wish list

Memphis school leaders present wish list to lawmakers over turf issues with state-run district

Achievement School District Superintendent Malika Anderson and Shelby County Schools Superintendent Dorsey Hopson have led their districts through a maze of school choice issues in Memphis.

Leaders for Shelby County Schools have asked state lawmakers to put more controls over the Achievement School District as the two districts seek to co-exist in Memphis for a fifth year.

Shelby County Schools continues to reel from the steady growth of the state-run district, which has taken control of 24 Memphis schools since 2012 and continues to siphon off students and funding.

Superintendent Dorsey Hopson and Chief of Innovation Brad Leon laid out their requests for policy changes to state lawmakers this week in Nashville. They said the changes would help improve the relationship between the two districts, both of which are seeking to turn the trajectory on low-performing schools, but using different turnaround models.

“We’re not here to bash the ASD,” Hopson told lawmakers as ASD Superintendent Malika Anderson sat quietly nearby. “There are just some challenges with the process that have an impact on us.”

Since the legislature created the state-run district in 2010 to shake up chronically low-performing schools, the education landscape has shifted significantly in Memphis, where most of those schools existed. By 2017, 10 percent of public school students zoned for Shelby County Schools will attend ASD schools, up from 5.6 percent in 2015.

While local districts in Tennessee answer to school boards, the ASD has no public board and answers to the state legislature. Rep. Mark White, a Republican from Memphis and chairman of an education subcommittee, said lawmakers are interested in learning more before the next legislative session starts in January.

ASD officials said that they look forward to those discussions.

“We are constrained by law in some areas like our mandate to look at annual growth of eligible schools on a yearly basis,” said Margo Roen, chief of new schools and accountability. “However, we will remain committed to these discussions and the type of collaboration that produces results that are in the best interest of children.”

Here’s what leaders of Shelby County Schools are asking for:

Give Shelby County Schools more time to plan for potential school takeovers.

Brad Leon, Shelby County Schools Chief of Strategy & Innovation.
PHOTO: SCS
Brad Leon, Shelby County Schools

Local leaders say the ASD should be required to announce schools under consideration for takeover within six months of running the priority list, which comes out every three years and identifies schools in Tennessee’s bottom 5 percent that are eligible for ASD takeover.  Currently, the ASD selects schools to take over annually. The next list is due out in 2017. Leon said a more contained notice period would help Shelby County Schools avoid disruption to academic programming, as well as help the local district to know how many schools and students to budget for.

The ASD should take over the lowest-performing schools first. Start at the bottom and work up the list, suggests Leon. Currently, the ASD can pick any school that makes the priority list, no matter what the order. Shifting to a bottom-up approach likely would take some of the heat off Memphis, home to all but two of the ASD’s 33 schools. It also likely would point the ASD toward districts in Nashville, Chattanooga or Knoxville. “There’s certainly a disproportionate number of schools on the priority list in Shelby County, but we see the ASD not focus on any other part of the state that has low-performing schools,” Leon said. ASD officials already have indicated plans to explore expansion elsewhere in 2018, including Chattanooga.

Prohibit phase-ins when converting a local school to a charter school. When the ASD came to Memphis, it authorized charter operators that typically wanted to phase in their operations one or several grades at a time. That meant that the local district and its employees and students had to share a building with the ASD as the charter operator gradually took control of more grades. Leon said this approach kept the ASD from serving all students who attended the school when it made the priority list. “(This is) the opposite of urgency,” Leon said.

Don’t rely only on charter operators for turnaround work. The ASD runs five Memphis schools itself, but for the last three years has only authorized charter operators to do its newest turnaround work. Leon said the ASD should go back to a mixture of ASD-run and charter-run schools because of the limited number of high-quality charter operators. “There are going to be times you’ve got a low-performing charter and you may not have the operator waiting in the wings, and you don’t take the accountability moves you should be making,” Leon said.

End the creation of new ASD schools until the state-run district can show consistent academic gains at existing schools. Seven of the ASD’s 33 schools are not takeovers but were started from scratch. Leon charged that new starts go against the ASD’s mission to help pre-existing struggling schools. He said the ASD shouldn’t be allowed to start new schools until the rest of the schools in the state-run district posts academic gains. For the last two years, the ASD had a TVAAS score of 1, meaning their students grew less than expected or declined in performance. (Schools that had been in the ASD for longer saw more growth.) “When you have two consecutive years of Level 1 TVAAS and you continue to expand, I would suggest that you need to fix your own shop before you start to take on additional schools,” Leon said.

Fund Shelby County Schools students at the same level as ASD students. Shelby County Schools received $500 less per student of state and local funds last year than ASD students. Despite a boost in state education spending, Shelby County Schools is still struggling with annual budget cuts, and it’s not clear if its own school turnaround effort, the Innovation Zone, is sustainable due to the expensive interventions required. Leon asked for state funds to be distributed among the districts more equitably.

Roen said the ASD has its own wish list for Shelby County Schools, including increasing the availability of information on students who transition from Shelby County to ASD schools.

 

Editor’s note: This story has been updated with a response from ASD officials.

Achievement School District

Here’s why another state-run charter school is closing in Memphis

PHOTO: Caroline Bauman
GRAD Academy students work on a writing assignment during an African-American history class. The South Memphis charter school will shutter this summer.

The high cost of busing students from across Memphis to maintain the enrollment of GRAD Academy was a major factor in a national charter network’s decision to close the state-run high school.

Project GRAD USA announced plans last week to shutter its only Memphis school after four years as part of Tennessee’s Achievement School District. Besides high transportation costs, the burden of maintaining an older school building and a dip in enrollment created an unsustainable situation, charter organization officials said this week.

“Higher-than-projected transportation and facilities costs were major contributors to the operational challenges that GRAD Academy encountered,” CEO Daryl Ogden told Chalkbeat.

GRAD Academy will become the third state-run charter school to close in Memphis since the ASD began operating schools in the city in 2012. KIPP Memphis and Gestalt Community Schools closed one school each last year, citing low enrollment and rising operational costs.

This is the first school year that GRAD Academy didn’t meet its enrollment targets, according to Ogden. The high school started the school year with 468 students, a drop of about 13 percent from the 2016-17 year.

Ogden said enrollment constraints significantly hurt the operator’s ability to recruit students to the South Memphis school.

Unlike most ASD schools, GRAD Academy started from scratch. It was not an existing low-performing school taken from the local district and assigned to a charter operator with the charge of turning it around. As a “new start,” the high school could only recruit students zoned to other state-run schools or the lowest-performing “priority schools” in Shelby County Schools.

Most of the ASD’s 31 remaining schools were takeovers and are allowed to recruit up to 25 percent of their student bodies from non-priority schools. (Now, a 2017 state law prohibits the ASD from creating new schools.)

GRAD Academy was not required to provide cross-city transportation but, because the school did not have a neighborhood zone, chose to as a way to build enrollment.

“Students were coming from all over Memphis, since there is not a zoned area around the school, and that began to be a challenge with attracting students,” said Kathleen Airhart, the ASD’s interim superintendent. “Their transportation costs were much higher than their counterparts in the ASD.”

Airhart said the State Department of Education has been working closely with GRAD Academy since becoming aware of its financial issues last October. She noted concern over whether the school had the funds to stay open through May, and the state worked with administrators to reduce expenses and streamline funding.

PHOTO: Chalkbeat Tennessee
GRAD Academy rented and maintained the building that formerly housed  South Side High School, originally built for 2,000 students and shuttered in 2015 by Shelby County Schools.

Both state officials and Ogden declined to specify how much the school spent annually on transportation and building maintenance but said that the cost of facilities was also an issue. GRAD Academy rented and maintained the building that formerly housed South Side High School, originally built for 2,000 students and shuttered in 2015 by Shelby County Schools.

Airhart is working with two other ASD charter operators — Green Dot Public Schools and Frayser Community Schools — to offer GRAD Academy students a high school option next year. ASD officials will host a meeting at the school Tuesday evening to answer questions from parents and students about the closure and their options.

The impending closure of GRAD Academy is another blow to the ASD. It’s the state-run district’s highest-performing high school and has its largest percentage of high school students scoring on grade level, according to state data from 2017.

Airhart commended the school for its career and technical focus on engineering and coding — two pathways that could lead to dual certification for students.

“The goal would be to transition the two programs and equipment to Frayser Community Schools or Green Dot,” Airhart said, adding that the details haven’t been finalized.

Many GRAD students felt their voices were lost in the decision to shutter their school, according to Kyla Lewis, a 2017 alumna who is still involved in the school’s poetry team. She called the news “heartbreaking but not surprising” and added that teacher and principal turnover was high during her years there.

“South Memphis has seen so much school closure and this hits hard for kids actually from the neighborhood,” said Lewis, now a freshman at the University of Memphis. “I don’t agree with the decision, but the main issue I saw was the thinning out of teachers. Once the best teachers left, by my senior year, the school culture was starting to fall apart.”

Ogden commended his team for the school’s academic strides, but acknowledged that “faculty and staff turnover associated with urban school reform” was a major challenge.

“There has been a continual need to reinvest in our staff and introduce our culture process and learning and development philosophy to new colleagues, which can slow academic momentum,” he said. “There is a persistent national, state, and local shortage of highly qualified, experienced math teachers which we, along with all of our fellow Memphis school operators, especially at the secondary levels, have had to work hard to overcome.”

Editor’s note: This story has been updated to show that a Nov. 18 parents meeting has been rescheduled to next week due to wintry weather.

five years in

Tennessee’s two big school turnaround experiments are yielding big lessons, researchers say

PHOTO: Kyle Kurlick
A student walks through the hall of Frayser Achievement Elementary School, one of five Memphis schools directly run by Tennessee's Achievement School District.

A national pioneer in school turnaround work, Tennessee this month received a report card of sorts from researchers who have closely followed its two primary initiatives for five years.

The assessment was both grim and promising — and punctuated with lessons that already are informing the state’s efforts to improve struggling schools.

The grim: The state-run Achievement School District fell woefully short of its initial goal of vaulting the state’s 5 percent of lowest-achieving schools to the top 25 percent within five years. This model, based on the Recovery School District in Louisiana, allowed Tennessee to take control of struggling local schools and to partner with charter management organizations to turn them around. But not only has the ASD failed to move the needle on student achievement, it has struggled to retain teachers and to build a climate of collaboration among its schools, which now number 32.

The promising: Innovation zones, which are run by several local districts with the help of extra state funding, have shown promise in improving student performance, based on a widely cited 2015 study by Vanderbilt University. The model gives schools autonomy over financial, programmatic and staffing decisions, similar to charter schools. While iZones exist in Memphis, Nashville and Chattanooga, the most notable work has been through Shelby County Schools, now with 23 Memphis schools in its turnaround program. Not only have student outcomes improved in the iZone, its schools have enjoyed lower teacher turnover rates and greater retention of high-quality teachers.

One big lesson, according to this month’s report: Removing schools from their structures of local government isn’t necessary to improve student outcomes.

That explains Tennessee’s decision, under the new federal education law, to include partnership zones as part of its expanded turnaround toolkit. The model offers charter-like autonomy but is governed jointly by local and state officials. The first zone will launch next fall in Chattanooga, where the school board reluctantly approved the arrangement recently for five chronically underperforming schools that otherwise would have been taken over by the ASD.

The partnership model avoids the toll of school takeover, which the report’s researchers say contributed to community mistrust of the ASD, especially in its home base of Memphis.

“That faith in the ask of these schools going to the state operator came with the promise to raise student achievement,” said researcher James Guthrie. “To not see this achievement in the first round of results raises a crisis of legitimacy (for the ASD).”

PHOTO: TN.gov
Candice McQueen

Guthrie is among researchers who have followed school turnaround efforts as part of the Tennessee Education Research Alliance, or TERA. The group’s work continues to guide the State Department of Education on what has worked, what has not, and why. Education Commissioner Candice McQueen requested their five-year summary as part of the state’s own self-analysis, as well as to inform school improvement work nationwide.

In interviews with Chalkbeat, TERA researchers emphasized that the final word hasn’t been written on any of the turnaround models in play in Tennessee. They continue to track students in struggling schools. And they emphasized that turnaround is a long game, one that the ASD’s founders underestimated.

“The cautionary tale of any reform is to be realistic about what you can achieve,” said Ron Zimmer of the University of Kentucky. “…If (the ASD) had been more realistic, people would have had more realistic expectations (about) what would have been deemed a success.”

The operators of ASD schools have had a steep learning curve amid daunting challenges that include high student mobility, extreme poverty, a lack of shared resources, barriers to school choice, and on-the-ground opposition.

Five years in, there’s still hope that the ASD can improve its schools with more time, said Joshua Glazer of George Washington University.

“We have seen that several providers have learned some hard lessons and are now applying those lessons to their models,” Glazer said. “Many have overhauled curriculum and taken a very different approach to supporting teachers. Across the board, providers have realized that much more robust systems of guidance and support are needed. These changes have the potential to lead to better student outcomes, but only time will tell if scores will go up.”

PHOTO: Caroline Bauman
A former superintendent for Jackson-Madison County Schools, Verna Ruffin became the ASD’s chief of academics in August.

The state recently recruited a new academic leader, and it’s looking for a new superintendent who can create a more collaborative environment within the ASD’s portfolio of operators and schools. The district also underwent a major restructuring over the summer, cutting staff to curb costs and streamline roles as federal money ran out from Tennessee’s Race to the Top award.

Funding will be among the biggest long-term challenges for both the state-run district and the local iZones, said Zimmer.

While the Memphis’ iZone has shown initial success, it’s an expensive model that includes educator bonuses and adds an hour to the school day.  

The ASD also needs adequate funding, but Zimmer said that became harder when its schools did not produce early gains. “It takes up to five or six years before see we significant benefit from a program like the ASD,” he said. “The problem is that people don’t have the political patience to wait for it.”

McQueen emphasizes frequently that all of the state’s turnaround models work together. She and Gov. Bill Haslam remain steadfast in their support of the ASD — a point she drove home again on Wednesday when asked about the embattled district.

“It is the state’s most rigorous intervention as noted in Tennessee’s recently approved ESSA plan,” McQueen said, “and is clearly a critical part of the state’s accountability model.”

For more discussion about the five-year brief, you can read blog posts in Education Week from TERA and the State Department of Education.