Future of Schools

Choosing a school in Indianapolis is changing. Here’s what you need to know.

PHOTO: Dylan Peers McCoy
Students at Phalen Leadership Academy at IPS School 103.

When the charter school where Daphaina Davis-Coleman sent her two children abruptly closed last spring, she was suddenly faced with an urgent deadline. She had just two months to find a quality new school for her kids — but no idea where to begin.

Davis-Coleman attended a school fair. She asked friends for recommendations and visited five different charter and traditional public schools in hopes of finding a good fit for her family.

“I spent a lot of gas running to different schools and trying to see which would be better,” she said.

Just days before the school year started in August, Davis-Coleman applied to Cold Spring School, an environmental science magnet in Indianapolis Public Schools. But district staff told her they never received her application. Eventually, with classes about to begin, she chose a charter school recommended by her son’s football coach.

“It was just like a real long, irritating process,” she said.

It’s that same exhausting process, faced by thousands of Indianapolis parents every year, that the new Enroll Indy initiative aims to address.

Advocates for the unified enrollment system say it will make things easier by giving parents a single way to apply simultaneously to district and charter schools.

At a time when the changing school system has made choosing a school increasingly difficult, the goal is to help parents figure out which of their many school options will meet their children’s needs and demystify the process for enrolling.

But how effective the system will be — and who it will benefit from it — are questions that will be determined over the next year as school officials hammer out the details and try to convince schools to participate.

This much seems likely: Starting next year, choosing a school in Indianapolis could be a fundamentally different process. Though some parents may be focused right now on applying for September — early IPS magnet applications are due Friday — they may want to keep an eye on the changes that are brewing for next year.

Here’s what we know for now:

How does it work?

With Enroll Indy, instead of submitting applications to several different schools that could have different application deadlines or procedures, parents will be able to use a single application online or in person. Parents will rank the schools they want for their children. Then, once the application window closes, Enroll Indy will randomly assign children a lottery number that will determine whether they get their top-choice school or a school ranked farther down on their list. Every student will be placed in just one school, cutting down on the guess work for schools that will have a better idea early in the year about who they can expect to enroll.

Enroll Indy plans to offer three cycles for admission that mirror the timeline IPS is using for its magnet lottery this year, with lotteries in January, March and April, according to founder Caitlin Hannon.

For parents like Davis-Coleman, who are faced with a school decision later in the year, Enoll Indy would show them what schools still have seats available, sparing them from having to spend hours calling or visiting schools that don’t have space.

What’s the goal?

Unified enrollment is designed to level the playing field for parents and make it easier for them to find and apply to schools. The idea is that by making the application process and timeline clearer for parents, it will reduce the inequities that have long given savvy, affluent parents a better shot at good public schools.

Poor families are less likely to know about their school options — or how to access them, said Hannon.

“This is why choice was created, but we haven’t managed it very well,” Hannon said at a lunch to celebrate the launch of the Enroll Indy information site in November. “A lot of families, many of our neediest families, have fallen through the cracks. That changes now.”

Will Enroll Indy make admissions more fair?

Unified enrollment could dramatically change how families pick schools. But even with Enroll Indy, schools can still limit who gets in by giving preference to nearby families or siblings of current students.

That’s one reason why Bethany Gross, a researcher at the Center for Reinventing Public Education, said she is reluctant to describe the system as inherently more “fair.”

“It doesn’t solve all your problems,” Gross said. “It can make things easier for families, but it doesn’t necessarily make it easy.”

In Indiana, charter schools are required to treat nearly all children who apply equally when deciding admission, and they cannot prioritize students based on their family income, neighborhood or achievement.

But traditional public districts like IPS are allowed to use test scores or other criteria to select students. IPS has one school for gifted students and others that give priority to families who live in certain neighborhoods.

Enroll Indy won’t change that. Traditional districts and charter schools will still be able to set their admissions rules, and those rules will be built into the algorithm that determines where students win spots.

Will it change who gets in?

Even though unified enrollment systems don’t change the rules, they do make the application process more consistent, Gross said. Before unified enrollment came to Denver, for example, it was often completely unclear how students ended up in the schools they chose and it seemed likely that some parents had pulled strings to land seats. Gross said the new system virtually eliminated that problem.

“What you get in the end is some confidence that the rules and the procedures that have been laid out and agreed to are in fact followed consistently,” she said.

This could be particularly important for students with special needs and those who are still learning English. Those students have typically faced challenges in school applications, with some schools trying to steer the harder-to-educate kids away. That may be less likely to happen in a unified enrollment system since it creates a clear record of where those students initially matched. If schools turn those students away once they are matched, that could raise red flags for advocates.

Is Enroll Indy a sure thing?

Unified enrollment systems are an increasingly popular idea for cities with lots of charter schools, but getting schools on board is one of the biggest challenges. Some of the most elite charter schools in New Orleans still haven’t joined the city’s  OneApp, and in Detroit, a new application system was crippled by low participation from schools, largely because the city’s main district, which enrolls nearly half of its students, declined to participate last year.

There’s a lot of momentum behind Enroll Indy. It launched with $240,000 in support from the Mind Trust, an Indianapolis nonprofit that has been instrumental in fostering collaboration between charter and traditional public schools. IPS recently voted for its schools to participate — including its coveted magnet schools.

Mayor Joe Hogsett’s office, which oversees most of the city’s charter schools, has strongly supported the plan. But for now, the mayor’s office is leaving it up to charter schools to decide whether to join the unified enrollment system.

There is still a possibility that low participation could unravel plans for Enroll Indy. The agreement with IPS stipulates that the district may drop out of the system if fewer than 80 percent of charter elementary schools or 80 percent of charter high schools join.

Why wouldn’t schools join?

While there is no organized public opposition from charter leaders, there are schools that have hesitated to join.

Among them is Herron High School, a classical liberal arts school on the near north side of the city that is consistently ranked one the best high schools in the state. Admission to Herron is open to anyone but winning a spot requires planning ahead: The school holds its application window during a single week in November — weeks before most other Indianapolis schools.

If Herron joined Enroll Indy, it would need to follow the nonprofit’s timeline, which would force the school to cede some of the control it has over enrollment.

Early enrollment windows like Herron’s are controversial because experts — and IPS admission data — say that low-income families tend to make school decisions later in the year so an early enrollment window is more likely to draw students with fewer challenges.

Herron’s head of school Janet McNeal said the school runs its admission cycle early in the year so that school staff can plan course offerings around the specific needs of future students. She said the school makes an effort to recruit at-risk children but a large share of the school’s students — 64 percent — are white and just 32 percent are poor enough to qualify for federal meal subsidies.

McNeal said there are “many advantages” to unified enrollment, but the school’s board hasn’t yet decided whether to participate next year.

Why would schools want to join?

With the current system, families can enroll in more than one school. Every year, traditional public and charter schools have students who withdraw days before school starts or simply don’t show up because they got off a waitlist or chose another school.

Enroll Indy will only give students admission to one participating school, making enrollment more predictable for administrators across the city and cutting down on the time they spend managing waitlists.

It also could help families learn about schools that aren’t well known, such as top-performing neighborhood schools in IPS or newly-opened charter schools since a key component of Enroll Indy is a guide with detailed information about schools.

Will it make schools more diverse?

As unified enrollment systems have rolled out across the country, researchers have paid close attention to the question of whether they change the demographics of the schools that participate.

The results suggest they can help diversify schools but are not a panacea. Gross notes that, in Denver, low-income families are still less likely to use the application than more affluent parents — and are more likely to attend neighborhood schools that rank lower on the district’s quality measures.

“The kids who aren’t making choices are more commonly finding themselves in the city’s lowest-performing schools,” Gross said.

But Marcus Winters, a professor at Boston University and researcher with the Manhattan Institute, found that unified enrollment has diversified Denver’s charter schools by encouraging students with high needs — such as those learning English — to apply.

In his prior research, Winters found that charter schools have fewer students who are learning English or have special needs than traditional public schools because students with those challenges are less likely to enroll in the first place. But with unified enrollment, he said, children of color and students learning English were more likely to enroll in charter schools in kindergarten.

For some critics, the possibility that more kids — even high-needs students — will enroll in charter schools is precisely what’s worrying about a unified enrollment system. But Winters argues that parents who want other options should be able to access them easily.

“If this is opening a door for parents to enroll in schools that they want to enroll in but don’t understand how to enroll in now,” Winters said, “that’s a good thing.”

What’s next?

For now, Enroll Indy leaders are focused on creating a single enrollment system for IPS and the city’s charter schools. But there are hundreds of other schools that could eventually participate including private schools in the city and public schools in Indianapolis’ townships or suburbs.

In New Orleans, the OneApp system lets families apply for spots at private schools that accept tuition vouchers, adding many more schools to the mix.

Scott Bess, who leads the planned Purdue Polytechnic High School — a charter school that intends to participate in Enroll Indy — suggested that unified enrollment could reshape school admission across the county.

“If we can get this up and running here in Center Township at least, long term it’s something that then starts to look more countywide,” he said. “The more schools participate, the better the system will be.”

who's next?

What you should know about seven people who could be the next New York City schools chancellor

PHOTO: Monica Disare
Mayor Bill de Blasio announced Carmen Fariña's retirement.

Nearly a month after Carmen Fariña announced that this school year would be her last as New York City’s chancellor, New Yorkers are no closer to knowing who will succeed her.

As city emissaries reach out to possible replacements around the country and City Hall vets people inside the Department of Education, speculation has mounted quickly. Will Mayor Bill de Blasio go with a trusted insider? Or will he try to attract a celebrated outsider who could drum up some excitement about his education agenda?

What’s clear is that de Blasio has committed to picking an educator for the slot, ruling out some officials who have played a leading role in his biggest education initiatives so far. Low pay, an established education agenda, and de Blasio’s reputation for being a micromanager may make it tough to recruit a high-profile outsider. Still, the job remains among the most prestigious education posts in the country.

Everyone who pays attention to education in the city has ideas about who might be under consideration.

After talking to more than a dozen people who keep a close eye on the education department and City Hall, some of them from within, we’ve sorted through the rumors and political jockeying to handicap several contenders.

PHOTO: Courtesy of Miami-Dade County Public Schools
Alberto Carvalho

Alberto Carvalho

Who he is: Carvalho is the widely admired leader of Miami’s school system, where he has spent his entire career. Under his leadership, the district’s finances and academic performance improved. He has an inspiring life story, too: He became an educator after first coming to the United States from Portugal as an undocumented immigrant.

Why you might see him at Tweed: Politically savvy, skilled in engaging with the media, and prolific on Twitter, Carvalho would certainly fill the mayor’s requirement of being able to sell an education agenda. During his tenure, he helped convince county voters to approve a $1 billion bond for school infrastructure and technology upgrades.

Why you might not: Things are going well for Carvalho in Miami, where his contract runs until 2020 — and he’s balked at high-profile opportunities in the past. Like other outsiders, he’s already far outearning the city chancellor’s salary: He makes roughly $345,000 in Miami now, compared to nearly $235,000 for Fariña in New York.

What he says: “My commitment to Miami is so strong and I have demonstrated it in the face of political opportunities,” he told Chalkbeat. “It’s really hard for me to imagine a set of circumstances that would lead to a different decision on my part.”

Kathleen Cashin

Kathleen Cashin

Who she is: Cashin is currently a member of New York’s Board of Regents, where she helps set education policy for the entire state. Before that, she spent more than three decades as a New York City educator — first as a teacher and principal before working her way up to be a regional superintendent.

Why you might see her at Tweed: De Blasio has signaled he’s looking for someone like Fariña, and Cashin fits that mold. She believes, as Fariña does, that principals must be veteran educators who earn their autonomy (she resisted Bloomberg’s efforts to hire principals who were not experienced educators). Crucially, she has shown results boosting student achievement in high-poverty areas of the city, a problem de Blasio has struggled to solve.

Why you might not: Cashin recently turned 70, she is not a person of color, and is not likely to bring lots of new ideas to the table.

What she says: Did not respond to a phone call seeking comment.

What a supporter says: “She had the toughest district in the entire city and she handled her district not only with focus,” said Board of Regents Chancellor Betty Rosa, but also “elegance and professionalism beyond belief. I have so much respect for Dr. Cashin.”

PHOTO: Patrick Wall
Rudy Crew

Rudy Crew

Who he is: Crew is the president of Medgar Evers College in Brooklyn, part of the city’s public university system. He previously served as New York City’s schools chief for four years in the late 1990s under Mayor Rudy Giuliani, spent another four running the Miami-Dade county school district, and did a brief (and controversial) stint as an education official in Oregon.

Why you might see him at Tweed: Crew is a black man, which makes him a standout among the education department’s top ranks. He knows the political landscape and has continued to take an interest in the city’s schools through his work at Medgar Evers, where he created a program that provides training to local public-school teachers and early-college classes for students. Crew also seems to share de Blasio’s belief that high-quality instruction should take priority over school integration, and as chancellor, he set up a turnaround program for struggling schools that has clear parallels with the mayor’s Renewal initiative.

Why you might not: While Crew has had some success boosting student achievement, he also has a record of political clashes. He left Miami after the school board’s chair said they had developed “irreconcilable differences” and Oregon amid controversy about his commitment to the job.

What he says: Crew declined to be interviewed, but a spokeswoman said he “has not been contacted about the job.”

PHOTO: Stephanie Snyder
MaryEllen Elia

MaryEllen Elia

Who she is: Currently the head of New York’s state education department, Elia previously led one of the nation’s 10 largest school districts, Hillsborough County in Florida. There, she gained a reputation for working closely with the local teachers union on policy issues that unions often oppose. She was named Florida’s 2015 superintendent of the year before being ousted by the school board shortly afterward, in a move that garnered some local and national criticism.

Why you might see her at Tweed: While Elia is considered a long shot, it could make sense for de Blasio to give her a look. She’s a good match for de Blasio’s overall orientation: She’s progressive-minded — see the state’s new initiative to help districts integrate their schools — but also believes that schools should be held accountable for helping students learn. Elia has spent nearly three years running the state education department without making enemies. She also hasn’t set out to make a big splash in her leadership, which could be appealing for a mayor whose agenda is already in place.

Why you might not: She appears comfortable in her role in Albany, where she’s helping the state adapt to the new federal education law, and reconsider its approach to teacher evaluations, graduation requirements, and more. Also, she has no experience working in New York City.

What she says: “Commissioner Elia has had no discussions about this,” said State Education Department spokeswoman Emily DeSantis. “She loves her job as State Education Commissioner and remains committed to fostering equity in education for all children across New York State.”

PHOTO: Patrick Wall
Dorita Gibson

Dorita Gibson

Who she is: Gibson is the education department’s second in command as Fariña’s senior deputy chancellor. She has served at virtually every level of leadership within the New York City school system, rising from teacher to assistant principal, principal, and high-level superintendent. She’s helped lead big changes in the way the education department supports schools, and is partly responsible for overseeing the mayor’s signature “Renewal” program for struggling schools.

Why you might see her at Tweed: She’s already there, an advantage at a moment when some outsiders seem unenthusiastic about taking over the school system. Gibson is one of Fariña’s top deputies who leads initiatives that are core to the city’s education agenda. She’s also a longtime educator, which de Blasio has said is a requirement, and the department’s top-ranking deputy of color.

Why you might not: Despite being Fariña’s number two, Gibson has kept a low profile, and rarely appears in the press. Her absence raises questions about her interest or likelihood of assuming the top position.

What she says: Declined to comment.

What people are saying: Gibson “seems to be a natural successor,” writes David Bloomfield, a professor of education, law, and public policy at Brooklyn College and the CUNY Graduate Center. “The only problem is that, like other central Department of Education officials, she doesn’t seem to have the support of the mayor or chancellor.”

PHOTO: Via LinkedIn
Cheryl Watson-Harris

Cheryl Watson-Harris

Who she is: Watson-Harris is the education department’s senior executive director of field support, who is responsible for helping manage centers that support schools on instructional and operational issues. She started her career as a New York City teacher before working as a principal and superintendent in Boston for nearly two decades. She assumed her current role in 2015.

Why you might see her at Tweed: Watson-Harris rose quickly from running just one of the large school-support centers to overseeing all seven. Multiple sources said she was perceived as being groomed for a higher-ranking position at the education education department. And on her Twitter feed, where she acts as a public booster for the school system, she notes that she’s the parent of a student in the city’s public schools.

Why you might not: She would have to leapfrog a number of more senior officials who have years of experience at higher rungs of education department leadership, including Gibson. Insiders question whether she’s ready to make that jump.

What she says: Declined to comment.

PHOTO: Patrick Wall
Phil Weinberg

Phil Weinberg

Who he is: Weinberg is one of Fariña’s six deputy chancellors. He began his career teaching at Brooklyn’s High School of Telecommunication Arts and Technology — and wound up staying for 27 years before rising to principal in 2001. In 2014, Fariña plucked him from that post to head up a resurrected “teaching and learning” division that had been dormant for years.

Why you might see him at Tweed: Weinberg is widely respected among educators and has avoided major blowback during his four years leading teaching and learning at the department. The things he’s passionate about — including strong teaching, coherent curriculum, and collaboration among educators — are close to Fariña’s heart, which would matter if she plays a strong role in choosing her successor.

Why you might not: His efforts have been peripheral to the initiatives the de Blasio administration cares about most, such as prekindergarten and community schools. He seems to prefer an internal role to a public-facing one. And he’s a white man — hardly the top demographic choice for the leader of a district where more than 70 percent of students are black or Hispanic.

What he says: Did not respond to a message seeking comment.

That’s the short list, but many other names have also surfaced.

Josh Starr, a former New York City official who now works at PDK International, and Pedro Noguera, a professor at UCLA, would make good fits for de Blasio’s progressive platform, but both have said they are not in the running.

Other names that have been floated as potential contenders include Lillian Lowery, a former district superintendent and top education official in Maryland and Delaware (now a vice president at Ed Trust); Angelica Infante-Green, a fast-rising deputy commissioner in New York’s state education department who is reportedly in the running for Mass. state education commissioner; and Betty Rosa, a former superintendent in the Bronx and chancellor of New York’s Board of Regents.

There’s also a cadre of educators who have left New York City for other school systems and might be interested in returning, including Andres Alonso, currently an education professor at Harvard, and Jaime Aquino, who helps lead New Leaders for New Schools, a non-profit organization that focuses on training principals.

Philissa Cramer and Christina Veiga contributed reporting.

Story booth

With no art teacher, students at this Detroit school say their talents go unnurtured

 

When the eighth-grade students at Paul Robeson Malcolm X Academy on Detroit’s west side talk about things their school needs, they point to a classmate named Casey.

“He’s a great artist,” one student said. “He can look at a picture and draw it in like five minutes and it will look exactly the same.”

If Casey attended school in the suburbs, his friends believe, he and other talented students would have an art class where they could nurture their skills.

“They don’t have the time to put in the work with their talent because we don’t have those extra-curricular activities,” another classmate said.

The students at the K-8 school have no art, music or gym teachers — a common problem in a district where resources are thin and where a teacher shortage has made it difficult for schools like this one to find teachers for many subjects, including the arts.

While the Detroit district has committed to expanding arts programs next year, it would need to find enough teachers to fill those positions.

“People out there think we’re not smart and they always criticize us about what we do,” Casey said. “We can always show them how smart we are,” he said, but that requires “getting the type of programming that we’re supposed to.”

Chalkbeat spoke with students at the school as part of a “story booth” series that invites students, teachers and parents to discuss their experiences in Detroit schools.

Watch the full video of the Paul Robeson/Malcolm X students below and please tell us if you know someone who would like their story featured in a future story booth.