Future of Schools

Choosing a school in Indianapolis is changing. Here’s what you need to know.

PHOTO: Dylan Peers McCoy
Phalen Leadership Academy at IPS School 103 is one of several innovation schools that had big jumps in test scores.

When the charter school where Daphaina Davis-Coleman sent her two children abruptly closed last spring, she was suddenly faced with an urgent deadline. She had just two months to find a quality new school for her kids — but no idea where to begin.

Davis-Coleman attended a school fair. She asked friends for recommendations and visited five different charter and traditional public schools in hopes of finding a good fit for her family.

“I spent a lot of gas running to different schools and trying to see which would be better,” she said.

Just days before the school year started in August, Davis-Coleman applied to Cold Spring School, an environmental science magnet in Indianapolis Public Schools. But district staff told her they never received her application. Eventually, with classes about to begin, she chose a charter school recommended by her son’s football coach.

“It was just like a real long, irritating process,” she said.

It’s that same exhausting process, faced by thousands of Indianapolis parents every year, that the new Enroll Indy initiative aims to address.

Advocates for the unified enrollment system say it will make things easier by giving parents a single way to apply simultaneously to district and charter schools.

At a time when the changing school system has made choosing a school increasingly difficult, the goal is to help parents figure out which of their many school options will meet their children’s needs and demystify the process for enrolling.

But how effective the system will be — and who it will benefit from it — are questions that will be determined over the next year as school officials hammer out the details and try to convince schools to participate.

This much seems likely: Starting next year, choosing a school in Indianapolis could be a fundamentally different process. Though some parents may be focused right now on applying for September — early IPS magnet applications are due Friday — they may want to keep an eye on the changes that are brewing for next year.

Here’s what we know for now:

How does it work?

With Enroll Indy, instead of submitting applications to several different schools that could have different application deadlines or procedures, parents will be able to use a single application online or in person. Parents will rank the schools they want for their children. Then, once the application window closes, Enroll Indy will randomly assign children a lottery number that will determine whether they get their top-choice school or a school ranked farther down on their list. Every student will be placed in just one school, cutting down on the guess work for schools that will have a better idea early in the year about who they can expect to enroll.

Enroll Indy plans to offer three cycles for admission that mirror the timeline IPS is using for its magnet lottery this year, with lotteries in January, March and April, according to founder Caitlin Hannon.

For parents like Davis-Coleman, who are faced with a school decision later in the year, Enoll Indy would show them what schools still have seats available, sparing them from having to spend hours calling or visiting schools that don’t have space.

What’s the goal?

Unified enrollment is designed to level the playing field for parents and make it easier for them to find and apply to schools. The idea is that by making the application process and timeline clearer for parents, it will reduce the inequities that have long given savvy, affluent parents a better shot at good public schools.

Poor families are less likely to know about their school options — or how to access them, said Hannon.

“This is why choice was created, but we haven’t managed it very well,” Hannon said at a lunch to celebrate the launch of the Enroll Indy information site in November. “A lot of families, many of our neediest families, have fallen through the cracks. That changes now.”

Will Enroll Indy make admissions more fair?

Unified enrollment could dramatically change how families pick schools. But even with Enroll Indy, schools can still limit who gets in by giving preference to nearby families or siblings of current students.

That’s one reason why Bethany Gross, a researcher at the Center for Reinventing Public Education, said she is reluctant to describe the system as inherently more “fair.”

“It doesn’t solve all your problems,” Gross said. “It can make things easier for families, but it doesn’t necessarily make it easy.”

In Indiana, charter schools are required to treat nearly all children who apply equally when deciding admission, and they cannot prioritize students based on their family income, neighborhood or achievement.

But traditional public districts like IPS are allowed to use test scores or other criteria to select students. IPS has one school for gifted students and others that give priority to families who live in certain neighborhoods.

Enroll Indy won’t change that. Traditional districts and charter schools will still be able to set their admissions rules, and those rules will be built into the algorithm that determines where students win spots.

Will it change who gets in?

Even though unified enrollment systems don’t change the rules, they do make the application process more consistent, Gross said. Before unified enrollment came to Denver, for example, it was often completely unclear how students ended up in the schools they chose and it seemed likely that some parents had pulled strings to land seats. Gross said the new system virtually eliminated that problem.

“What you get in the end is some confidence that the rules and the procedures that have been laid out and agreed to are in fact followed consistently,” she said.

This could be particularly important for students with special needs and those who are still learning English. Those students have typically faced challenges in school applications, with some schools trying to steer the harder-to-educate kids away. That may be less likely to happen in a unified enrollment system since it creates a clear record of where those students initially matched. If schools turn those students away once they are matched, that could raise red flags for advocates.

Is Enroll Indy a sure thing?

Unified enrollment systems are an increasingly popular idea for cities with lots of charter schools, but getting schools on board is one of the biggest challenges. Some of the most elite charter schools in New Orleans still haven’t joined the city’s  OneApp, and in Detroit, a new application system was crippled by low participation from schools, largely because the city’s main district, which enrolls nearly half of its students, declined to participate last year.

There’s a lot of momentum behind Enroll Indy. It launched with $240,000 in support from the Mind Trust, an Indianapolis nonprofit that has been instrumental in fostering collaboration between charter and traditional public schools. IPS recently voted for its schools to participate — including its coveted magnet schools.

Mayor Joe Hogsett’s office, which oversees most of the city’s charter schools, has strongly supported the plan. But for now, the mayor’s office is leaving it up to charter schools to decide whether to join the unified enrollment system.

There is still a possibility that low participation could unravel plans for Enroll Indy. The agreement with IPS stipulates that the district may drop out of the system if fewer than 80 percent of charter elementary schools or 80 percent of charter high schools join.

Why wouldn’t schools join?

While there is no organized public opposition from charter leaders, there are schools that have hesitated to join.

Among them is Herron High School, a classical liberal arts school on the near north side of the city that is consistently ranked one the best high schools in the state. Admission to Herron is open to anyone but winning a spot requires planning ahead: The school holds its application window during a single week in November — weeks before most other Indianapolis schools.

If Herron joined Enroll Indy, it would need to follow the nonprofit’s timeline, which would force the school to cede some of the control it has over enrollment.

Early enrollment windows like Herron’s are controversial because experts — and IPS admission data — say that low-income families tend to make school decisions later in the year so an early enrollment window is more likely to draw students with fewer challenges.

Herron’s head of school Janet McNeal said the school runs its admission cycle early in the year so that school staff can plan course offerings around the specific needs of future students. She said the school makes an effort to recruit at-risk children but a large share of the school’s students — 64 percent — are white and just 32 percent are poor enough to qualify for federal meal subsidies.

McNeal said there are “many advantages” to unified enrollment, but the school’s board hasn’t yet decided whether to participate next year.

Why would schools want to join?

With the current system, families can enroll in more than one school. Every year, traditional public and charter schools have students who withdraw days before school starts or simply don’t show up because they got off a waitlist or chose another school.

Enroll Indy will only give students admission to one participating school, making enrollment more predictable for administrators across the city and cutting down on the time they spend managing waitlists.

It also could help families learn about schools that aren’t well known, such as top-performing neighborhood schools in IPS or newly-opened charter schools since a key component of Enroll Indy is a guide with detailed information about schools.

Will it make schools more diverse?

As unified enrollment systems have rolled out across the country, researchers have paid close attention to the question of whether they change the demographics of the schools that participate.

The results suggest they can help diversify schools but are not a panacea. Gross notes that, in Denver, low-income families are still less likely to use the application than more affluent parents — and are more likely to attend neighborhood schools that rank lower on the district’s quality measures.

“The kids who aren’t making choices are more commonly finding themselves in the city’s lowest-performing schools,” Gross said.

But Marcus Winters, a professor at Boston University and researcher with the Manhattan Institute, found that unified enrollment has diversified Denver’s charter schools by encouraging students with high needs — such as those learning English — to apply.

In his prior research, Winters found that charter schools have fewer students who are learning English or have special needs than traditional public schools because students with those challenges are less likely to enroll in the first place. But with unified enrollment, he said, children of color and students learning English were more likely to enroll in charter schools in kindergarten.

For some critics, the possibility that more kids — even high-needs students — will enroll in charter schools is precisely what’s worrying about a unified enrollment system. But Winters argues that parents who want other options should be able to access them easily.

“If this is opening a door for parents to enroll in schools that they want to enroll in but don’t understand how to enroll in now,” Winters said, “that’s a good thing.”

What’s next?

For now, Enroll Indy leaders are focused on creating a single enrollment system for IPS and the city’s charter schools. But there are hundreds of other schools that could eventually participate including private schools in the city and public schools in Indianapolis’ townships or suburbs.

In New Orleans, the OneApp system lets families apply for spots at private schools that accept tuition vouchers, adding many more schools to the mix.

Scott Bess, who leads the planned Purdue Polytechnic High School — a charter school that intends to participate in Enroll Indy — suggested that unified enrollment could reshape school admission across the county.

“If we can get this up and running here in Center Township at least, long term it’s something that then starts to look more countywide,” he said. “The more schools participate, the better the system will be.”

Future of Schools

For Indianapolis principals hoping to improve, one program says practice makes perfect

PHOTO: Shaina Cavazos
A kindergarten student reaches for crayons during a lesson at Global Prep Academy.

Mariama Carson has spent 20 years as an educator, first as a teacher and now as principal of Global Prep Academy. But in all that time, she never found training that prepared her as well as what she learned over two weeks last summer.

Carson, along with 23 other Indianapolis school leaders, was chosen to be a fellow in a principal training program through the Relay Graduate School of Education. Almost immediately, she noticed a big difference from previous coaching she’d had: They practiced everything.

How do you teach kids the right way to walk in the hallway? They practiced it. How do you let a teacher know she’s struggling? They practiced it. What are the precise words to use in an evaluation? More practice.

“The commitment to practice is what has been so different,” Carson said. “Whatever we learn in Relay … it’s not just something someone has told you about. You’ve practiced it. You’ve lived it.”

Relay, a six-year-old New York-based organization, was founded by a cadre of leaders from high-performing charter school networks. Practice, role-playing and applied learning are at the center of their work with educators, which for five years has included a year-long principal fellowship.

In the 2016-17 school year, Relay trained about 400 school leaders in the United States. Fellows from Indianapolis were chosen and sponsored by The Mind Trust, an Indianapolis-based nonprofit. Joe White, who directs The Mind Trust’s school support initiatives, said he was happy with the response during the last round of applications. The next cohort, whose members will be announced this month, will be larger and contain more Indianapolis Public School educators, as well as charter school principals, he said.

The Mind Trust wants to make the training “available to as many new operators as possible to continue expanding this work across the city,” White said. “We think that this is the way that we create sustainable schools that will provide high-quality results and outcomes for kids for a very long time.”

Two principals in the midst of the program told Chalkbeat that the fellowship is already changing the culture and efficiency of their schools. The principals spent the fellowship’s two-week summer training session in Denver learning how to best collect and analyze student data, give feedback to teachers and create a school building that runs smoothly.

“The practice and critical feedback we got was unlike anything I’d ever experienced,” said Mariama Carson, a principal at Global Prep Academy, which is housed in the IPS Riverside 44 building. “Usually as a principal, you don’t get that kind of feedback.”

But Relay, which also has teacher training programs, has its share of critics. Kenneth Zeichner, a researcher and professor at the University of Washington, analyzed non-university-affiliated teacher training programs, including Relay’s. Although he hasn’t looked into the principal program specifically, he said he is troubled that the teacher training curriculum emphasizes using test scores to gauge results at the expense of a more well-rounded assessment of students, who many times are coming from families living in poverty.

He also worries Relay as a whole is too focused on fast growth, rather than on proving its methods work. There have been no independent studies done on whether Relay produces better teachers than other alternative or university programs, Zeichner said, although one is underway.

“My concern about Relay is not that they exist,” Zeichner said. “If you’re going to measure the quality of a teacher education program — of any program — the independent vetting, or review, of claims about evidence (is) a baseline minimum condition.”

Chalkbeat spoke with Carson and Bakari Posey, principal at IPS School 43. The two just completed their second of several training sessions, which will continue through the rest of the school year.

Responses have been edited for brevity and clarity.

What made you want to be part of the fellowship?

Carson: The job of a principal is so lonely. To have the opportunity to work with high-quality, hard-working principals across the country is always inviting.

Posey: I wanted to make sure that I was able to appropriately and efficiently and effectively develop the people on our team. That’s what really drew me in. It’s shaped my thinking and sharpened my lens as a leader and what I’m looking for in classrooms.

What have you learned so far that you’re implementing in your school?

Carson: It’s been transformative in how our building is run just on the cultural side. Relay has really helped us understand that especially with adult learners, you have to start with the “why.” And then we model, and the teachers (in my school) play the position as students. We go into full acting mode, and then the teachers execute that practice. For two weeks before the kids even showed up, that’s what our teachers were doing. Normally, I’d hand my teachers a packet of procedures and expectations, but we never practiced.

Posey: We’ve started to implement already … around coaching teachers — how we give that feedback and give teachers bite-sized action steps to work on instead of making a list of 12 things to do at once. If you do one thing better every single day, then you get better overall. Something else that’s big for me is student work exemplars — actually having an example of excellence for student work that the teacher creates and uses to guide feedback. Overall it’s just kind of helped to organize my thinking as a school leader and really kind of give you a little bit of a road map towards student growth and overall school success. It’s the best professional development I’ve ever been a part of.

How have teachers back in your schools responded to the changes you have introduced, including suggestions on improving instruction, evaluations, etc.?

Carson: Teachers have been responding well, and they’re getting used to this culture, a culture of practice. Even in our feedback sessions where we’re coaching teachers, it’s “OK, execute the lesson — I’ll be the student, you be the teacher.”

Posey: They’ve been receptive. It’s not coming from a place of “gotcha” or I’m trying to make you look really bad. It’s really coming from a place of really getting better for our students to really give them the best, which is what they deserve.

gates keeper

Gates Foundation to move away from teacher evals, shifting attention to ‘networks’ of public schools

PHOTO: Department for International Development/Russell Watkins

Its massive education funding efforts have helped spread small high schools, charter schools, and efforts to overhaul teacher evaluations. Now, the Gates Foundation is going in a new direction.

In a speech Thursday, Bill Gates said the foundation is about to launch a new, locally driven effort to help existing public schools improve.

The idea is to fund “networks” that help public schools improve by scrutinizing student achievement data and getting schools to share their best ideas, he said. Of the $1.7 billion the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation will spend on U.S. education over the next five years, more than 60 percent will go to these networks — dwarfing the amount to be spent on charter schools, about 15 percent.

Gates said that’s both because he wants to go where other philanthropy isn’t and because the foundation’s strategy is to affect as many students as possible. (Only 5 percent of U.S. public-school students attended a charter school in 2014.)

“In general, philanthropic dollars there … on charters is fairly high. We will be a bit different. Because of our scale, we feel that we need to put the vast majority of our money into these networks of public schools,” Gates said. (“We love charters,” he quickly added.)

The Gates Foundation is a supporter of Chalkbeat.

The strategy appears to be a nationwide expansion of the work Bob Hughes, the Gates Foundation’s K-12 education chief, did in New York City as the longtime head of an organization called New Visions for Public Schools. New Visions started several dozen district and charter schools but also created tools for schools to check on student progress that were later adopted by New York City itself.

Gates offered other examples: Chicago’s Network for College Success, which works with about 15 high schools; the LIFT Network in Tennessee, which includes 12 school districts; and the CORE Districts in California. The foundation plans to fund 20 to 30 such networks, Gates said.

Also notable is where Gates said the philanthropy will no longer be sending money: toward efforts to encourage new teacher evaluation systems, which in some states have faced fierce political resistance in recent years.

The foundation’s new work to support school networks will be driven by local ideas about how to create the best schools, Gates said.

“The challenge is that, even that piece when it’s done very well, the teacher in the classroom — that is not enough to get the full result we want,” Gates said. “And this is something that I’m sure has been obvious to all of you. But it’s really the entire school, where the leadership, the development, the overall culture, the analysis of what’s going on with the kids — it’s that school level where you have to get everything coming together.”

The final quarter of that $1.7 billion will go toward research into how kinds of technology could improve student learning and ways to improve math instruction and career preparation.