Healthy Schools

School food reforms kick in this fall

More than 600 schools nationwide – but only one in Colorado – did what it took in the past year to meet the HealthierUS School Challenge requirements of expanded nutritional offerings and increased physical activity opportunities for students.

Kids at B.F. Kitchen Elementary School in Loveland get 30 minutes of physical education five days a week as part of the school's commitment to wellness.

That makes B.F. Kitchen Elementary in Loveland one of 1,250 U.S. schools to be honored so far in the two-year-old program.

The results were announced today during a conference call hosted by U.S. Department of Agriculture Secretary Kevin Concannon. The call was to highlight the historic school nutrition reforms and improvements students will see this year thanks to the passage of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010.

Though the school challenge isn’t part of the legislation, it is a key component of First Lady Michelle Obama’s Let’s Move! Initiative to end childhood obesity. Schools participating in the challenge voluntarily adopt USDA standards for food served at school, agree to provide nutrition education and provide more opportunities for physical activity.

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In Colorado, B.F. Kitchen Elementary School in Loveland received a Gold Award of Distinction, the highest-level rating in the challenge, in March. Concannon said that representatives from each of the award-winning schools will be invited to a White House dinner in October.

“Like the president said in his State of the Union address, if we want to win the future, we have to win the race to educate our children,” Concannon said. “That means no child should have to learn on an empty stomach.”

Legislation impacts many areas of school food

The historic legislation, which passed with rare bipartisan support, impacts everything from what kinds of foods and drinks children will be served in their school lunchrooms, to how much they’ll pay for it, to who will be allowed to eat for free or at a discount.

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The legislation will expand the availability of after-school meals this year, in essence providing dinner for an additional 140,000 low-income children. It also will promote expanded school breakfast programs, and makes it easier for some poor children to get free or reduced-price school meals.

Some of the more controversial provisions – which won’t go into effect this year – increase the nutritional standards for school meals. Schools will be required, for example, to offer both a fruit and a vegetable at lunchtime. They also would have to double the amount of fruit served at breakfast, as well as offer both a whole-grain and a protein product at the morning meal. Permitted sodium levels in the foods, meanwhile, would gradually decrease.

“Part of the reason for phasing in the lower sodium is because the food industry in general needs to change the sodium content of foods,” Concannon said. “This will also require some adjustment of the palate. We’re addicted to sodium in our food, even if we don’t realize it’s been added.”

Concannon said the USDA has received more than 130,000 comments on the proposed new nutrition guidelines, which are set to go into effect in 2012.

“A number of schools are implementing portions of it, but they’re not required to until the next school year,” he said. “This is going to be a reach, but we want it to be achievable.”

Federal funding increases now a question mark

Accompanying the increased nutritional standards is an increase in federal funding for school meals, the first in 30 years. Starting next year, schools will receive an additional 6 cents per meal served, adjusted annually for inflation.

But the increased funding was a promise made last year, before the debt ceiling crisis elicited Congressional promises to cut more than $1 trillion in spending over the next 10 years. Most of the cuts won’t take effect before 2014, but Concannon acknowledged the uncertainty.

“At this point, we don’t know what will happen in terms of the 2012 budget, but at this point we’re not suggesting schools alter course,” he said. “It’s pretty clear that this legislation is a priority for the White House, and it had bipartisan support in Congress. I know people know its importance to the schools.”

School nutrition viewed as national security issue

Also speaking during the telephone press conference was retired U.S. Army Maj. Gen. D. Allen Youngman, co-author of some recent reports put out by Mission Readiness, a national security non-profit group led by retired military officers.

Those reports include “Too Fat to Fight,” which found that 27 percent of 17- to 24-year-olds in the United States are too fat to serve in the military, and “Ready, Willing and Unable,” which found that fully 75 percent of Americans 17 to 24 cannot join the military for one reason or another, including obesity or other health concerns, lack of a high school diploma, or because they have a criminal record.

“The class of 2023 started first grade this week,” Youngman said. “We’ll be trying to recruit them in about 12 years. If we don’t do some things differently, most of them won’t be eligible for military service.”

student discipline

Frustrated with high suspension rates, Memphis schools shift to restorative justice

PHOTO: Caroline Bauman
Shelby County educators list their reactions to students who act out as part of a discipline training on using restorative justice techniques in the classroom.

Taking a cue from Nashville, Memphis school leaders are working to change the way their educators discipline students in an effort to reduce the high rate of suspensions in Shelby County Schools.

This month, about a hundred educators participated in a day-long training session to learn about restorative justice techniques already used in Metropolitan Nashville Public Schools. The Nashville district, which like Memphis serves mostly minority and low-income students, has seen its suspension rate drop since incorporating the disciplinary approach more broadly in 2014.

“Our goal is to help teachers and administrators see all of the steps they could take before suspension or expulsion. Keeping a student out of the classroom should be a last resort,” said Eric Johnson, the lead trainer and head of youth development for STARS, a Nashville-based nonprofit organization.

The training, conducted in partnership with the Tennessee Department of Education, is part of the culture shift that’s been building for more than a year as Shelby County Schools seeks to move away from exclusionary practices such as suspensions and expulsions, said Randy McPherson, who oversees school culture and climate for Tennessee’s largest district.

It’s also a far cry from corporal punishment, which the district did away with almost 15 years ago.

“There’s this idea that punishment should be immediate. You act out of line, you get suspended. That’s not what our students need,” McPherson said.

Restorative justice is relational and seeks to foster an environment of caring and respect. In order to get at the root cause behind misbehavior, it begins with educators taking into account the backgrounds and experiences that students bring to school, sometimes including hunger, domestic violence or homelessness.

Memphis is working to catch up with cities like Nashville, Chicago, New York and Los Angeles that already are bringing together students to talk out conflict. Suspensions there are on the decline, although there’s little research to show whether embracing such techniques reduces school violence and benefits students in the long run.


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District leaders acknowledge that changes are needed in Shelby County, where suspension rates are some of the highest in the state and disproportionately skew high for boys of color. During community meetings last fall about how to build better schools, parents also made it clear that the district should prioritize school climate, which includes how students are disciplined.

About two-thirds of district schools have sent some educators to either an in-house session about restorative practices or one co-presented with Facing History and Ourselves, a nonprofit organization that works with teachers and students in Memphis. McPherson is hopeful to get that number up to 100 percent during summer trainings.

Then comes the even harder part: Getting the schools to buy in to using restorative justice practices every day.

PHOTO: Caroline Bauman
Randy McPherson (middle) oversees school culture and climate for Shelby County Schools.

“The culture-changing process requires investment, energy and professional development,” McPherson said. “I really believe this approach to discipline works if the whole school is buying into it. If you only pay lip service to the idea, it can actually do more harm than good.”

For now, McPherson is overseeing the shift in discipline that previously was shepherded by Heidi Ramirez, who resigned in February as chief of academics. Her replacement has not yet been named.

“We will continue to focus on key strategies for improving school climate, reducing disruptive behaviors that impact academic progress and prepare students for making good choices,” McPherson said.

At this month’s restorative justice training, educators said they liked the direction that Shelby County Schools is heading — but that more trainings will be essential to lowering the district’s suspension rates.

“We can’t keep doing the same thing and expect different results,” said Brian Clark, a family engagement specialist at Grandview Middle School. “… We’re realizing we can’t handle every child the same way. We have to hear their stories and struggles and respond.”

En pointe

How ballet is energizing one Memphis school — and helped save it from closing

PHOTO: Caroline Bauman
Briana Brown, an instructor with New Ballet Ensemble, prepares her first-grade dance students for a performance at Dunbar Elementary School in Memphis.

Instructor Briana Brown counts aloud as first-graders in pink leotards skip across a classroom floor to practice their leaps and twirls — a weekly highlight for students at Dunbar Elementary School.

In the South Memphis neighborhood, ballet lessons offered through the nonprofit New Ballet Ensemble introduce students to the art of dance at a school with few resources for extracurricular activities.

PHOTO: Caroline Bauman
Ten-year-old Briana Davis is among 40 students receiving dance instruction at Dunbar Elementary School.

Ten-year-old Briana Davis is among the beneficiaries.

Before joining New Ballet’s class, she danced throughout her mom’s house, just a short walk from Dunbar in the city’s historic African-American community of Orange Mound. Now, Briana is among about 40 Dunbar students who jeté and pirouette in a makeshift classroom studio at Dunbar, or after school in a studio at the group’s headquarters in midtown Memphis.

“I want to keep dancing and to be a dance teacher when I grow up,” Briana said. “I think this is really special. If I hadn’t done ballet at school, I don’t know if I ever would have danced for real and not just at home.”

For eight years, New Ballet Ensemble has been teaching classes at Dunbar and offering scholarships to a talented few to continue their dance education outside of school time. Here under the tutelage of teaching artists who are fluent in classical ballet and other styles of dance, they learn to follow instructions, practice new positions, strengthen young muscles and develop discipline, all while expressing themselves creatively and learning about a world beyond Orange Mound.

But the Memphis dance company’s work has gone far beyond teaching students how to plié and fondu. Thanks to grants that New Ballet helped secure, Dunbar now has a community garden and parent resource center.

And when Dunbar was on the chopping block to be closed this year by Shelby County Schools, New Ballet dancers, instructors and supporters showed up en force at school board meetings. The district later reversed its decision and opted to keep Dunbar open. Superintendent Dorsey Hopson cited community support as a reason for his change of heart.

Katie Smythe founded New Ballet Ensemble in 2001 to teach dance, but quickly discovered how her organization’s work was being limited by a dearth of community resources available to public schools in Memphis.

“We came here to find talented kids for dance, but we found that our access to community partnerships and the school board to be the real opportunity point for us,” said Smythe, who also serves as the group’s artistic director. “The school board and administration learned while trying to close this school how valuable community partnerships can be, I think.”

New Ballet became one of the first outside-of-school organizations to have a stake in the Dunbar school community, said Principal Anniece Gentry.

PHOTO: Caroline Bauman
Youngsters giggle as they watch their instructor demonstrate a dance move.

“When students see community partners are invested in their school, they want to achieve more,” Gentry said. “Our relationship with New Ballet is one I will always treasure. They work to do more than anyone else I’ve seen.”

The parent resource center is one of the most valuable additions. Stocked with computers, coffee and books, the room was created for parents with help from a $25,000 grant from ArtsMemphis, a local advocacy and funding group.

“There are computers for parents to use if they don’t have internet at home,” Smythe said. “I’ve seen parents drop their children off, walk to the room and apply for jobs while grabbing a cup of coffee. (For some parents), there was no positive reason for parents to come to school before this, only if their students were sick or in trouble.”

Building parent relationships have become key to New Ballet’s mission at Dunbar, and Smythe wants to take the group’s learnings to other Memphis schools. It’s already helping with arts education in classrooms at Bartlett and Sherwood elementary schools, and Smythe wants to bring Dunbar-style ballet programs to secondary schools that now teach former Dunbar students at Treadwell and Sherwood middle and Melrose and Douglass high.

But that takes money.

New Ballet is dependent on the National Endowment for the Arts, a federal agency that could experience huge cuts under President Donald Trump’s administration. In addition to $15,000 in NEA funding, the group gets money for its school programs through the Tennessee Arts Commission, which also comes from NEA.

PHOTO: Caroline Bauman
New Ballet founder Katie Smythe brought ballet to Dunbar Elementary in 2009.

To remind those who hold the pursestrings about educational ballet programs like Dunbar’s, Smythe recently joined other arts advocates to speak with lawmakers in Washington, D.C. Their message: The arts are more than just concert halls, expensive tickets and paintings that people don’t understand. It’s also about helping students to grow mentally, physically and academically.

For students like Briana, support for New Ballet would mean another year of free ballet lessons and after-school programming.

“I really look forward to performing,” Briana said. “Learning to dance is really fun. But being able to show off how much I’ve learned to my mom? That’s the best.”