School climate

Becoming aware: Nashville schools bring mindfulness into the classroom

Students at USN prepare for a mindfulness practice.

Shortly before 8 a.m. on a Friday morning, the sixth graders in Katie Reen’s English class at the University School of Nashville (USN) were chatting at their desks, animatedly discussing the school talent show scheduled for that afternoon.

But when Reen struck a handheld chime, the students fell silent and closed their eyes. Almost no one moved as Reen instructed them to think about what they wanted to accomplish during the day, and about the “jiggles and wiggles” they might feel about the impending show.

The students were participating in mindfulness, a practice of taking time to be aware of one’s thoughts and emotions. Mindfulness has taken hold in the corporate world and beyond as a technique to overcome personal and professional stressors and cope with digital distractions, but educators at a growing number of schools have found that it helps children thrive as well.

USN 6th grader during a mindfulness practice.
PHOTO: J. Zubrzycki
USN 6th grader during a mindfulness practice.

At USN, mindfulness is part of the program: Teachers incorporate different form of mindfulness practice in their classrooms throughout the day and year. The school’s between-class bell even sounds like a handheld chime.

USN teachers and students say mindfulness has helped students cope with academic pressures during tests and quizzes, and manage emotions about at-home pressures, such as divorce. Several studies have shown that it decreases behavioral problems and raises student achievement on standardized tests. Proponents say it makes it easier for students to learn and teachers to teach.

Becoming Aware: A Nashville State of Mind

Both public and private educators in Nashville have been focusing on “social and emotional learning,” based on the belief that students need skills to help manage emotions and relationships in addition to the academic skills they learn in class.

USN was the first school in the Southeast to work with Mindful Schools, a California-based non-profit that offers mindfulness training to teachers, focused especially on urban schools. And Metro Nashville Public Schools is the only urban school district in Tennessee to have a director of social and emotional learning. In 2012, the district was one of eight nationwide to receive a $250,000 grant to expand social and emotional learning from the NoVo Foundation and the Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning (CASEL).

Organizations like Mindfulness in Nashville Education and Alignment Nashville bring together area teachers from private and public schools together to exchange resources and ideas about how to improve students’ social and emotional learning.

Mindfulness might conjure up language like “emptying the mind,” but an important component of mindfulness is that the “clutter” doesn’t disappear.

“It’s not about clearing your mind; it’s just about becoming aware,” said Mary Agee, the University School’s mindfulness coordinator.

University School guidance counselor Helen Tarleton illustrates mindfulness by shaking a snow globe. “When you shake the snow globe, it’s really hard to see what’s going on in the present moment clearly,” she said.

“What mindfulness does is, your mind is cluttered like [a shaken snow globe], and you stop and pause, and take time to really focus. All that clutter kind of then settles, so you can see clearly what’s right in front of you.”

Journey to mindfulness

The middle school at University School Nashville began its journey to mindfulness about eight years ago. USN has about 300 students in grades five through eight.

Tarleton said she was frustrated that tactics like anger management groups, self-esteem groups, or support groups for children experiencing grief didn’t seem to be effective for her students, who often didn’t want to discuss family issues at school.

USN students during mindfulness practice.
PHOTO: J. Zubrzycki
USN students during mindfulness practice.

Plus, she added, those approaches don’t reach all students. Students without behavioral problems or difficulties at home also have social and emotional needs, but the school’s rigorous schedule didn’t allow time for a wellness class where she could instruct students in stress reduction.

“We needed something the teachers could do,” Tarleton said.

Tarleton learned about mindfulness at a counselors conference in Washington, D.C. in 2006 and recommended that a faculty member attend a conference held by the non-profit Mindful Schools in 2009. Tarleton and Mary Agee, then a photography teacher, flew to Oakland, California to attend.

Agee came back to Nashville convinced that Mindful Schools could be the key for social and emotional learning for the school’s middle graders. Middle school principal Jeff Greenfield also had conversations with the organization and observed mindfulness in an Oakland public school. He agreed.

Sharing the lessons

Greenfield asked trainers from Mindful Schools to come to Nashville and train all of his middle school teachers in the fall of 2010. The non-profit, which also offers online trainings, said they would — but only on the condition that USN partner with a local public school and help foster mindfulness there. Agee and Tarleton connected with Lynn Driver, an art teacher at Rose Park Magnet Middle School who was involved in Mindfulness in Nashville Education.

USN and Rose Park are, in some ways, very different schools: For instance, at USN, middle school tuition is more than $20,000 a year. At Rose Park, about 64 percent students meet the requirements for free or reduced lunch.

At USN, Greenfield asked teachers all to start off their days with mindfulness practice for at least the first six weeks of school. Rose Park’s Driver did not have the formal support of the principal or training. Instead, Tarleton and Agee visited her classroom and gave her feedback, informed by what they had learned in Mindful Schools training.

But, Tarleton and Agee say, despite the differences in school culture and student body, mindfulness has worked in both schools. They say that any teacher interested in the practice can incorporate it into the classroom.

Tarleton said she would advise other interested teachers to find resources in their own community.

“It’s developing so much now, especially in Nashville, that it’s not hard to do,” Tarleton said.

Agee is now the school’s mindfulness coordinator. She prepares materials to help guide teachers and students through mindfulness exercises. She hopes to eventually make the resources, like CDs and cards printed with different exercises, available to teachers at other schools.

Student Response

According to last year’s annual student life survey, 56 percent of fifth graders at UNS reported that they use mindfulness in stressful situations, and 58 percent reported they use it to focus and concentrate.

“It just helps you kind of not think about the test and whatever you’re doing, and it gets your mind off of it, and you can focus a lot more and you’re not like, ‘Oh my gosh, it’s a test,’” said Alexander Haynes, a fifth grader.

Older middle school students are often less openly enthusiastic about mindfulness, Agee said. Only 41 percent of sixth graders at UNS reported using mindfulness in stressful situations, and 37 percent reported using it for focus and concentration.

But a sixth grader in Reen’s class was quick to volunteer how mindfulness was helpful when it came to schoolwork. If you don’t try to settle the clutter in your mind before studying, “you’re going to be thinking about chicken nuggets or something,” the sixth grader said.

And despite apparent waning enthusiasm in the older grades of the middle school, several students have told Agee they rediscovered and regularly employ mindfulness in high school, even though teachers don’t allot classroom time for it.

USN has held several workshops for parents from USN and the wider community that have been at capacity; Agee estimates 100 parents have now gone through the trainings.

Teacher buy-in

Just as important to the success of mindfulness as student support is teacher buy-in, Tarleton said. “Imagine doing what Katie [Reen] did and standing in front of the class if you really don’t believe it. It’s not going to work,” she said.

In the years since USN formally incorporated mindfulness in its middle school, teacher enthusiasm has only grown. Bakari King, the middle school drama teacher, said he’s embraced it from the beginning.  “Sometimes children, and I’m including myself even though I’m 34 years old, we need a reminder to slow down,” King said.

Mindfulness helped his students stay focused during daylong rehearsals before the school musical in August and reduces pre-stage jitters, he said  But he doesn’t always tell the students that they’re exercising mindfulness when he leads them through exercises to help them be, as he puts it, “alive, alert, and aware,” lest they become wary of the term.

“These are vegetables. But, if you say it’s V8 Fruit splash, they might take it,” King said.

Updated: The description of how USN staff decided to use Mindful Schools was edited for accuracy.

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School choice

Denver judge blocks school transportation provision added to Colorado law

PHOTO: Denver Post file
Sam Boswell, 7, all bundled up in his winter clothes, splashes his way to the school bus on May 12, 2010.

A Denver judge struck down a provision of a bill related to the education of youth in foster care that would have removed barriers to transportation for all students.

The transportation provision was an amendment added by Republican lawmakers late in the 2018 session. Soon after the bill was signed by Gov. John Hickenlooper, several Colorado school districts and the associations that represent them filed a lawsuit to block it.

In a ruling issued Friday, Denver District Court Judge David Goldberg found that the amendment violated rules in the Colorado constitution that require every bill to have a clear title that explains what the bill is about and to deal only with one subject.

The bill’s title was “Improving Educational Stability for Foster Youth,” and it seeks to improve graduation rates for foster youth by requiring child welfare officials and school districts to work out transportation to the student’s home district when that’s in the child’s best interest. It also creates flexibility around graduation requirements when students do change schools. Foster youth have the lowest four-year graduation rates in the state, much lower even than homeless youth and students whose parents are migrant workers.

The tacked-on language was added in the Republican-controlled State Affairs committee five days before the end of the session. It said that a school board “may furnish transportation” to students who are enrolled in the district but who live in another district. The provision applies to all students, not just those who are in the foster system. It also struck language from an existing law that requires the consent of the school district from which students are being bused.

The amendment language came straight from a separate bill about expanding school choice that had been killed by Democrats in the House the day before.

Many school districts opposed the transportation provision because they feared it would open the door for better-off districts to poach students and undermine the meaning of school district boundaries. Advocates for school choice argued the provision was good policy that would allow more students, especially those from low-income families, take advantage of opportunities. They also argued, apparently unconvincingly, that it was required for implementation of the foster youth portions of the bill.

The Donnell-Kay Foundation intervened in the case in defense of the law. (The Donnell-Kay Foundation is a funder of Chalkbeat. You can read our ethics policy here.)

In his ruling, Goldberg said this specific issue has never been litigated in Colorado before, and he relied in part on rulings from other states with similar requirements. Bills with broad titles, he wrote, can be construed broadly and encompass a range of issues as long as they have some connection to the title. But bills with narrow titles must be construed narrowly — and this amendment didn’t make the cut.

“The subject of House Bill 18-1306 is out-of-home placed students and efforts to ensure educational stability,” Goldberg wrote, while the amendment’s subject “is all students, with no qualifiers, conditions, restrictions, or reference to out-of-home placed students. … House Bill 18-1306 seriously modifies transportation for all students and is hidden under a title relating exclusively to out-of-home placed students.”

Goldberg ruled that the amendment is “disconnected” from the rest of the bill, and neither lawmakers nor the public had enough notice about its inclusion before passage.

That leaves the rest of the foster youth bill intact and advocates for expanded school choice facing an uphill battle in a legislature in which Democrats, who are more likely to give priority to school district concerns, now control both chambers.

This isn’t an abstract issue. In 2015, more than 150 students who lived in the Pueblo 60 district but attended school in higher-performing Pueblo 70 lost access to transportation when the city-based district ordered its neighbor to stop running bus routes through its territory.

Online Shopping

Jeffco launches universal enrollment site to make school choice easy

PHOTO: Yesenia Robles, Chalkbeat
Students in a social studies class at Bear Creek High School in Jeffco Public Schools read about Genghis Khan.

Starting Monday, parents in Colorado’s second-largest district will be able to shop online for schools and, once enrollment opens in January, apply to as many as they like.

The launch of Enroll Jeffco, following the path paved by Denver Public Schools, means some 86,000 students and their parents won’t have to go to individual schools during the work day and fill out paper forms if they want to apply somewhere other than their neighborhood school.

The online system cost about $600,000 to develop and operate for this school year. The district expects it to cost about half of that annually going forward.

Universal enrollment systems allow parents to compare and apply to traditional district-run schools, district schools with specialized programming or models, known in Jeffco as options schools, and charter schools with a single application on the same website. Universal enrollment systems are a key component of what some call the “portfolio model,” in which districts oversee a range of school types and parents vote with their feet. They’ve been controversial in places, especially when coupled with aggressive school accountability policies that lead to school closures.

In Jeffco Public Schools, which is more affluent than many Denver metro area districts, officials see the move to a single, online enrollment system as a valuable service for parents.

“Regardless of how people feel about it, we operate in a competitive school choice environment, both inside the district and outside the district,” Superintendent Jason Glass said. “That compels us to make thinking about that transaction, making people aware of the options and enrolling in our schools, as frictionless and easy as possible.”

Colorado law requires schools in any district to admit any student for whom they have room and for whom the district can provide adequate services, after giving priority to students who live in the district. But many districts still require paper applications at individual schools, and schools in the same district might not have the same deadlines. A recent report by the conservative education advocacy group Ready Colorado found that parents who use school choice are more likely to be white, middle- or upper-class, and English-speaking than the state’s student population. The authors argue that districts should streamline the enrollment process and consider providing transportation to make choice more accessible.

Jeffco isn’t rolling out new transportation options yet, but it might use data from the enrollment process, including a parent survey that is built into the website, to see if that’s desired or feasible. And officials believe strongly that the new online enrollment system will open up more opportunities for low-income parents and those who don’t speak English.

The website will provide information in the district’s six most commonly spoken languages and should be optimized for use on mobile phones. All parents will be required to use the system to express their preferences, including the majority of parents who want to stay in their neighborhood school, and the district is planning significant outreach and in-person technical assistance.

We believe that if all parents are participating, it improves equity,” Glass said. “One of the things we struggle with is that upwardly mobile and affluent parents tend to be the ones who take advantage of school choice. We want all of our schools to be available to all of our families. We think being able to search through and make the enrollment process as easy as possible is an equity issue.”

But critics of universal enrollment systems worry that the ease of application will encourage parents to give up on neighborhood schools rather than invest in them.

Rhiannon Wenning, a teacher at Jefferson Junior-Senior High School, said the link between charter schools and open enrollment systems makes her distrustful, even as many of her students are using the choice process to stay at the school after rising home prices pushed them into other parts of the metro area.

“I understand parents want what is best for their child, but part of that as a citizen and a community member is to make your neighborhood school the school that you want it to be,” she said, calling the universal enrollment system an attack on public schools.

Joel Newton of the Edgewater Collective, which provides community support for lower-income schools in the eastern part of the district, said Enroll Jeffco will give the district much better data on which to base decisions, but he worries that Title I schools, which serve large numbers of students from low-income families, won’t be able to compete.

“With an online system like this, it really needs to be a level playing field,” he said. “And in my area, I’d much rather have resources going to curriculum and instructional aides to catch kids up than going into marketing support. But other areas can do that and they have these big, well-funded PTAs.”

Until now, parents have had to seek out information on each school’s website. The online portal starts by asking parents to enter their address and the grade in which they’re enrolling a student. It then displays the parents’ neighborhood school, with an option to explore alternatives. Each school page has extensive information, including a short narrative, descriptions of special programs like math, arts, or expeditionary learning, the school mascot, and the racial and economic breakdown of the student population. The intent, district spokesperson Diana Wilson said, is to let schools “tell their own story.”

Parents can select as many schools as they want when enrollment opens Jan. 22, and they’ll learn in mid- to late February where they got in. However, they have to commit within five days to one school, ending a practice by which parents in the know kept their options open through the summer months. District officials say this will help them plan and budget better.

Kristen Harkness, assistant director for special education in Jeffco, served on the steering committee that developed the system, and she’s also a parent in the district. Even as a district employee who thought she knew the process inside and out, she managed to miss a deadline for her son to be considered at another middle school.

She said that choosing between schools isn’t a matter of which schools are better but which are a better fit for a particular student. In her case, her son could have stayed at a K-8 or transferred to a combined middle and high school, with each option presenting a different kind of middle school experience. He’s happy at the K-8 where he stayed, she said, but parents and students should have the chance to make those decisions.

The new universal enrollment system is poised to give more families that chance. In the course of the rollout, though, there may be a few glitches.

“We’re doing all we can to look into the future and foresee any technical problems and design solutions to that proactively,” Glass said. “That said, this is our first time, and we ask for people’s patience.”