”

beyond high school

Here’s where you can find new workforce training classes in Memphis

PHOTO: Nicholas Garcia

After months of planning to overhaul the district’s job certification programs, Shelby County Schools is sharing which schools will have each program if approved in the district’s budget.

Tennessee’s largest district narrowed its focus from 16 to seven mostly high-paying career fields and plans to phase out others.

  • Advance manufacturing
  • Architecture
  • Health science
  • Information technology (IT)
  • Marketing/distribution
  • Science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM)
  • Transportation

Students would not have to test into any of the programs. Altogether, the district have about 180 courses to attract more students to its programs. Only half of eligible seniors last year completed their job certification. Classes in areas such as cosmetology, culinary arts, and car repair will continue, but not as many.

Sixty-five programs will be phased out in 24 schools. About 35 teachers will continue teaching the targeted courses until current students complete certifications in the programs. The district will provide transportation for those students if the program is moved to another school.

Roughly 15 teachers will given the opportunity to train in one of the new focus areas next year, according to Joris Ray, an assistant superintendent. The district will pay for another 45 teachers to take an IT certification exam and ongoing training. The remaining teachers, about 140, will continue in their current classrooms. Shelby County Schools plans to hire more teachers in relevant fields, but officials did not provide specific numbers Wednesday.

Ray said the district would hold a meeting with career and technical education teachers Thursday afternoon to explain how the changes affect them.

“We want see everybody placed. We don’t want to see anybody without a position. That’s our goal,” Ray said Wednesday.

The $8 million revamp to its career and technical education program is part of the proposed budget for 2018-19 school year that board members are expected to pass later this month.

Workforce training classes are getting renewed attention under a state and federal push to prepare students for jobs of the future.

To measure a “ready graduate” under its new plan, Tennessee will look at how many students earned industry certification, took dual enrollment or Advanced Placement classes, passed military entrance exams, or earned a 21 or higher on the ACT. The metric accounts for 20 percent of school and district scores under a new grading system being rolled out later this year.

School board members Wednesday were worried that school counselors, let alone parents and students, wouldn’t have all the information they needed to successfully navigate the new programs.

“It has to be someone who understands careers… so at the end you cross the stage with a certification,” said Miska Clay Bibbs.

You can see below which schools will house which certification programs. (Be sure to zoom in!):

study says...

One big upside of career and tech programs? They push more kids to graduate

PHOTO: Christina Veiga
A student at Aviation High School in Queens.

As a high school teacher in Pennsylvania, Shaun Dougherty noticed that students in career-focused programs seemed much more engaged than his other students.

Now a researcher, Dougherty set out to see whether data backed up his experience. Could the programs not just prepare students for the workforce, but keep students from dropping out of school?

To find out, Dougherty studied Massachusetts’ 36 vocational and technical high schools, where students alternate between academic coursework and full-time work in areas like auto repair, graphic design, and machine technology. What he found was striking: At those schools, students were substantially more likely to graduate high school than similar peers at typical high schools.

“The intention for CTE is to help with skill development for long-term career and earnings potential,” said Dougherty, an assistant professor at the University of Connecticut. “The fact that it’s having this payoff on high school graduation is a positive, but perhaps unintended, consequence.”

Career and technical programs can come with downsides, too — in particular, offering training in skills that may eventually become obsolete or devalued. But the new research bolsters the academic case for the programs, a rare education initiative that carries bipartisan imprimatur.

In the study, published last month in the peer-reviewed journal Education Finance and Policy, Dougherty finds that the career and tech high school students came out far ahead of similar students on a number of metrics.

In addition to being 21 percentage points more likely to graduate high school, students from low-income families scored slightly higher on standardized tests. Graduation rates were also higher for higher-income students, though they did not see any test-score gains.

Those are encouraging results. Still, it’s possible that the students who chose to attend the vocational high schools were more motivated than their peers to begin with, skewing the results.

Dougherty addresses this by narrowing his lens to just three schools and using a different approach to nail down cause and effect. Using school admissions data, he compares students who just missed the cut-off to earn entry to students who just barely earned a spot — the idea being that the two groups of students are essentially identical.

Again, the results show that the career and technical schools notably increase the chances of graduating high school for both higher- and low-income students: by 7 to 10 percentage points and possibly more. In this case, there was no clear effect on test scores.

The approaches in tandem suggest Massachusetts’ career-focused high schools really do boost graduation rates.

That’s consistent with recent studies on career and tech programs in a variety of settings. Analyses of data from Philadelphia and Wake County, North Carolina found that students who randomly won a chance to attend a career-focused high school were more likely to graduate high school and attend college.  

Other research by Dougherty has found that students in Arkansas who took several career-focused courses in one focus area are more likely to graduate than similar students who don’t. And using national data, two other recent studies found that students who took more CTE courses, particularly later in high school, were also more likely to graduate on time, compared to demographically similar students. (Keep in mind, though, that these studies are less able to clearly isolate cause and effect.)

That research generally doesn’t show clear positive effects on math and reading test scores — but the students also don’t find negative effects, which to Dougherty is an encouraging sign.

“One of the classic concerns with vocational and technical education is that by specializing in an area of training you might be trading off general knowledge,” he said. “You wouldn’t necessarily expect their test scores to be higher, but we might worry that they would be lower.”

The reason for the career and technical schools’ particular success is unclear. It could be that CTE programs are particularly effective at boosting non-academic skills like grit — or that students benefit from peers all motivated to participate in the same program.

Dougherty suggests that students may benefit from being able to select a school or program that’s a good fit for them. He also points to the specific regional structure of CTE schools in Massachusetts, where the “learning environment may make learning more relevant and engaging, while simultaneously reducing the stigma associated with participating in CTE, and providing better mentorship opportunities.”

Still, Dougherty cautions that the positive finding doesn’t necessarily mean that policymakers should rush to expand the programs. One concern is that growing such offerings could actually train too many students for a small pool of specific jobs. Another is that it’s not clear what makes a high-quality program.

“I’m very skeptical that we know exactly how to scale it well,” Dougherty said.