First Person

How teaching students with special needs makes me a better teacher for everyone

For some parents, the idea of having their child educated in the same classroom as a student with a disability can be off-putting. Parents may believe that meeting the needs of students with disabilities requires extra attention and support that detracts from their own child’s learning.

But educating children who don’t have special needs in the same classroom as those who do, which happens more and more because of recent special education reforms, can be an opportunity for greater learning for all students—if teachers get creative.

At my school, that became clear as I watched some of my sixth graders struggling with my school’s new curriculum at the start of this year. That prompted me to create a “student guide” for each lesson, in which I provided a student version of the talking points I used to guide me through the lesson. I hoped the guides would help students process the information I presented and participate more actively in discussions and activities.

At first, the guides didn’t work as well as I had hoped. I had to remind students to reference and use their guides, and students seemed to find them confusing and unhelpful. What’s more, in order to save paper, I only gave them to students who were struggling–which I began worry made the guides carry a stigma I didn’t intend for them to have.

Here’s an example of one of the guides I made at this initial stage. Notice that the formatting is confusing, and the lack of spacing makes it difficult to read (click image to zoom):

I knew I wanted to make the guides more effective. Ultimately, the changes that would make these guides more useful for my whole class came from closely considering the needs of one individual student.

After conducting a student work analysis for a student with autism, our sixth grade team discussed what kind of supports and strategies would benefit him, since it was clear from his work that he was not mastering much of the academic content we were teaching.

Students with autism typically benefit from structured environments and activities. Talking about this with my colleagues made me think of the student guides. I decided to redesign the guides in the hopes of helping the student stay on track throughout the lesson.

Rather than a confusing mess of columns and words, I tried turning the guide into a series of checkboxes. And I started distributing the guide to all students.

Once I started using the new guide format, I found that the changes I made for a student who required discrete and explicit steps actually made the guide more useful for other students–including students without special needs.

Many of my students take pleasure in ticking off the boxes as the lesson moves along. When students ask me to repeat a question or direction, I can simply redirect them to the guide, which they can reread on their own.

The guides also help me teach better. Preparing the guides for each lesson forces me to be more explicit about what I expect students to do during each and every part of the lesson. In fact, when I’m delivering a lesson, I often find the student guides more useful than my own talking points!

I still wanted to improve the guides, so I included a space for student feedback at the bottom of each one. I’ve already made several changes based on student feedback, including making the font bigger and including specific page numbers whenever I reference student workbooks and texts.

Right now, I’m experimenting with making the student guide more interactive. In addition to the checkboxes, I’ve started including sections with fill-in-the-blanks and written self-reflection or self-assessment. Here’s an example from a recent lesson:

Have student guides resulted in any demonstrable impact on my students’ academic outcomes? Unfortunately, it’s difficult to say. Designing a method of valid assessment of the impact of the supports and strategies we are undertaking is the next big step for my school.

Developing student guides is a lot of work on top of preparing the talking points and presentations I already use for each lesson.

But the quality of my lesson delivery has improved, and after making the adjustments described above, I feel like the guides are well worth the additional investment of my time—and they’re example of how concrete support for students who are struggling the most can also assist a much larger group of students.

First Person

I mentor students demoralized about not having a vote. Here’s their plan for getting civically involved before turning 18

Students in the Minds Matter program.

Every Monday night during the school year, I spend time with two wonderful young women. They’re high-achieving high school sophomores from low-income families whose success would be certain if they grew up in a more affluent ZIP code.

Along with a team of other mentors, I help the students improve their writing and communication skills to help them prepare for a successful college career. That’s what I’m prepared to do.

I was less prepared for what they brought to our meeting last week, the first time we met under the tenure of a new president. They talked about feeling the consequences of the national political shift, though at 15, they knew it would be years before they could cast a ballot of their own. “We feel left out of a system that affects us too,” they said.

So our task that night became to expand our ideas about what participation in the American political system really means.

Here are five ideas we came up with, designed to help high schoolers do just that.

1. Meet elected officials. Meeting state senators and representatives during their campaigns is often the easiest way to make contact. Attend a coffee event, a party meeting, or a fundraiser where students can introduce themselves and talk about their concerns. Encourage them to be more than just another face in the crowd.

There are plenty of young, local elected officials to learn from. Dominick Moreno, a prominent Senate Democrat on the state of Colorado’s powerful Joint Budget Committee, got his start running for class president as a high school sophomore. Still only 32, he has already served in the House of Representatives and as mayor pro tem of a Denver suburb.

2. Volunteer on a campaign. This is the best opportunity for students to get an inside look at the political process and can help them establish lasting relationships with real people working in politics.

Some legislators face tough races and are out knocking on doors for months. Others spend their time differently, and in either case, candidates need help reaching out to voters, managing social media accounts, answering emails or organizing events. Plus, this work looks great on student résumés.

I tell students about my own experience. It started small: When I was 10, I passed out stickers for local elected officials at holiday parades. When I was 16, I got the chance to intern at the South Dakota state capitol. At 21, I got my first job in Washington, and at 23 I started lobbying in Colorado, affecting policy that now touches all citizens of the state.

3. Think locally. There are so many small things that students can do that will help their community become a better place on their own timeline. Help students organize a neighborhood clean-up day or tutor at an elementary school. These might feel inadequate to students when they look at the big picture, but it’s important to remind them that these actions help weave a fabric of compassion — and helps them become local leaders in the community.

4. Pre-register to vote. Voting matters, too. It sounds simple, but pre-registering addresses a root cause of low voter turnout — missing deadlines. In Colorado, one must be a U.S. citizen, be at least 16 years old, and reside in the state 22 days prior to the date of the election.

5. Affiliate with a party.
This assures full involvement in the process. Before turning 18, students can still attend party meetings or even start a “Young Democrats/Republicans” group at school. If they don’t feel like they fit with either the Republican or the Democratic parties, that’s OK — unaffiliated voters can now take part in the primary elections and help name either Republican or Democratic leaders.

Talking through these ideas helped the students I work with realize voting isn’t the only way to make a difference. One of my students has started a group that helps other young women know about birth control options, after seeing girls in her high school struggle and drop out after getting pregnant. Other students in the group have asked to learn more about the legislative process and want to testify on legislation.

They’re proving that democracy doesn’t begin and end with casting a ballot — but it does depend on taking interest and taking action.

Zoey DeWolf is a lobbyist with Colorado Legislative Services, based in Denver. She also works with Minds Matter of Denver, a not-for-profit organization whose mission is to help prepare accomplished high school students from low-income families for successful college careers.

First Person

It’s time to retire the myth that any counselor can do the job alone — even at a tiny school

A few of the author's students who graduated last year.

I waited five years to get my dream job as a counselor in a New York City public school. After all of that waiting, I was full of ideas about how I would be able to use my experience to help students navigate what can be an overwhelming few years.

I wanted to make our school counseling more individualized and full of innovative support mechanisms. I wanted our guidance department to be a place that anyone could leave with a grand plan.

A few months into that first year, in fall 2015, it was clear that my vision would be, to put it bluntly, impossible to achieve.

When I received my position at a Harlem high school in District 5, I was assigned to not only take on the responsibilities of a school counselor, but also to act as the college advisor, assign (and then frequently re-shuffle) class schedules for every student, and several other tasks. My school had just under 200 students — enrollment low enough that it was assumed this could all be managed.

This proved to be a very inaccurate assumption. I was working with a group of students with low attendance rates, and many were English language learners or students with disabilities. Many students were overage and under-credited, others were in foster care or homeless, some had returned from incarceration, and a couple were teen parents or pregnant.

The American School Counselor Association recommends a maximum school counselor-to-student ratio of one to 250. I know from experience that extremely high student need makes that ratio meaningless. Almost all of these students needed help in order to be ready to learn. Their needs tripled the feel of our enrollment.

This frequent mismatch between need and numbers puts school counselors like me in the position to do a great disservice to so many students. As the only counselor available, a seemingly small mishap with a task as crucial as graduation certification or credit monitoring could have spelled disaster for a student. I know some seniors missed certain financial aid opportunities and application deadlines, and some ninth, 10th, and 11th graders could have used more academic intervention to help them transition to the next grade level successfully.

My success at keeping our promotion and college admissions rates on the upswing was largely due to my outreach and partnership with community-based organizations that helped support several of our students. Had it not been for their assistance, I wouldn’t have achieved anything near what I did.

I’m still a counselor at my small school, and some aspects of the job have gotten easier with time. I love my job, which I think of as the most rewarding yet intense position in the building. But I still believe that there is almost no case in which only one counselor should be available for students.

Principals and school leaders directly involved with the budget must make sure to effectively analyze the needs of their student population, and advocate for an appropriately sized counseling staff. Small schools face real funding constraints. But ones serving students like mine need more than they’ve gotten.

Students’ social and emotional development and their academic success go hand in hand. Let’s not make the mistake of conflating enrollment numbers with need.

Danisha Baughan is a high school counselor and college advisor. She received her masters in school counseling in May 2010 and has held elementary, middle, and high school counseling positions since then.