Starting early

City to expand pre-K offerings with new seats and a new school

City officials and philanthropists announced two new early childhood initiatives today. From left: Administration for Children's Services Commissioner Ronald Richter, Mayor Bloomberg, Chancellor Dennis Walcott, and Susie Buffett, of the Buffett Early Childhood Fund.

Instead of waiting until children are turning five years old to start educating them, the Department of Education is going to start targeting some children at five weeks.

Citing research that shows a correlation between long-term achievement and enrollment in high-quality early childhood programs, Mayor Bloomberg announced this morning that the city will open a school next year that enrolls children from infancy through pre-kindergarten — and their parents.

Bloomberg also announced a $20 million initiative to turn 4,000 oft-unused half-day pre-kindergarten seats into full-day slots that many parents find more attractive.

Bloomberg and Schools Chancellor Dennis Walcott made the announcements today in conjunction with “Education Nation,” NBC’s annual extravaganza of education policy programming hosted in Midtown Manhattan. This year’s summit is focusing on innovations that have been proven to work.

One of those is early childhood education, which primes children for academic success in elementary school and beyond. Children’s minds are already 85 percent developed by the time they are old enough for kindergarten, a 2005 study found, and early education advocates say interventions in infancy can have a far greater impact on the achievement gap than at any other period in children’s lives.

In the proposed new school, which would open next September inside Brownsville’s P.S. 41, low-income parents would be pushed to develop stronger social and emotional skills with their children while the children are infants and toddlers. Ultimately serving between 115 and 125 families a year, the school will be part of the Educare Schools network, which already operates 17 early childhood schools in 13 states.

In Educare schools, “the first thing that [parents] do is they hold [their children] and talk to them and look them in the eyes,” said Susie Buffett, daughter of philanthropist Warren Buffett and chair of a foundation that is a major donor to the network. She said interaction with adults who share their knowledge with children is not only “the foundation of literacy, but it’s also the foundation of curiosity, self-confidence, self-control and the ability to persist in hard tasks.” (This research is detailed in “How Children Succeed,” the new book by Paul Tough.)

The Educare school’s facility design calls for many large open spaces as well as smaller rooms where children and parents can work together while being observed. Renovations to P.S. 41 could cost up to $20 million, Walcott said, with half coming from the Department of Education’s capital funding and the other half coming from private donations.

Officials said they could not yet estimate the cost to operate the school once its space is complete, but they said 80 percent of the costs could be borne using federal and state funding streams that already pay for a constellation of early childhood programs. The other 20 percent will need to be matched by private donors, whom Bloomberg said he has yet to find.

Ultimately, officials said today, the Educare school could become a model for applying “attachment” interventions citywide, even in schools not designed specifically to foster them.

The second early childhood initiative that the mayor announced this morning would break less ground. Instead, by funneling more city funds into supporting full-day pre-kindergarten spots, the city will be taking an action that advocates have been demanding for years.

Currently, state funds for pre-kindergarten can only be used to fund half-day programs. While many programs pitch in to extend the day for their students, the city ends up returning about $30 million a year to the state in pre-kindergarten funding because many families steer clear of half-day programs.

“If you’re a working parent or parents, and you need to have your child in a full-day program because that’s more convenient, you may not enroll [in a half-day program] because of that,” said Sophia Pappas, executive director of the city’s Office of Early Childhood Education. “We think that is one of the big barriers.”

Last year, Comptroller John Liu urged the city to lobby the state for permission to use pre-kindergarten funding for full-day programs, something the city had done before. But in the absence of a state policy fix, the city has decided to use $20 million of its own funds to grow its pre-kindergarten capacity by 4,000 seats.

The new seats will represent a 25 percent expansion in the number of full-day pre-kindergarten seats operated by the Department of Education. Until now, 16,000 of the city’s 60,000 pre-kindergarten seats have fallen into that category, with the rest being a mixture of half-day programs and programs offered by the Administration for Children’s Services.

Only about 58,000 of the seats are filled each year, officials said, and about 7,500 eligible children are not enrolled in any kind of pre-kindergarten program. The enrollment rates being lowest in poorer neighborhoods, the officials said.

The announcements drew praise from advocates who are usually Bloomberg’s fiercest critics. Zakiyah Ansari, advocacy director of the Alliance for Quality Education and a mother of eight children who attended city schools, said she welcomed the new initiatives.

“In this climate of the economic crisis, education budget cuts, school closings and lay-offs, I am happy to see that Mayor Bloomberg, City Council and the NYC Department of Education are prioritizing our youngest students and giving them a chance to succeed,” Ansari said.

Head Start restart

Children left in limbo as Detroit Head Start providers stand to lose federal grants

PHOTO: Erin Einhorn/Chalkbeat

Four major providers of Head Start programs in Detroit must re-apply for funding after losing their federal grants this year, throwing the future of dozens of classrooms in doubt for the fall.

One of the four providers was forced to re-compete for funding after leaving a 3-year-old outside in freezing winter weather and putting children in unsafe classrooms. The other three were ranked poorly in a federal performance review that scores how students and teachers interact.

Head Start, the federally funded program that provides free preschool and other services to the nation’s neediest children, has long struggled in Detroit. Years of program neglect while under the supervision of a cash-strapped city agency left providers without adequate buildings and a teacher shortage so severe that two years ago, 800 funded seats for the most vulnerable children in the city were going unused.

Since then, the program had expanded, but providers are still struggling to create enough programs to use all of the 5,200 Head Start seats the federal government would fund. As of last spring, 260 seats were going unused, according to Patrick Fisher, spokesperson for the Administration for Children and Families, the federal organization that oversees Head Start.

Thousands of Detroit families rely on these programs for free childcare and meals for ages 0 to 5. Head Start is especially important for low-income families struggling with the skyrocketing cost of childcare. Despite the longstanding issues, these Head Start facilities are many families’ only option for affordable quality early childhood education. Studies on Head Start show the program can influence everything from whether kids succeed in school, to whether they become smokers as adults.

The prospect that programs could be closed or moved if current providers are not able to win new grants has been unsettling to families who might not be able to bring their children to a school that’s farther away.

“It would definitely be a disruption because I would have to travel, and a lot of us don’t have the means to travel,” said Monika Chester, the mother of three children who attend Head Start at the Samaritan Center on Detroit’s east side. “A lot of us are walking, taking the bus, getting a cab, even in the winter, and my baby is five months old.”

“But the worst thing would be for my babies to adapt to new teachers,” she said. “That’s the worst. That’s really bad.”

The four providers that must recompete — Matrix, Starfish Family Services, New St. Paul Tabernacle Head Start Agency Inc., and Metropolitan Children and Youth, Inc. — must divert attention from running facilities to competing for the federal money that allows them to run the programs. 

The process to reapply for one of the five-year grants is significantly easier if providers have no issues with their federal scores, providers say. Meanwhile, providers who score below passing on the federal examinations or have other issues are forced to undergo a multistep process that can take several people a month or longer to complete.

Ann Kalass, whose Starfish Family Services leads the coordination of a large Head Start collaborative called Thrive by Five Detroit, said her biggest concern is how reapplying affects the children and families in the program, rather than the time it takes for staff to reapply.

“What I worry about is that it creates a disruption and they leave our programs in May and June not knowing who to count on in the fall,” said Ann Kalass, who runs Starfish Family Services.

“There is a lot of work going on among many providers to submit quality plans and applications in mid-January, so yes, it’s definitely taking resources for us to do that,” Kalass said. “But from my perspective, we do this work all the time — we’re always competing for grants and new opportunities, so it’s people spending time on writing grants who might otherwise be thinking about the program strategy and implementation.

“The real concern for me at a system level is that we’re trying to rebuild and reinvest and it feels like taking a step back to move a step forward,” she added.

The federal auditors grade facilities in three categories: emotional support, classroom organization, and instructional support. Providers are compared against one another nationally, and the lowest scoring 10 percent must automatically rebid for the federal money that pays for  the program.

In the category of classroom organization, Matrix, Starfish, and New St. Paul all scored in the bottom 10 percent range nationally.

Kalass said teacher turnover played a role in why the scores were so low in that category.

“Classroom organization looks at the routines and the structures of learning in the classroom,” Kalass said. “It talks about routines in the classrooms, the overall management of what’s happening in the classroom, and we have a high level of teacher turnover in the city, and some of the highest rates of teacher turnover in the country.”

The median salary for a preschool teacher who works full-time in Michigan is less than $30,000 a year, according to one study, making it hard to retain teachers. A report from the Kresge and Kellogg foundations pointed to the shortage of qualified preschool teachers as one of the challenges to improving early education in Detroit.

The next category, instructional support  — how children are taught — “involves how teachers promote children’s thinking and problem solving, use feedback to deepen understanding, and help children develop more complex language skills,” according to a guide to understanding the scoring metrics.

Nationwide, providers struggle to meet the federal standards for this category. The passing score has a low threshold — it is only about 2.31 out of seven. In Detroit, all three providers had low scores, but New St. Paul fell below the threshold for passing in that category.

In the emotional support category, all of the providers in Detroit scored above the minimum. This area measures how teachers “help children resolve problems, redirect challenging behavior, and support positive peer relationships.”

The federal Office of Head Start, which conducts the reviews, has proposed a change to the bottom 10 percent rebid rule and other scoring guidelines, but it won’t have an effect on the current process.

Providers in Detroit support the change. They believe comparing the city with providers outside of the area isn’t right. Last year, 32 percent of grantees nationwide had to recompete for grants. In Detroit, that number is higher as providers struggle with crumbling buildings, high teacher turnover, and a Head Start program that has endured years of turmoil.

But the other issues submitted to the federal office by the facilities themselves are harder to debate.

At the Samaritan Center, a Matrix facility on the east side near Chandler Park, on Jan. 8, 2018, a teacher was terminated after kicking a 2-year-old who fell asleep in a chair, according to the federal report released in February. The Samaritan Center had another violation in October of last year, when a 3-year-old was told to walk back to class unsupervised and was later found by personnel “alone, lying on the floor in a classroom crying,” according to a May report. The teacher was terminated.

The Eternal Rock Center, another Matrix facility located in Southwest Detroit, was given a violation after a 4-year-old was left in a classroom unsupervised for a short time in January. The teacher was terminated in this case as well.

Matrix Family Services declined a phone interview to speak on the low facility scores, rebidding for contracts, and the offsite reports from this year.

A report on the Metropolitan Children and Youth, Inc.’s facility was enough to trigger the contract rebid process. In winter of 2014, at the Harper/Gratiot Center on Detroit’s east side, a 3-year-old was left outside on a playground and later found by a parent crying and knocking on the door of the building. Neither the center’s investigation nor a review by the federal office was able to determine how long the child was outside in freezing temperatures.

Only Metropolitan Children and Youth is forced to rebid because of the offsite reports.

“Reviewers examine documentation sent by the grantee to identify program strengths or weaknesses, deficiencies, or that an issue has been remediated,” said Patrick Fisher, a spokesperson for the Administration for Children and Families, the federal office that oversees Head Start.

In Detroit’s Head Start classrooms, reported treatment like this is rare but not out-of-the-blue: underpaid teachers working in buildings struggling to keep the heat on sometimes results in poor conditions.

If the four providers don’t manage to win contracts, families could  be forced to find new centers and forge new connections with teachers. Moving locations can be hard on families and children alike, and requires a concentrated effort between the old and new provider to successfully transition students and staff.

A transition occurred last year after Southwest Solutions abruptly shuttered 11 Head Start centers. Luckily for the 420 children affected, Starfish Family Services was able to transition the children and many of the teachers to other agencies, allowing many to remain in their existing facilities.

There’s no guarantee that relocation of families could happen so smoothly in the future, but the Detroit providers are keeping lines of communication open.

“I think there are a lot of encouraging signs for early childhood programing in Detroit,” Kalass said. “Providers are meeting monthly to problem solve together — around workforce, facilities, and about better connecting with families.”

“We’re in a place of rebuilding and I’m optimistic that we won’t see a situation like this again. We won’t be in this place a few years from now.”

Scroll down to read some of the reports that led to one Head Start agency being asked to reapply for funding.

 

sunset

Victim of its own success: Qualistar, pioneer in rating Colorado child care, to close

PHOTO: Dylan Peers McCoy/Chalkbeat

With efforts to measure and improve child care quality in Colorado now ensconced in state government, the nonprofit organization that laid the groundwork for that system will close next month.

Leaders at Qualistar Colorado said the state’s recent progress in prioritizing quality in child care centers and preschools makes it the right time to end operations as a stand-alone entity.

“That’s always the best story you can have for a nonprofit, where it puts itself out of business,” said Kathryn Harris, Qualistar’s president and CEO.

One of Qualistar’s chief accomplishments over its 20-year history was pioneering a rating system for preschools and child care centers well before the state took on the task with federal dollars in 2014.

Unlike the mandatory state system, called Colorado Shines, Qualistar’s system wasn’t widely used among providers because it was voluntary and expensive. Still, it was a respected tool at a time when many states had no mechanism at all for letting parents, providers, or the public know whether children were in good hands at preschool or child care.

Most states now have quality rating systems, which evaluate everything from teacher credentials to classroom set-up and parent engagement efforts. High quality child care helps children develop skills they need to start school and over the long term is associated with better health, education, and economic outcomes.

Qualistar has 30 employees and a $3.7 million annual budget.

More than one early childhood advocate said Qualistar’s decision to close wasn’t a complete surprise, given the evolution of the rating system from a privately funded initiative to a statewide effort scaled up with government dollars.

Bill Jaeger, vice president for early childhood and policy initiatives at the Colorado Children’s Campaign, said while Colorado hasn’t yet achieved universal quality in its child care centers and preschools, Qualistar has achieved a key part of its mission by elevating discussions about quality.

“What Qualistar set out to do is becoming the norm,” he said.

Anna Jo Haynes, co-chair of the state’s Early Childhood Leadership Commission, helped found Qualistar in 1999 following the release of a multi-state study that gave Colorado low marks for child care quality.

“Boy, did we say, ‘Enough of this,’” recalled Haynes, who sat on Qualistar’s board during its early years.

Qualistar, which was originally named Educare, drew substantial philanthropic support to create and advance its four-star rating system. Those efforts, Haynes said, along with constant advocacy at Colorado’s capitol, helped convince lawmakers that measuring and improving child care quality was important.

Now, that Qualistar’s era is ending, she said, “I think they can take a bow and say, ‘We did a good job.’”

After Qualistar closes, some projects will continue under the auspices of other local early childhood organizations or, in one case, a spin-off group.

Clayton Early Learning, which does research, training and runs a well-respected child care center in northeast Denver, will take over Qualistar’s state contract to conduct on-site assessments for the Colorado Shines system. Child care centers and preschools seeking one of the top three of Colorado Shines’ five ratings must have an on-site assessment.

State officials said Qualistar’s closing will not affect any providers’ current ratings and that they’re working to ensure there will be no delays in upcoming ratings as the hand-off to Clayton unfolds.

The Early Childhood Council Leadership Alliance, which works on behalf of Colorado’s 31 early childhood councils, will take over administering a scholarship program for early childhood providers pursuing college-level classes in the field.

One Qualistar initiative, Healthy Child Care Colorado, will spin off into its own nonprofit. It will continue to provide training and technical assistance to child care providers on health, wellness and safety topics. It will also continue making grants for playground and building improvements.

Harris said the groups taking over Qualistar initiatives will have authority over staffing, but she’s hopeful a number of Qualistar employees will land jobs with them.

Harris, who took the helm of Qualistar four years ago, said she’s not sure what she’ll do next, but it will be something related to education.

Contemplating Qualistar’s legacy, she said, “Colorado and the people who led this organization before me were trailblazers and I think that’s something to be very, very proud of.”