getting to graduation

It’s official: New York is making it easier for students with disabilities to graduate this year

PHOTO: Stephanie Snyder

New York students with disabilities can now graduate high school without passing most Regents exams. The dramatic move by New York’s education policymakers could increase demand for the state’s less-rigorous “local” diploma and reignite a debate about academic requirements for those students.

Under new rules approved Monday, students with disabilities will be able to earn a local diploma by passing the math and English Regents exams and proving to superintendents they have mastered course material in other subjects. Previously, those students had to pass another two or three exams with a lower score.

The changes, which will go into effect this month, are part of a broader effort by New York policymakers over the last two years to help more students reach graduation. Eliminating the need for some students to pass the exit exams is the most noteworthy departure from the state’s traditional requirements yet — and could have a big impact, given that nearly one in five New York City students has a disability. Almost half of graduates with disabilities already opted for the local diploma last year.

“We know that all students are capable of achieving this accomplishment,” State Commissioner MaryEllen Elia said Monday. “It’s on us to offer them multiple pathways to do so, pathways that are rigorous.”

State policymakers estimate that the new measure, which was adopted as an emergency regulation but faces a formal vote Tuesday, could help about 2,200 more students graduate this year. It’s also likely to add a dose of confusion into this round of Regents testing — which also starts Tuesday — and schools’ last-minute efforts to certify students for graduation.

Policymakers have been searching for new graduation pathways since 2012, when the state raised the passing Regents exam score to 65, instead of the previously required 55.

Students with disabilities have been at the center of this debate. Only 40 percent of the city’s students graduate high school in four years, and some educators and advocates have worried that students with disabilities were getting snared by the new standards.

But some observers are already worried that the changes, which apply only to students with Individualized Education Programs, could have a negative effect by reducing expectations for students with disabilities.

“This does not sound like a step in the right direction to me,” said Mark Anderson, a special education teacher at Jonas Bronck Academy in a comment on a previous story about the change. “What sort of expectations are we conveying for success in academics if we make it ‘easier’ for some?”

Regents acknowledged that the move might draw criticism for lowering standards, but said the benefits to students and families outweighed that concern.

Regents Chancellor Betty Rosa pointed out that students will still be required to take and pass Regents-level classes, and they will also have to attempt the exams. Keeping students in a rigorous classroom environment is “critical,” she said.

Under the new regulation, superintendents will review a student’s final course grade and also schoolwork completed throughout the year to judge whether he or she mastered the material.

New York has historically struggled to avoid tracking students into less rigorous diploma options. The state eliminated an IEP diploma, an earlier option for students with disabilities that was largely meaningless, since it was not accepted by colleges, the military, or employers as a high school credential.

The state also eliminated the option for most students without disabilities to earn a local diploma in recent years, focusing on getting more students to earn a Regents diploma that requires passing multiple exit exams with a score of 65.

The move away from local diplomas was important for ensuring all students get the best educational experience, said Regent Lester Young, who supported the changes on Monday. When that diploma was available, students of color were being disproportionately steered toward that less-rigorous option, he said.

“Whenever there have been local diploma options, the least of us get pushed in,” he said.

Others think the measure’s requirements are still too stringent for students with disabilities. Some took particular issue with the requirement that students would still have to pass the English Regents exam.

“As an ELA instructor of learning disabled high school students … I am outraged,” said John Connolly, a commenter on a previous story about the policy change. “Of all exams, how can the Regents believe that the Common Core ELA should remain?”

opening a path

College in high school: More Denver schools offer students affordable head start on a degree

PHOTO: Melanie Asmar
Denver students at a press conference to announce the designation of five more early college high schools.

Five more Denver high schools this year were designated as “early colleges,” bringing to seven the number of city schools at which students can stay additional years to take free college courses with the aim of earning significant credit, an associate’s degree or industry certificate.

“Many of our students are first-generation college students and this designation offers them resources to not only access college credit but to receive the support needed to ensure success,” Martin Luther King, Jr. Early College principal Kimberly Grayson said Wednesday.

Grayson spoke in the atrium of the far northeast Denver school beneath a striking black-and-white mural of its namesake and the words, “Your future starts today!” She said when she started as principal five years ago, the school offered three college courses, also referred to as concurrent enrollment courses. This year, she said, MLK will offer 20 college courses.

While the school previously participated in a state program called ASCENT that allows students who meet certain academic criteria to remain in their local school districts for a fifth year and use state per-pupil education funding to pay for college courses, Grayson said the early college designation allows MLK to offer that opportunity to all of its students.

“Our students know early on they have a path to college,” Grayson said.

Manual High School, High Tech Early College, the Denver School of Innovation and Sustainable Design, and West Early College were designated along with MLK by the Colorado State Board of Education as early college high schools this past spring. West Early College last year narrowly staved off a district recommendation to close the school for low performance.

Two other Denver high schools were previously designated as early colleges: CEC Early College, in 2015, and Southwest Early College, a charter school, in 2009.

Early colleges are part of an effort in Colorado and nationwide to make postsecondary education more accessible and affordable, especially for historically underserved students. They were created by state lawmakers and are defined as high schools that offer a curriculum designed so students graduate with an associate’s degree or 60 college credits.

Students also can earn industry certificates in fields such as graphic design or accounting.

Many high schools offer free concurrent enrollment classes, but giving all students the opportunity to stay until they earn 60 credits or an associate’s degree is what sets early colleges apart. According to Misti Ruthven, the Colorado Department of Education executive director of student pathways, students can stay enrolled in early college high schools until they’re 21.

The Colorado Department of Education website lists a total of 20 early colleges statewide, including the seven in Denver Public Schools, the state’s largest school district.

Alondra Gil-Gonzalez is a sophomore at CEC Early College. She said she was nervous when she took her first college class, a computer keyboarding course, as a freshman. But Gil-Gonzalez, who wants to be a surgeon or a lawyer, said she got over her apprehension.

“You just have to apply yourself,” she said.

Keilo “Kenny” Xayavong is taking his first college class, in math, this year as a sophomore at High Tech Early College. A fan of criminal justice shows, Xayavong also hopes to practice law.

“I am interested in college courses because it’ll help me prepare for college when I transfer and understand what professors will expect of me,” said Xayavong, who added that so far, his class is “pretty easy.” “My parents won’t have to pay so much money for me to go to college, as well.”

funding dance

City plans to slash funding from Young Adult Borough Centers — a last resort option for students

PHOTO: Patrick Wall
Boys and Girls High School has a Young Adult Borough Center in the building.

Evening programs that offer students who struggled in high school another chance to graduate may soon face steep funding cuts from the city’s education department.

Education officials plan to reduce funding directed to the city’s 23 Young Adult Borough Centers by an average of $254,000 each, and will shift the money to transfer schools, which also help students who have fallen behind in traditional schools.

The funding in question is used to hire counselors who help keep students engaged in school, offering career and academic support, and to pay students to complete internships. City officials are planning to shift funding so that more transfer schools — serving more students — can get those benefits.

But the move could leave schools that serve some of the city’s most vulnerable students with fewer resources to get them to graduation, some observers said, all while Mayor Bill de Blasio has vowed to increase the city’s graduation rate to 80 percent. Several agencies that provide those services in schools argue the funding shift will have dire consequences for YABCs.

The cuts will be “devastating [and] would fundamentally change the program,” said Michelle Yanche, director of government and external relations at Good Shepherd Services, a nonprofit organization that helps run the program in a dozen YABCs. “It shouldn’t be taken from Peter to pay Paul.”

Young Adult Borough Centers, which serve about 4,800 students citywide, are night programs rather than standalone schools. Transfer schools, meanwhile, are actual schools that run classes during the day, serving about 13,000 students. In both, students who have fallen behind in high school work toward high school diplomas.

The funding stream the city plans to shift from YABCs to transfer schools is dedicated to a program called Learning to Work. Education officials are actually increasing the amount of money on that program by $3.7 million. But because the city is planning to expand it to 18 more transfer schools, the average transfer school will see about a $7,000 bump, while YABCs each lose roughly $250,000.

City officials said the exact changes in funding will depend on student enrollment and need, and stressed that the funding changes are estimates. Overall, the changes are a positive, they said, since they provide more funding and will reach more students.

“Expanding Learning to Work to all eligible transfer schools is what’s best for students and families, and will support approximately 5,000 more high-needs students on their path to college and careers,” said education department spokesman Will Mantell.

Helene Spadaccini, principal of a transfer school in the South Bronx, said her school has used the program to place students in internships in fields like retail and construction.

“It’s been extremely powerful in working with our students, which is why I’m really glad it’s spreading,” Spadaccini said.

But the shift will mean YABCs lose about a third of their current funding, and will result in staffing reductions. The staff-to-student ratio at YABCs is expected to balloon from one staff member per 34 students to one per 55, according to a Department of Education document obtained by Chalkbeat.

The change in staffing levels could have a major effect on the program’s quality, multiple providers said. “What makes the difference for our students is if they have individual adults who are like clams holding on to them, who know if they are going to school every day, and reach out if they don’t,” Good Shepherd’s Yanche said. “That relationship is the most pivotal factor.”

Sheila Powell, who has two children who graduated with the help of YABCs, has seen that firsthand. In the YABCs, unlike in larger high schools, teachers ensured her children didn’t slip through the cracks, Powell said. They also called her multiple times each week to check in.

“They loved my daughter, they loved my son,” Powell said. “They were really concerned, genuinely concerned, about my kids and they didn’t give up on them.”

Several providers and advocates said they supported the expansion of Learning to Work into more transfer schools — just not at the expense of other programs that serve the city’s most vulnerable students.

“New York City continues to see increased graduation rates, and the range of programs [for over-age and under-credited students] are a big reason why,” said Lazar Treschan, director of youth policy at the Community Service Society. “Moving any funding out of YABCs seems very short-sighted.”