one day more

It’s crunch time in Albany. What will happen to mayoral control?

PHOTO: Michael Appleton/Mayoral Photography Office

With one full day left in the legislative session, New York’s education issues boil down to this: What will happen to mayoral control?

Each of the past two years, Mayor Bill de Blasio has received a one-year extension, both times setting up another round of political haggling. Now, with control of New York City schools expiring at the end of June, lawmakers must decide if they will grant another extension, how long it will last, and whether it will come with strings attached.

“There’s only three days left,” Mayor Bill de Blasio said at a press conference on Monday. “Our children’s futures hang in the balance.”

Mayoral control of New York City schools has many backers and there is little support for the alternative. De Blasio asked for a multi-year extension, Governor Andrew Cuomo suggested a three-year extension, the Assembly has already passed a two-year extension. Even opponents of the mayor do not suggest returning to a system of 32 different community school boards, which most agree led to dysfunction.

“If they don’t [renew mayoral control], the entire system will slide back into the old, decentralized structure we had before,” wrote Chancellor Carmen Fariña in Chalkbeat. “That would mean chaos, gridlock and corruption.”

Yet, as recently as Friday, Governor Andrew Cuomo said mayoral control “does not have the support to pass.” That’s largely because Senate Republicans, who have long had a frosty relationship with de Blasio, stand in the way.

Senate Majority Leader John Flanagan has made it clear he wants to tie mayoral control to expanding school choice, including upping the number of charter schools that can open in New York City.

“Denying charters the ability to grow and preventing parents’ ability to choose would shut the door on 20 years of proven gains in academic achievement,” Flanagan said in a statement. “We can not allow that to happen, and will not grant a long-term extension of mayoral control without first ensuring that all students have opportunities.”

The Senate has passed three different options for extending mayoral control, linking control of New York City schools to charter school growth. The longest extension, a five-year deal, would enact a controversial education tax credit, which is strongly opposed by Assembly Democrats. (Assembly Speaker Carl Heastie called the trio of bills a “non-starter.”)

Both parties’ hard stance has left some wondering if lawmakers will not reach a deal by Wednesday, when the session ends.

“I’m personally somewhat pessimistic just given the rhetoric,” said Bob Lowry, deputy director of the New York State Council of School Superintendents.

There is precedent for letting mayoral control expire. It happened to former Mayor Michael Bloomberg in 2009, which resulted in a brief resurrection of the New York City Board of Education in July of that year. The ordeal ended in early August, when lawmakers approved a six-year extension of mayoral control.

So far, de Blasio has avoided letting mayoral control lapse entirely. But each time he has gained a year extension, the “big ugly” deal has brought concessions for charter schools.

In 2015, along with mayoral control, state officials increased the number of additional charter schools that could open in New York City from 25 to 50 and removed the specific number of charters assigned to each of the state’s authorizers. Last year, the deal made it easier for charter schools to switch authorizers.

Both measures helped schools authorized by the New York City Department of Education switch to SUNY or the state’s Board of Regents. Many prefer those authorizers because the city’s education department cannot authorize any new schools — a problem for charter school networks interested in growing.

This year, there has been talk of lifting New York City’s charter school cap. Currently there is a limit on the number of charter schools that can open statewide, and a smaller limit for New York City. Cuomo proposed ending the city’s cap in January, but the proposal did not make it into the final budget deal.

As of June 2017, state law allows for 23 more charter schools to open in New York City, according to the New York City Charter School Center. That means the city is getting close to the cap, but also that the issue could be pushed to next year.

State officials could also tie mayoral control to a requirement for additional oversight of the city’s schools. Last year, lawmakers threatened to appoint an “education inspector,” which did not come to pass. The final deal contained a requirement to release more detailed budget information. (Already this year, Flanagan blasted the mayor for providing school budget information that he believes “does not satisfy the law.”)

Trading mayoral control for more oversight has historical precedent, too. In 2009, when lawmakers ended their stalemate by giving Bloomberg a six-year renewal of mayoral control, they tied the extension to greater oversight from the city’s Independent Budget Office.

Though history suggests extending mayoral control invites concessions, many advocates are hoping the policy is renewed without gamesmanship.

“Extending mayoral control in New York City must be completed before lawmakers leave Albany,” Timothy Kremer, the head of New York State School Boards Association, said in a statement. “The education of children and the leadership of the school system should not be fodder for end-of-session horse-trading.”

Building Better Schools

How a new principal led her neighborhood school to the biggest ISTEP gains in Indianapolis Public Schools

PHOTO: Dylan Peers McCoy
School 39 had the largest jump in passing rates on the state math and English tests in the district.

Breakfast at School 39 was a little bit hectic on a recent Wednesday, as staff urged kids to eat their bananas, yogurts and cereal.

But principal Stacy Coleman was calm as she stood among the tables of kindergartners and first graders. “Big bites now,” she said, as the bell approached.

Coleman is in her second year as principal of School 39, also known as William McKinley, a traditional neighborhood school on the edge of Fountain Square. In Coleman’s first year of leadership, the school achieved an unusual feat: Passing rate on both the math and English ISTEP climbed to 28 percent in 2017, up 9.7 percentage points over the prior year — the biggest jump of any school in Indianapolis Public Schools.

That progress caught the eye of Superintendent Lewis Ferebee, who highlighted McKinley as a school the district could learn from.

“We hired a great new leader,” said Ferebee. “She’s really focused on the culture of the school and using data to inform instruction.”

A Michigan native, Coleman has been an educator for seven years. She joined IPS three years ago as assistant principal at School 31, also known as James A. Garfield, a neighborhood school two miles from the campus she now leads.

Chalkbeat sat down with Coleman to talk about School 39 and the school’s remarkable jump in passing rates. Below is an excerpt from our conversation, edited for clarity and brevity.

What’s your school community like here?

We are a working-class neighborhood. Our families are working class — very supportive parents. Teachers call, they answer. They are up here. They care about their child’s well-being.

The neighborhood around us is changing. Gentrification is occurring, and it’s moving fast. However, we have not seen a change in our population of students yet.

We canvas the neighborhood quite often, me and my parent involvement educator. A lot of people we’ve talked to don’t have kids, and if they do have kids, they are not school-age yet.

You guys had this big bump in your test scores — the biggest in the district. What did you think when you saw that?

I felt so filled with emotion because I saw all the hard work that my teachers were doing, and I saw what we were doing with the kids. It just was nice to see the gains from the hard work.

You’re seeing the flowers that you’ve planted.

What do you think led to this big jump in test scores?

We really focused on making this a positive and safe environment for our students — and our staff. Changing staff morale, changing student morale and motivation.

We focused on empowering our teachers and putting that ownership on them.

What did you do to empower your teachers?

Allowing for professional learning community meetings to be teacher directed. It’s not like a staff meeting. It’s teachers talking and collaborating with each other, being transparent in our teaching practices, opening the doors of our classroom for other teachers to come in.

We did instructional rounds. Teachers went into other classrooms and observed a problem of practice and debriefed about those and put specific strategies into their classrooms.

As a teacher, I found a lot of power in those professional learning community meetings because that was when you got to delve into the numbers. You delve into the data and really understand how your students are doing.

Was there anything you feel like you stole from the last school you were at where you were assistant principal?

We do a lot of positive behavior interventions and supports here at William McKinley. We did a lot of them at James A. Garfield. We amped them up, last year and again this year.

Like, this year, we have Coleman cash. Every day a student is nominated by their teacher, and they get to go to the front of the lunch line. They get to sit at a special table in the cafeteria with a tablecloth and a centerpiece. They also get to invite a friend. They get to talk when everybody else is silent. All those good things.

On Friday, for staff, we are going to be superheroes. Then we take a picture, and classes are going to vote on them.

The students get to see us enjoying ourselves, and it’s a little bit of a fun Friday.

We’re just making it a great place to work and a great place to learn for our students.

Educator diversity

Aurora Public Schools’ principals more racially diverse this year, but district still lagging behind

File photo of kindergarten students at Laredo Elementary in Aurora.

In the most diverse city in Colorado, school district officials have struggled to hire and retain principals of color.

The issue isn’t unique to Aurora Public Schools. But one change made three years ago to how Aurora hires principals is now slowly increasing diversity among school leaders, officials say.

The revamped hiring process wasn’t aimed at increasing diversity, but rather at increasing quality and minimizing biased or preferential hiring decisions, officials say.

“Systems that are more likely to have bias are less likely to have diversity,” said John Youngquist, Aurora’s chief academic officer. “Systems that are engaging these kinds of processes that allow people to demonstrate behaviors they’ve practiced over time, are ones that allow those high quality candidates to get to the top. I know is this is a practice that increases the level of diversity.”

This fall, 10 percent of Aurora principals are black, and 14 percent are Hispanic, up from 9 percent that were black and 7 percent that were Hispanic last year.

It’s an improvement, but the numbers still represent a gap with the diversity in the district and in the city. Eighteen percent of Aurora Public Schools students are black and more than 50 percent are Hispanic. The city of Aurora has similar demographics, according to the most recent U.S. Census estimates.

State data tracking both principals and assistant principals by race showed the Aurora district had lower percentages of school leaders who were black or Hispanic in 2016 than in 2013. Numbers for the current school year are not yet available.

This year, the numbers of teachers who are not white are smaller and farther from representing the student or community demographics than they are for principals.

Research has shown that students of color benefit from having teachers of color. Having diverse and highly qualified principals helps leaders in turn attract and hire high quality and diverse teachers, Youngquist said.

Aurora superintendent Rico Munn said that increasing diversity is a priority but said he isn’t sure how many educators of color Aurora schools should aspire to have.

“For our workforce to mirror the community, I don’t know that there’s enough educators in the state,” Munn said.

Elizabeth Meyer, associate professor of education and associate dean for undergraduate and teacher education at CU Boulder, said all districts should be striving to see an upward trend in the numbers, not necessarily trying to reach a certain percentage as a goal.

She said that issues in diversifying teachers and principal pools are similar, but that teachers of color who are supported can be the ones who can then go on and become principals.

“We’re already limited because teaching demographics are overwhelmingly white women,” Meyer said. “We do need to find ways to make teaching a more desirable profession, especially for people of color.”

Meyer said that while there are nationwide and statewide issues to be addressed, districts need to incentivize teachers by paying higher wages, create environments that are inclusive for teachers already in the district and have visible leaders of color.

“It’s not enough to just want to recruit people in,” Meyer said. “Retention is the other part of the problem.”

When Youngquist’s office led the change in how the Aurora district hires principals, the focus was to increase the quality of school leaders and remove bias that could allow a person to be invited into the process “just with a tap on the shoulder,” he said.

The new process requires a team of district leaders and other principals to observe candidates as they are asked to model practices through scenarios and demonstrations of situations they’re likely to confront as principals.

Yolanda Greer, principal of Aurora’s Vista Peak Exploratory was one of the first to go through that new hiring process three years ago.

Yolanda Greer, principal of Vista Peak Exploratory in Aurora.

“I will tell you at the end of it I certainly felt like I had been through a triathalon of some sorts,” Greer said. “But I do recall saying at every point, ‘I’m so impressed. I’m so appreciative that APS is taking the thoughtfulness that went behind creating this process to make sure we have leaders that are prepared.’ It made me want to be here even more.”

Speaking at a community meeting last month, Munn said the neighboring districts of Denver and Cherry Creek can offer more money, so Aurora must focus on other appeals to hire and retain diverse educators.

“We have to think about what’s the right atmosphere or what’s the right way that we can recruit or retain people in a way that makes them want to be part of what we’re doing here in APS,” Munn said. “Our ultimate winning advantage there is that we have a strong connection to the community. We also demonstrate to potential staff members that we are a district that has momentum. We are a district where there is opportunity. We are a district that can truly impact the community that we serve.”

Greer said she felt that draw to Aurora long before she applied for the principal position.

“I think because there was a public perception that Aurora was an underdog,” Greer said. “It’s a great opportunity to not only impact the school but the district and community.”

Though Aurora district officials are happy with how the principal process is playing out, they started working with a Virginia-based consultant last year to look at all hiring practices in the district. Munn said part of that work will include looking at whether the district is doing enough to increase diversity.

Like most school districts, Aurora has sent officials to recruit new educators from Historically Black Colleges and Hispanic Serving Institutions.

One thing that Greer said is in a district’s control is allowing a culture where issues of inequity can be discussed. In Aurora, she said she feels comfortable raising issues of student equity if she sees them.

For her, seeing other people of color in leadership positions in the district, including the superintendent, also made her feel welcome.

“In Aurora when I walk into leadership meetings, there’s a lot of people that look like me, so there’s that connectivity,” Greer said. “There’s open conversations and people listen.”

Earlier this year, Greer was reminded of the impact that leaders of color can have when her elementary students were asked to dress up for the job they hoped to have when they grew up.

Several of the students came to school dressed as their principal, Greer said.

“I want to make sure students of color can see someone that looks like them,” she said. “When they can see me in the specific role in education and they can say, ‘Wow, that can be something admirable and I want to aspire to that,’ it’s a big deal.”