First Person

The Flat Earth Society

Today’s New York Daily News published a bold editorial on the progress of New York City schoolchildren under the administration of Mayor Mike Bloomberg and Chancellor Joel Klein.  “You would be better off arguing that the world is flat, or that the sun revolves around the Earth, than to dispute that New York City kids are performing better and better in school,” writes the Daily News, crowing that there are “fresh and incontrovertible data” pointing to what the newspaper refers to as a “sea change” in New York City. 

They might have wanted to wait a day.

This morning, the U.S. Department of Education released the 2009 results of the National Assessment of Educational Progress assessments of fourth-grade and eighth-grade mathematics in each state and for the nation overall.  Nationally, fourth-grade performance held steady from 2007 to 2009, and there was a slight but statistically significance over this period in eighth-grade math performance.  In New York State, the small declines in fourth-grade and gains in eighth grade were not statistically significant, leading to the conclusion that there has been no change in the performance of New York students on the NAEP math assessment from 2007 to 2009. 

This is a very different story than the one told by New York’s own assessment system, on which the Bloomberg and Klein administration has staked its claims about the great progress in student achievement.  The average scale score in fourth-grade mathematics increased from 680 in 2007 to 689 in 2009, a hefty 9 points;  the jump in eighth-grade scores was even more dramatic, as the average scale score rose from 657 in 2007 to 675 in 2009, a remarkable increase of 18 points.

To put these two sets of numbers in context, the chart below shows the gains in fourth-grade and eighth-grade math performance from 2007 to 2009 expressed in standard deviation units (i.e., the amount of variation among individual students in 2007).  According to NAEP, fourth-graders’ performance fell .07 standard deviations from 2007 to 2009, a difference that is not significantly different from zero.  In contrast, fourth-graders gained .23 standard deviations on the New York State assessment from 2007 to 2009.  Similarly, the NAEP results indicate that eighth-graders in New York gained .08 standard deviations from 2007 to 2009 in math performance, a difference that is not significantly different from zero, but they gained .47 standard deviations over this period on the New York State test.


Another way of comparing the implications of the two different sets of test results is to think about where the average student in 2009 would have scored in 2007.  Based on these standard deviations, and assuming that the scores follow a bell-curve distribution, the New York State scores indicate that the average fourth-grader in 2009 scored at the 59th percentile of the 2007 fourth-grade distribution, which is a pretty big jump.  The increment for eighth-graders is even more striking:  the average eighth-grader in 2009 scored at the 68th percentile of the 2007 eighth-grade distribution, based on the New York State tests.  In contrast, the NAEP data indicate that the average New York fourth-grader in 2009 scored at the 47th percentile of the 2007 distribution of fourth-grade math performance in New York State, and the average eighth-grader in 2009 scored at the 53rd percentile of the 2007 eighth-grade distribution.
How can we explain these differences?  There are lots of possible explanations, but most of them don’t hold up under close scrutiny.  The two tests are taken by similar populations of students under similar conditions, and the grade-level mathematics standards on which the two assessments are based do not differ dramatically.  The NAEP test is a low-stakes test, which might result in students not taking it seriously, but the statisticians who oversee the NAEP testing program look for patterns suggesting this, and find little evidence of it.  It’s extremely unlikely that there’s rampant cheating going on in the New York State testing system that could explain the differences. 

 It’s possible that the New York State tests have been getting easier over time.  I have yet to see definitive evidence ruling this out.  There also is strong suggestive evidence of “score inflation” in the New York State tests, because there are predictable patterns in the standards which appear on the state tests year after year, with some standards showing up repeatedly each year, and some standards having never been tested at all during the life of the testing program.  Schools and teachers can make use of these patterns, which also show up in the format of test questions covering particular standards, to focus their instruction on the subset of standards that crop up again and again.  Because the New York State tests never test some standards, we have no idea about whether students have mastered them.  In contrast, the design of the NAEP assessment allows for a much broader picture of mathematics performance, because so many more standards and test item formats are incorporated into the test.

 Whatever the reason, the discrepancy between the NAEP trends and trends in the NewYork State test scores raises serious questions about what the New York tests are telling us about the academic performance of students in New York State.  The same, of course, goes for New York City.  We’ll see NAEP scores for New York City in a month or so, but it’s unlikely that they will yield a different story than what I’m describing here.
Is the Earth flat?  No.  But New York State test scores, and probably New York City scores, are.

First Person

I’m a principal who thinks personalized learning shouldn’t be a debate.

PHOTO: Lisa Epstein
Lisa Epstein, principal of Richard H. Lee Elementary, supports personalized learning

This is the first in what we hope will be a tradition of thoughtful opinion pieces—of all viewpoints—published by Chalkbeat Chicago. Have an idea? Send it to

As personalized learning takes hold throughout the city, Chicago teachers are wondering why a term so appealing has drawn so much criticism.

Until a few years ago, the school that I lead, Richard H. Lee Elementary on the Southwest Side, was on a path toward failing far too many of our students. We crafted curriculum and identified interventions to address gaps in achievement and the shifting sands of accountability. Our teachers were hardworking and committed. But our work seemed woefully disconnected from the demands we knew our students would face once they made the leap to postsecondary education.

We worried that our students were ill-equipped for today’s world of work and tomorrow’s jobs. Yet, we taught using the same model through which we’d been taught: textbook-based direct instruction.

How could we expect our learners to apply new knowledge to evolving facts, without creating opportunities for exploration? Where would they learn to chart their own paths, if we didn’t allow for agency at school? Why should our students engage with content that was disconnected from their experiences, values, and community?

We’ve read articles about a debate over personalized learning centered on Silicon Valley’s “takeover” of our schools. We hear that Trojan Horse technologies are coming for our jobs. But in our school, personalized learning has meant developing lessons informed by the cultural heritage and interests of our students. It has meant providing opportunities to pursue independent projects, and differentiating curriculum, instruction, and assessment to enable our students to progress at their own pace. It has reflected a paradigm shift that is bottom-up and teacher led.

And in a move that might have once seemed incomprehensible, it has meant getting rid of textbooks altogether. We’re not alone.

We are among hundreds of Chicago educators who would welcome critics to visit one of the 120 city schools implementing new models for learning – with and without technology. Because, as it turns out, Chicago is fast becoming a hub for personalized learning. And, it is no coincidence that our academic growth rates are also among the highest in the nation.

Before personalized learning, we designed our classrooms around the educator. Decisions were made based on how educators preferred to teach, where they wanted students to sit, and what subjects they wanted to cover.

Personalized learning looks different in every classroom, but the common thread is that we now make decisions looking at the student. We ask them how they learn best and what subjects strike their passions. We use small group instruction and individual coaching sessions to provide each student with lesson plans tailored to their needs and strengths. We’re reimagining how we use physical space, and the layout of our classrooms. We worry less about students talking with their friends; instead, we ask whether collaboration and socialization will help them learn.

Our emphasis on growth shows in the way students approach each school day. I have, for example, developed a mentorship relationship with one of our middle school students who, despite being diligent and bright, always ended the year with average grades. Last year, when she entered our personalized learning program for eighth grade, I saw her outlook change. She was determined to finish the year with all As.

More than that, she was determined to show that she could master anything her teachers put in front of her. She started coming to me with graded assignments. We’d talk about where she could improve and what skills she should focus on. She was pragmatic about challenges and so proud of her successes. At the end of the year she finished with straight As—and she still wanted more. She wanted to get A-pluses next year. Her outlook had changed from one of complacence to one oriented towards growth.

Rather than undermining the potential of great teachers, personalized learning is creating opportunities for collaboration as teachers band together to leverage team-teaching and capitalize on their strengths and passions. For some classrooms, this means offering units and lessons based on the interests and backgrounds of the class. For a couple of classrooms, it meant literally knocking down walls to combine classes from multiple grade-levels into a single room that offers each student maximum choice over how they learn. For every classroom, it means allowing students to work at their own pace, because teaching to the middle will always fail to push some while leaving others behind.

For many teachers, this change sounded daunting at first. For years, I watched one of my teachers – a woman who thrives off of structure and runs a tight ship – become less and less engaged in her profession. By the time we made the switch to personalized learning, I thought she might be done. We were both worried about whether she would be able to adjust to the flexibility of the new model. But she devised a way to maintain order in her classroom while still providing autonomy. She’s found that trusting students with the responsibility to be engaged and efficient is both more effective and far more rewarding than trying to force them into their roles. She now says that she would never go back to the traditional classroom structure, and has rediscovered her love for teaching. The difference is night and day.

The biggest change, though, is in the relationships between students and teachers. Gone is the traditional, authority-to-subordinate dynamic; instead, students see their teachers as mentors with whom they have a unique and individual connection, separate from the rest of the class. Students are actively involved in designing their learning plans, and are constantly challenged to articulate the skills they want to build and the steps that they must take to get there. They look up to their teachers, they respect their teachers, and, perhaps most important, they know their teachers respect them.

Along the way, we’ve found that students respond favorably when adults treat them as individuals. When teachers make important decisions for them, they see learning as a passive exercise. But, when you make it clear that their needs and opinions will shape each school day, they become invested in the outcome.

As our students take ownership over their learning, they earn autonomy, which means they know their teachers trust them. They see growth as the goal, so they no longer finish assignments just to be done; they finish assignments to get better. And it shows in their attendance rates – and test scores.

Lisa Epstein is the principal of Richard H. Lee Elementary School, a public school in Chicago’s West Lawn neighborhood serving 860 students from pre-kindergarten through eighth grade.

Editor’s note: This story has been updated to reflect that Richard H. Lee Elementary School serves 860 students, not 760 students.

First Person

I’ve spent years studying the link between SHSAT scores and student success. The test doesn’t tell you as much as you might think.

PHOTO: Photo by Robert Nickelsberg/Getty Images

Proponents of New York City’s specialized high school exam, the test the mayor wants to scrap in favor of a new admissions system, defend it as meritocratic. Opponents contend that when used without consideration of school grades or other factors, it’s an inappropriate metric.

One thing that’s been clear for decades about the exam, now used to admit students to eight top high schools, is that it matters a great deal.

Students admitted may not only receive a superior education, but also access to elite colleges and eventually to better employment. That system has also led to an under-representation of Hispanic students, black students, and girls.

As a doctoral student at The Graduate Center of the City University of New York in 2015, and in the years after I received my Ph.D., I have tried to understand how meritocratic the process really is.

First, that requires defining merit. Only New York City defines it as the score on a single test — other cities’ selective high schools use multiple measures, as do top colleges. There are certainly other potential criteria, such as artistic achievement or citizenship.

However, when merit is defined as achievement in school, the question of whether the test is meritocratic is an empirical question that can be answered with data.

To do that, I used SHSAT scores for nearly 28,000 students and school grades for all public school students in the city. (To be clear, the city changed the SHSAT itself somewhat last year; my analysis used scores on the earlier version.)

My analysis makes clear that the SHSAT does measure an ability that contributes to some extent to success in high school. Specifically, a SHSAT score predicts 20 percent of the variability in freshman grade-point average among all public school students who took the exam. Students with extremely high SHSAT scores (greater than 650) generally also had high grades when they reached a specialized school.

However, for the vast majority of students who were admitted with lower SHSAT scores, from 486 to 600, freshman grade point averages ranged widely — from around 50 to 100. That indicates that the SHSAT was a very imprecise predictor of future success for students who scored near the cutoffs.

Course grades earned in the seventh grade, in contrast, predicted 44 percent of the variability in freshman year grades, making it a far better admissions criterion than SHSAT score, at least for students near the score cutoffs.

It’s not surprising that a standardized test does not predict as well as past school performance. The SHSAT represents a two and a half hour sample of a limited range of skills and knowledge. In contrast, middle-school grades reflect a full year of student performance across the full range of academic subjects.

Furthermore, an exam which relies almost exclusively on one method of assessment, multiple choice questions, may fail to measure abilities that are revealed by the variety of assessment methods that go into course grades. Additionally, middle school grades may capture something important that the SHSAT fails to capture: long-term motivation.

Based on his current plan, Mayor de Blasio seems to be pointed in the right direction. His focus on middle school grades and the Discovery Program, which admits students with scores below the cutoff, is well supported by the data.

In the cohort I looked at, five of the eight schools admitted some students with scores below the cutoff. The sample sizes were too small at four of them to make meaningful comparisons with regularly admitted students. But at Brooklyn Technical High School, the performance of the 35 Discovery Program students was equal to that of other students. Freshman year grade point averages for the two groups were essentially identical: 86.6 versus 86.7.

My research leads me to believe that it might be reasonable to admit a certain percentage of the students with extremely high SHSAT scores — over 600, where the exam is a good predictor —and admit the remainder using a combined index of seventh grade GPA and SHSAT scores.

When I used that formula to simulate admissions, diversity increased, somewhat. An additional 40 black students, 209 Hispanic students, and 205 white students would have been admitted, as well as an additional 716 girls. It’s worth pointing out that in my simulation, Asian students would still constitute the largest segment of students (49 percent) and would be admitted in numbers far exceeding their proportion of applicants.

Because middle school grades are better than test scores at predicting high school achievement, their use in the admissions process should not in any way dilute the quality of the admitted class, and could not be seen as discriminating against Asian students.

The success of the Discovery students should allay some of the concerns about the ability of students with SHSAT scores below the cutoffs. There is no guarantee that similar results would be achieved in an expanded Discovery Program. But this finding certainly warrants larger-scale trials.

With consideration of additional criteria, it may be possible to select a group of students who will be more representative of the community the school system serves — and the pool of students who apply — without sacrificing the quality for which New York City’s specialized high schools are so justifiably famous.

Jon Taylor is a research analyst at Hunter College analyzing student success and retention.