Field test

How New York City principals are thinking about the opt-out movement

PHOTO: Stephanie Snyder

For the past year, leaders of the opt-out movement have campaigned to chip away at the role state tests play in New York’s education system. And, to a large degree, it’s a fight they’re winning.

But for some city principals, the boycott poses a set of less ideological questions: Could it affect their ability to get a full view of students’ abilities? Could they be sanctioned if they are suspected of pressing their thumb to the scale in conversations with parents? Could students without test scores struggle to get into competitive high schools?

In interviews with a handful of school leaders, principals offered a range of answers. Principals at schools with high opt-out rates seem largely unconcerned about the consequences, with a couple of notable exceptions. And for many others, the debate is simply a non-issue in their school community.

Mark Federman, echoing several other principals, says he wasn’t worried about high opt-out rates resulting in the loss of valuable data on students’ math and reading skills over time.

“We just view [the state tests] as a small bit of information,” said Federman, principal at Manhattan’s East Side Community School, where roughly 20 percent of students opted out last year. “If you go to the doctor and say, ‘I’m having headaches,’ they’re going to take my blood pressure, they might give me an MRI. Every little bit of information you can get about a kid helps.”

The tests “work really well for people outside of schools,” he said, referring to politicians and policymakers who often think the tests give them useful information. “But for educators, they don’t really give us what we need.”

Arguments that there could be severe consequences for schools that look the other way, or actually encourage the boycotts, also seem thin to principals at schools with high opt-out rates last year. A few of those principals said they didn’t get pushback from the education department.

Part of the reason is likely that the policy winds are shifting: The state math and reading assessments have been detached from teacher evaluations, and despite threats from the federal government to withhold funding from districts with high opt-out rates, many educators see those as empty. The state’s top education official has even signaled her support for the boycotts.

Still, some educators worry that even if there are no external consequences, opting out could hurt students in the high school admissions process.

Stacy Goldstein, who runs the School of the Future in Manhattan, says she is sympathetic to parents who want to opt out, but has encouraged some parents to reconsider, as it can be difficult to understand exactly how selective schools weigh test scores in the admissions process.

“I tell them to feel it out [and] do their due diligence,” she said. “I tell them to be kind of cynical about it.”

“If you’re the parent of a seventh grader and you’re worried about what high school you’re going to, that’s a legitimate issue,” echoed Brooklyn New School’s Anna Allanbrook, a vocal test critic who said the drawbacks of opting out are outweighed by the benefits. Her school had a 95 percent opt-out rate last year.

Goldstein isn’t predicting anything that high at her school. Even though virtually no students opted out at her school last year, she anticipates a jump to a roughly 10 percent opt-out rate.

For principals like Goldstein, the prospect of a big jump in opt-outs also creates new logistical hurdles. How should teachers handle time allocated for test prep so that students who boycott the tests don’t simply check out without consequence?

“I get worried that it splits the class,” Goldstein said, “and then the teacher has to negotiate the kids who are and kids who aren’t [opting out].” She plans to assign reading about the testing debate for the students who opt out and require they write an essay during the exam time.

But others aren’t addressing the issue at all, either to avoid wading into potential controversy or because their families simply aren’t talking about it. Even though a record-breaking 20 percent of students statewide boycotted the exams last year, fewer than 2 percent of students citywide sat out.

“It’s not something we are actually talking about,” said Jazmin Rivera Polanco, principal of Entrada Academy, a Bronx school that is part of Mayor Bill de Blasio’s “Renewal” program. Last year, her school reported virtually no opt-outs.

Polanco said she doesn’t believe that many of her students, a third of whom are English language learners, should have to take the tests at all because of their limited exposure to the language. Polanco is reluctant to discuss that with parents, even though many of them incorrectly believe their children could be held back if they refuse the tests.

“We don’t want to say something that would be seen as jumping the gun, or saying information that those in the DOE might not find that it’s our place to [say],” Polanco added.

Multiple principals interviewed for this story expressed uneasiness talking about how their schools were handling students who boycott. And the education department has cautioned teachers against expressing their opinions about the tests.

“Schools have spent so many years answering to those test scores,” said Julia Zuckerman, principal of the Castle Bridge School, where not a single student sat for the state tests last year. “To think that there’s another way of doing it is a tricky position to take.”

Goldstein at School of the Future put it much more bluntly.

Since she became a principal, “I feel much more strongly that these tests are problematic,” she said. “But I want to make sure that [the opt-out movement] is not feeding into a sense of entitlement or laziness.”

“I still want rigor,” she said. “I still want assessment.”

heads up

Tennessee will release TNReady test scores on Thursday. Here are five things to know.

PHOTO: Getty Images/Kali9

When Tennessee unveils its latest standardized test scores on Thursday, the results won’t count for much.

Technical problems marred the return to statewide online testing this spring, prompting the passage of several emergency state laws that rendered this year’s TNReady scores mostly inconsequential. As a result, poor results can’t be used to hold students, educators, or schools accountable — for instance, firing a teacher or taking over a struggling school through the state’s Achievement School District.

But good or bad, the scores still can be useful, say teachers like Josh Rutherford, whose 11th-grade students were among those who experienced frequent online testing interruptions in April.

“There are things we can learn from the data,” said Rutherford, who teaches English at Houston County High School. “I think it would be unprofessional to simply dismiss this year’s scores.”

Heading into this week’s data dump, here are five things to know:

1. This will be the biggest single-day release of state scores since the TNReady era began three years ago.

Anyone with internet access will be able to view state- and district-level scores for math, English, and science for grades 3-12. And more scores will come later. School-by-school data will be released publicly in a few weeks. In addition, Tennessee will unveil the results of its new social studies test this fall after setting the thresholds for what constitutes passing scores at each grade level.

2. Still, this year’s results are anticlimactic.

There are two major reasons. First, many educators and parents question the scores’ reliability due to days of online testing headaches. They also worry that high school students stopped trying after legislators stepped in to say the scores don’t necessarily have to count in final grades. Second, because the scores won’t carry their intended weight, the stakes are lower this year. For instance, teachers have the option of nullifying their evaluation scores. And the state also won’t give each school an A-F grade this fall as originally planned. TNReady scores were supposed to be incorporated into both of those accountability measures.

3. The state is looking into the reliability of the online test scores.

In addition to an internal review by the Education Department, the state commissioned an independent analysis by the Human Resources Research Organization. Researchers for the Virginia-based technical group studied the impact of Tennessee’s online interruptions by looking into testing irregularity reports filed in schools and by scrutinizing variances from year to year and school to school, among other things.

4. The reliability of paper-and-pencil test scores are not in question.

Only about half of Tennessee’s 600,000 students who took TNReady this year tested on computers. The other half — in grades 3-5 and many students in grades 6-8 — took the exams the old-fashioned way. Though there were some complaints related to paper testing too, state officials say they’re confident about those results. Even so, the Legislature made no distinction between the online and paper administrations of TNReady when they ordered that scores only count if they benefit students, teachers, and schools.

5. Ultimately, districts and school communities will decide how to use this year’s data.

Even within the same district, it wasn’t uncommon for one school to experience online problems and another to enjoy a much smoother testing experience. “Every district was impacted differently,” said Dale Lynch, executive director of the state superintendents organization. “It’s up to the local district to look at the data and make decisions based on those local experiences.”

District leaders have been reviewing the embargoed scores for several weeks, and they’ll share them with teachers in the days and weeks ahead. As for families, parents can ask to see their students’ individual score reports so they can learn from this year’s results, too. Districts distribute those reports in different ways, but they’re fair game beginning Thursday. You can learn more here.

Sharing Stories

Tell us your stories about children with special needs in Detroit

PHOTO: Patrick Wall

Parents of students with special needs face difficult challenges when trying to get services for their children. Understanding their children’s rights, getting them evaluated and properly diagnosed, and creating an educational plan are among the many issues families face.

Chalkbeat Detroit wants to hear more about those issues to help inform our coverage. We are kicking off a series of conversations called a “listening tour” to discuss your concerns, and our first meeting will focus on children with special needs and disabilities. We’re partnering with the Detroit Parent Network as they look for solutions and better ways to support parents.

Our listening tour, combined with similar events in other communities Chalkbeat serves, will continue throughout this year on a variety of topics. In these meetings, we’ll look to readers, parents, educators, and students to help us know what questions we should ask, and we’ll publish stories from people who feel comfortable having their stories told. We hope you’ll share your stories and explore solutions to the challenges parents face.

Our special education listening tour discussion will take place from 5:30-7:30 p.m., Tuesday July 24, at the Detroit Parent Network headquarters, 726 Lothrop St., Detroit.

As our series continues, we’ll meet at locations around the city to hear stories and experiences parents have while navigating the complexities of getting children the education and services they deserve.

Next week’s event includes a panel discussion with parents of children with special needs, responses from parent advocates, and an open discussion with audience members.

Those who are uncomfortable sharing stories publicly will have a chance to tell a personal story on an audio recorder in a private room, or will be interviewed by a Chalkbeat Detroit reporter privately.

The event is free and open to anyone who wants to attend, but reservations are required because space is limited. To register, complete this form, call 313-309-8100 or email frontdesk@detroitparentnetwork.org.

If you can’t make our event, but have a story to share, send an email to tips.detroit@chalkbeat.org, or call or send a text message to 313-404-0692.

Stayed tuned for more information about listening tour stops, topics and locations.