ASD Pivot

Tennessee’s turnaround district is reaching the end of an era

PHOTO: TN.gov
A teacher instructs students at Aspire Coleman Elementary School on May 12 as Gov. Bill Haslam and other officials visit the Memphis charter school operated under Tennessee's Achievement School District.

For five years, the Achievement School District has been the Tennessee Department of Education’s primary vehicle of school turnaround.

But that’s changing, bringing a dramatic era in Tennessee school reform to an end.

The state-run district hatched in the Race to the Top era when Tennessee won a $500 million pot of federal funds in 2010 by promising in part to improve its most struggling schools. To fulfill that promise, officials developed the Achievement School District, which takes over schools with the worst test scores and assigns them to new managers, usually charter operators, with the goal of vaulting them to the top within five years. By last fall, the district’s portfolio had swelled to 33 schools, mostly in Memphis.

But the model has achieved mixed results at best, while angering local stakeholders with each school takeover. Now, in the year that ASD founders set as a benchmark, a series of changes have whittled away the district’s influence.

Education Commissioner Candice McQueen says the state will no longer default to the Achievement School District when considering how to help Tennessee’s lowest-performing schools.

“We’re in a dynamic environment. We’re learning about what works,” she said.

A new federal education law offered an opportunity to revamp school improvement strategies under McQueen, who became commissioner about three years after the ASD took control of its first schools.

PHOTO: TN.gov
Education Commissioner Candice McQueen

In Tennessee’s plan under the Every Student Succeeds Act, the State Department of Education clipped the ASD’s wings with new policies approved this spring by the legislature. They address longstanding concerns, including complaints that the state district had moved beyond its original purpose, lacked a clear exit strategy, and didn’t give local districts enough time to execute their own turnaround plans.

McQueen also announced plans to downsize the ASD’s structure this summer by slashing its team and merging several ASD-related offices in Memphis.

Tennessee’s pivot comes as other states acknowledge the limits of state-run turnaround districts. Michigan and Louisiana both began dissolving similar districts this year, even as Nevada and North Carolina have moved to create new ones.

“The fact that they seem to be rolling back (the ASD) in Tennessee, I think is a good sign. Hopefully these states will turn to strategies that are research-based, that actually improves what goes on in classrooms,” said Leigh Dingerson, an education consultant who has researched the model for the Southern Education Foundation and Brown University’s Annenberg Institute for School Reform.

Tennessee’s new strategy doesn’t completely throw out the ASD. McQueen emphasizes that the district will remain the state’s most rigorous intervention. But with a long list of other schools in need of transformation, Tennessee will lean on more local district-led turnaround initiatives. A prime example is Shelby County Schools’ celebrated Innovation Zone in Memphis, which gives schools more autonomy over aspects like school day length and hiring, without converting them to charter schools.


Gov. Haslam says he’s committed to the ASD, even as the state downsizes its office


Tennessee also wants to launch a “partnership zone” model, in which a team of state and local district leaders will work together to oversee a cluster of five or more priority schools. That tool is being explored for five Chattanooga schools beginning in 2018.

McQueen says the state also won’t shy away from closing schools that are eligible for ASD takeover, but serve too few students. Enrollment has been a big challenge in Memphis, where the state-run district closed two of its charter schools last month after two operators determined that they didn’t have enough students to provide the necessary supports.

Malika Anderson became the ASD’s second superintendent in January 2016. (Photo by TN.gov)

“We have to think not only about what’s appropriate academically, but also do you have the financial ability for that particular plan to be successful based on enrollment or the potential for declining enrollment?” McQueen said. “Those are very particular characteristics we’ll have to think about as we discuss interventions.”

McQueen views all the changes as complementing the ASD’s work, not stymying it. “It gives us more opportunity for intervention in more ways that fits the needs of the schools and of the district,” she said.

The move to spread funding and resources across different turnaround techniques makes sense, says Ashley Jochim, a researcher with the Center on Reinventing Public Education.

“It becomes very difficult to put all of your eggs in the turnaround district basket,” said Jochim, who has looked at state turnaround initiatives across the nation. “The reality is there are too many schools that need help for that option.”

real estate

Two of three Memphis school buildings left empty by state-run charters will get new life, including Raleigh-Egypt

PHOTO: Laura Faith Kebede
The former Raleigh Egypt Middle School is back to housing middle schoolers under Shelby County Schools, not the state-run Achievement School District and its operator, Memphis Scholars.

Shelby County Schools has reclaimed a Memphis school building that formerly housed a state-run charter school that just moved across town.

This week, the former campus of Raleigh-Egypt Middle School began housing middle schoolers under the local district in Memphis.

District leaders posted a video Wednesday on Facebook showing students returning to the building that last year housed a charter school managed by Memphis Scholars.

“They did not stay in the building, so now Shelby County Schools has that building again, and middle schoolers have their own space,” said Shari Jones Meeks, principal of Raleigh-Egypt High School, which added middle school grades last year.

“We’ve been here every day this week trying to get our classrooms ready,” added Anna Godwin, a middle school science teacher. “It’s awesome, a lot of space. The kids are going to feel right at home.”

The change brings the school full circle after a year-long tug-of-war over students and facilities with the state-run Achievement School District, which took control of Raleigh-Egypt Middle last summer because of chronic low performance.

After the takeover, the local district expanded grades next door at Raleigh-Egypt High School in an effort to retain students. It worked. This spring, the charter organization got the state’s permission to move its under-enrolled school 16 miles away, where Memphis Scholars already operates an elementary school under Tennessee’s turnaround district.

Even though middle schoolers are returning to their old building, Raleigh-Egypt High School will remain one school with grades 6-12 and one administration, according to Michelle Stuart, facility planning manager for the district.

It’s one of three buildings left empty in recent months by the ASD and its charter operators — a first for the state-run district. All properties have returned to the control of Shelby County Schools, and only one stood empty as the new school year began.

Former school Current use Location
Memphis Scholars Raleigh Egypt Middle Likely will house Shelby County Schools middle schoolers Raleigh Egypt
Gestalt Community Schools Klondike Elementary Partly occupied by Perea Preschool North Memphis
KIPP Memphis Collegiate Schools University Middle Vacant and for sale Whitehaven

Klondike Elementary was closed by the ASD when its operator, Gestalt Community Schools, decided to exit its two North Memphis schools because of low enrollment. The ASD approved Frayser Community Schools to step in as the new operator at Humes Middle, but couldn’t secure one for Klondike.

While Shelby County Schools has no plan to resurrect Klondike at this time, it will continue to lease space to Perea Preschool, a private Christian school that will serve more than 160 children in a building designed for more than 600. Perea also has applied to open an elementary charter school at Klondike under Shelby County Schools, though that application was initially denied.

On the opposite side of Memphis, the building formerly occupied as a middle school by charter operator KIPP will be listed for sale, according to Stuart.

The former Memphis City school building was leased to KIPP beginning in 2014 by Shelby County Schools. Last December, KIPP leaders decided to close it too, citing low enrollment and the school’s remote location.

Achievement School District

Tennessee’s turnaround district gets new leadership team for a new chapter

PHOTO: TN.gov
Malika Anderson became superintendent of the state-run Achievement School District in 2016 under the leadership of Gov. Bill Haslam.

Tennessee is bringing in some new blood to lead its turnaround district after cutting its workforce almost in half and repositioning the model as an intervention of last resort for the state’s chronically struggling schools.

While Malika Anderson remains as superintendent of the Achievement School District, she’ll have two lieutenants who are new to the ASD’s mostly charter-based turnaround district, as well as two others who have been part of the work in the years since its 2011 launch.

The hires stand in contrast to the original ASD leadership team, which was heavy with education reformers who came from outside of Tennessee or Memphis. And that’s intentional, Anderson said Friday as she announced the new lineup with Education Commissioner Candice McQueen.

“It is critical in this phase of the ASD that we are learning from the past … and have leaders who are deeply experienced in Tennessee,” Anderson said.

New to her inner circle as of Aug. 1 are:

Verna Ruffin
Chief academic officer

PHOTO: Submitted
Verna Ruffin

Duties: She’ll assume oversight of the district’s five direct-run schools in Memphis called Achievement Schools, a role previously filled by former executive director Tim Ware, who did not reapply. She’ll also promote collaboration across Achievement Schools and the ASD’s charter schools.

Last job: Superintendent of Jackson-Madison County School District since 2013

Her story: More than 30 years of experience in education as a teacher, principal, director of secondary curriculum, assistant superintendent and superintendent in Louisiana, Texas, Oklahoma and Tennessee. At Jackson-Madison County, Ruffin oversaw a diverse student body and implemented a K-3 literacy initiative to promote more rigorous standards.

Farae Wolfe
Executive director of operations

Duties: Human resources, technology and operations

Current job: Program director for the Community Youth Career Development Center in Cleveland, Miss.

Her story: Wolfe has been city manager and human resources director for Cleveland, Miss., where she led a health and wellness initiative that decreased employee absenteeism due to minor illness by 20 percent. Her work experience in education includes overseeing parent and community relations for a Mississippi school district, according to her LinkedIn profile.

Leaders continuing to work with the state turnaround team are:

Lisa Settle
Chief performance officer

PHOTO: Achievement Schools
Lisa Settle

Duties: She’ll oversee federal and state compliance for charter operators and direct-run schools.

Last job: Chief of schools for the direct-run Achievement Schools since June 2015

Her story: Settle was co-founder and principal of Cornerstone Prep-Lester Campus, the first charter school approved by the ASD in Memphis. She also has experience in writing and reviewing curriculum in her work with the state’s recent Standards Review Committee.

Bobby White
Executive director of external affairs

PHOTO: ASD
Bobby White

Duties: He’ll continue his work to bolster the ASD’s community relations, which was fractured by the state’s takeover of neighborhood schools in Memphis when he came aboard in April 2016.

Last job: ASD chief of external affairs

His story: A Memphis native, White previously served as chief of staff and senior adviser for Memphis and Shelby County Mayor A.C. Wharton, as well as a district director for former U.S. Rep. Harold Ford Jr.

A new team for a new era

The restructuring of the ASD and its leadership team comes after state officials decided to merge the ASD with support staff for its Achievement Schools. All 59 employees were invited in May to reapply for 30 jobs, some of which are still being filled.

The downsizing was necessary as the state ran out of money from the federal Race to the Top grant that jump-started the turnaround district in 2011 and has sustained most of its work while growing to 33 schools at its peak.

While the changes signal a new era for the state-run district, both McQueen and Gov. Bill Haslam have said they’re committed to keeping the ASD as Tennessee’s most intensive intervention when local and collaborative turnaround efforts fail, even as the initiative has had a mostly lackluster performance.

“Overall, this new structure will allow the ASD to move forward more efficiently,” McQueen said Friday, “and better positions the ASD to support the school improvement work we have outlined in our ESSA plan …”

In the next phase, school takeovers will not be as abrupt as the first ones that happened in Memphis in 2012, prompting angry protests from teachers and parents and outcry from local officials. Local districts will have three years to use their own turnaround methods before schools can be considered for takeover.

It’s uncertain where the ASD will expand next, but state officials have told Hamilton County leaders that it’s one of several options on the table for five low-performing schools in Chattanooga.