College Readiness

Report: Many NYC high schools don’t offer advanced math and science courses

PHOTO: Greenlee
Greenlee students who met their reading goals got a unique reward.

You need chemistry to become a registered nurse or an emergency medical technician. You need physics to become an architect.

But those occupations could be closed off to students attending a large number of New York City high schools, according to a report released Wednesday by the Center for New York City Affairs at the New School. The report found that nearly four in 10 city high schools do not offer algebra II and both physics and chemistry.

The numbers paint a grim picture of the instruction many students are receiving in the so-called STEM subjects: science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. The numbers look especially bleak for black and Hispanic students, who are underrepresented at the schools where most advanced diplomas are earned.

New York state is in the process of adopting Common Core learning standards that focus on skills students need for college-level courses or to enter higher-paying professions after high school. But as students struggle to adjust to a new Common Core-aligned algebra course, the report highlights that advanced courses remain out of reach for many students.

The rapid proliferation of small high schools in the last decade, which often offer a more limited range of academic classes than larger schools with more scheduling flexibility, are one cause, according to Clara Hemphill, editor of the school-review website Insideschools and one of the report’s authors. Another is that too many students arrive in high school ill-prepared to tackle those courses.

“Huge numbers of kids arrive in ninth grade not able to do fractions,” a skill students should begin learning in elementary school, Hemphill said. “So they just spend years and years and years getting caught up, and there’s just not enough kids who get that far.”

The city’s Department of Education is taking steps to improve its training and instruction in those subjects. In recent months, it has launched a free summer program to 1,200 students finishing second, seventh, and ninth grades focused on science, technology, engineering and math, provided more than 400 teachers with training in the STEM subjects, and released new science curriculum guidelines for elementary schools. In 2013, the city also announced an expansion of Advanced Placement courses in high-need schools.

“Our goal is to provide every New York City student with the math and science skills they need to succeed in college and meaningful careers, and we have taken concrete steps to improve offerings and raise achievement,” spokeswoman Devora Kaye said in a statement.

But the report reflects a persistent contradiction: After a decade of aggressive changes to city schools, more students than ever are earning a high school diploma, and fewer than ever are dropping out. The needle has barely moved, though, based on one measure of students’ preparedness for college-level coursework — the proportion of students earning an advanced diploma. (To receive an advanced diploma, students must pass two additional math exams and one additional science exam, among other requirements.)

There are also disparities in access to high-level courses in high school. The city’s high school choice system means that a student’s future access to advanced course offerings in math and science is largely determined by seventh grade, since many high schools admit students based on their grades and state test scores from that year.

Nearly half of all students who received an advanced diploma attended just 25 of the city’s more than 600 high schools in 2013-14. At 100 other high schools, no students received an advanced Regents diploma, compared to 18 percent of students citywide.

White and Asian students, though they make up less than one quarter of the city’s high school student population, constitute 70 percent of students at high schools with that award the most advanced diplomas. Meanwhile, at 100 schools where none of those diplomas were awarded, 92 percent of students were black or Hispanic.

The report offers some recommendations. High schools sharing space inside larger buildings should make greater effort to combine resources to offer advanced classes for top students. And recognizing that some students may never make it beyond introductory algebra, schools should offer “conceptual” courses in chemistry and physics. At Quest to Learn in Manhattan, a middle and high school, for example, teachers have developed a chemistry class for tenth graders that provides them with an introduction to the subject and, perhaps, a primer to take the Regents-level course in the following year.

A list of city high schools and their advanced math and science offerings in the 2013-14 school year can be found here.

union power

Charter teachers won big in nation’s first strike. What now?

PHOTO: Yana Kunichoff / Chalkbeat
Teachers from Acero charter schools in Chicago protest stalled negotiations Oct. 24, 2018, as they readied to vote on authorizing a strike.

Some 500 unionized teachers joined in the nation’s first charter strike last week, and succeeded in negotiating wage increases, smaller class sizes and a shorter school day. Their gains could foreshadow next year’s citywide contract negotiations — between the Chicago Teachers Union, with its contract expiring in June, and Chicago Public Schools.

“The issue of class size is going to be huge,” said Chris Geovanis, the union’s director of communications. “It is a critically important issue in every school.”

Unlike their counterparts in charters, though, teachers who work at district-run schools can’t technically go on strike to push through a cap on the number of students per class. That’s because the Illinois Education Labor Relations Act defines what issues non-charter public school teachers can bargain over, and what issues can lead to a strike.

An impasse on issues of compensation or those related to working conditions, such as length of the school day or teacher evaluations, could precipitate a strike. But disagreements over class sizes or school closures, among other issues, cannot be the basis for a strike.

The number of students per class has long been a point of contention among both district and charter school teachers.

Educators at Acero had hopes of pushing the network to limit class sizes to 24-28 students, depending on the grade. However, as Acero teachers capped their fourth day on the picket line, they reached an agreement with the charter operator on a cap of 30 students — down from the current cap of 32 students.

Andy Crooks, a special education apprentice, also known as a teacher’s aide, at Acero’s Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz school and a member of the teachers bargaining team, said that even having two fewer students in a classroom would make a huge difference.

“You really do get a lot more time with your students,” Crooks said. “And if you are thinking about kindergarten in particular, two less 5-year-olds really can help set the tone of the classroom.”

In district-run schools, classes are capped at 28 students in kindergarten through third grade, and at 31 students in fourth through sixth grade. But a survey by the advocacy group Parents 4 Teachers, which supports educators taking on inequality, found that during the 2017-2018 school year, 21 percent of K-8 classrooms had more students than district guidelines allowed. In 18 elementary school classrooms, there were 40 or more students.

The issue came up at last week’s Board of Education meeting, at which Ivette Hernandez, a parent of a first-grader at Virgil Grissom Elementary School in the city’s Hegewisch neighborhood, said her son’s classes have had more than 30 students in them. When the children are so young and active — and when they come into classrooms at so many different skill levels — “the teachers can’t handle 30 kids in one class,” she told the board.

Alderman Sue Garza, a former counselor, accompanied Hernandez. She also spoke before the board about classroom overcrowding — worrying aloud that, in some grades at one school in particular, the number of students exceeded the building’s fire codes. (Board chair Frank Clark said a district team would visit the school to ensure compliance fire safety policies.)

While the Chicago Teachers Union aren’t technically allowed to strike over class sizes, the union does have a history of pushing the envelope when it comes to bargaining.

Back in 2012, when the Chicago Teachers Union last went on strike, they ended up being able to secure the first limit on class sizes in 20 years because the district permitted the union to bargain over class size.

They also led a bargaining campaign that included discussion over racial disparities in Chicago education and school closures, arguing that these trends impacted the working conditions of teachers.

“Even if you can’t force an employer to bargain over an issue, you can push them to bargain over the impact of an issue,” Bob Bruno, a labor professor at the University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana, explained.

The Chicago Teachers Union also emerged from its 2012 negotiations with guarantees of additional “wraparound services,” such as access to onsite social workers and school counselors.

What's Your Education Story?

As the 2018 school year begins, join us for storytelling from Indianapolis educators

PHOTO: Dylan Peers McCoy/Chalkbeat
Sarah TeKolste, right, and Lori Jenkins at a Teacher Story Slam, in April.

In partnership with Teachers Lounge Indy, Chalkbeat is hosting another teacher story slam this fall featuring educators from across the city.

Over the past couple of years, Chalkbeat has brought readers personal stories from teachers and students through the events. Some of our favorites touched on how a teacher won the trust of her most skeptical student, why another teacher decided to come out to his students, and one educator’s call to ramp up the number of students pursuing a college education.

The event, 5:30 p.m. Thursday, Sept. 13, is free and open to the public — please RSVP here.

Event details:

5:30 p.m. to 7:30 p.m.
Thursday, Sept. 13, 2018
Tube Factory artspace
1125 Cruft St., Indianapolis, IN 46203
Get tickets here and find more on Facebook

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