Tennessee principals embrace teaching collaboration model from Shanghai

PHOTO: Vanderbilt University
Beth Blevins, principal of South Doyle Middle, Knox County Schools, in Shanghai.

A trip to Shanghai last year was an “aha moment” for Louise Claney, the former principal of Collierville Elementary School.

In the schools she visited, teachers regularly observed and evaluated other teachers, and lesson plans were living documents shared by everyone, created through teamwork and updated according to teachers’ experiences in the classrooms. 

Claney knew that facilitating the collaboration she saw in Shanghai in Collierville would be tough. Like most schools in Tennessee, Collierville’s teachers’ only feedback was from administrators, and lesson plans weren’t shared. Teachers spent most of the day with students and only met to share ideas once a month. The practice of teaching in the United States has historically been considered a private affair, after all.

Despite the challenges, when Claney returned from Shanghai, using the help of Vanderbilt University researchers, she trained her teachers and gave them the time to have their own evaluation and feedback groups.

A recently-released study said test scores rose at Collierville Elementary and 17 other schools that used the training method, called Teacher Peer Excellence Groups. The bridging of Shanghai and Tennessee schools was the result of a partnership between Tennessee’s Department of Education and Vanderbilt University and funded by a $700,000 federal grant.

Researchers also cited at the schools testing the model improved teaching skills, because teachers receive immediate feedback on their performance, and improved evaluation skills from principals since they also learn more about teaching.

This year, the model is expanding to more schools in the state, and the Vanderbilt researchers are working to help entire districts adopt it. Loudon County, a small district in East Tennessee, is already using the evaluation groups in all of its schools.

According to the practice, teachers create a lesson plan together then observe each other teaching it and revise the plan accordingly. Xiu Cravens, the lead researcher for the project,  said the model varies from school-to-school, but has three “non-negotiable” components: teachers must have opportunities to observe each other; the collective work from the groups must be accessible and amendable; and teachers must be able to defend their changes.

“It’s pretty organic, actually,” Cravens said. “We wanted to say, ‘This is the spirit. Here are the things that are non-negotiable, but each district will be different. As long as you can be true to the spirit (and) find a way it works for your school.'”

Claney broke teachers up into grade-level teams of math and English teachers. Each week, the teachers chose a specific teaching skill to focus on, like how to phrase questions to students. One teacher would be observed, while teaching assistants manned the other teachers’ classrooms. During the following period, all of the teachers’ students went to electives, so the teachers could focus on writing feedback for the teacher observed. Each teacher was observed about every six weeks.

“Scheduling was the biggest challenge,” she said.

Claney is now the director of curriculum and accountability for Collierville Public Schools, and helping to spread the model to other schools in the area. She and the teachers who participated in the evaluation groups are speaking about their experience at a state conference in October. 

The most surprising fans of the model was students, Claney said.

“The students love for you to be in their classroom and see what they’re doing, and they love to show off,” she said. “If I was in the hallway, the kids would ask, Mrs. Claney, when will we be observed again?”

Behind the brawl

Three things to know about the Tennessee school behind this week’s graduation brawl

PHOTO: Arlington Community Schools
Arlington High School is a 2,000-plus-student school in suburban Shelby County in southwest Tennessee.

Arlington High School is considered the crown jewel of a 3-year-old district in suburban Shelby County, even as its school community deals with the unwelcome attention of several viral videos showing a fight that broke out among adults attending its graduation ceremony.

The brawl, which reportedly began with a dispute over saved seats, detracted from Tuesday’s pomp and circumstance and the more than $30 million in scholarships earned by the school’s Class of 2017. No students were involved.

“It was unfortunate that a couple of adults in the audience exhibited the behavior they did prior to the ceremony beginning and thus has caused a distraction from the celebration of our students’ accomplishments,” Arlington Community Schools Superintendent Tammy Mason said in a statement.

Here are three things to know about the 13-year-old school in northwest Shelby County.

With more than 2,000 students, Arlington is one of the largest high schools in Shelby County and is part of a relatively new district.

It’s the pride of a suburban municipality that is one of six that seceded from Shelby County Schools in 2014 following the merger of the city and county districts the year before. (School district secessions are a national trend, usually of predominantly white communities leaving predominantly black urban school systems.) More than 70 percent of Arlington’s students are white, and 6 percent are considered economically disadvantaged — in stark contrast to the Memphis district where less than 8 percent are white, and almost 60 percent are considered economically disadvantaged.

The school’s graduation rate is high … and climbing.

Last year, after adding interventions for struggling students, the school’s graduation rate jumped a full point to more than 96 percent. Its students taking the ACT college entrance exam scored an average composite of 22.5 out of a possible 36, higher than the state average of 19.9. But only a fifth scored proficient or advanced in math and a third in English language arts during 2015-16, the last school year for which scores are available and a transition year for Tennessee under a new test.

PHOTO: Caroline Bauman
Education Commissioner Candice McQueen visits with students at Arlington High School during a 2016 tour.

The school was in the news last August when Tennessee Education Commissioner Candice McQueen visited its campus.

The commissioner spoke with students there to kick off her statewide listening tour that’s focused on ways to get students ready for college and career. McQueen highlighted the school’s extracurricular activities and students’  opportunities to intern for or shadow local professionals. She also complimented Arlington for having an engaged education community. 

poster campaign

How one Memphis student is elevating the conversation about school discipline

PHOTO: Laura Faith Kebede
Posters created by junior Janiya Douglas have amplified student voices about the culture of White Station High School in Memphis.

Now in her third year of attending a premier public high school in Memphis, Janiya Douglas says she’s observed discipline being handed out unevenly to her classmates, depending on whether they are on the college preparatory track.

PHOTO: Laura Faith Kebede
From left: Janiya Douglas and Michal Mckay are student leaders in Bridge Builders CHANGE program.

“We’re heavily divided in an academic hierarchy,” said Janiya, a junior in the optional program for high-achieving students at White Station High School. “It’s obvious students are treated differently if they are in traditional classes.”

Janiya also has observed racial disparities in how students are disciplined, and the state’s data backs that up. White Station students who are black or Hispanic are suspended at significantly higher rates than students who are white.

Frustrated by what she’s seen, Janiya took her concerns last Friday to the hallways of White Station and hung 14 posters to declare that “our school doesn’t treat everybody equally.”

By Monday morning, the posters were gone — removed by school administrators because Janiya did not get prior approval — but not before other students shared images of some of the messages on social media.

Now, Janiya is seeing some fruits of her activism, spawned by her participation in Bridge Builders CHANGE, a student leadership program offered by a local nonprofit organization.

In the last week, she’s met with Principal David Mansfield, a school counselor and a district discipline specialist to discuss her concerns. She’s encouraged that someone is listening, and hopes wider conversations will follow.

The discussions also are bringing attention to an online petition by the education justice arm of Bridge Builders calling for suspension alternatives across schools in Memphis.

White Station often is cited as one of the jewels of Shelby County Schools, a district wrought with academic challenges. The East Memphis school is partially optional, meaning some students test into the college prep program from across the county.

But Janiya and some of her classmates say they also see an academically and racially segregated school where students zoned to the traditional program are looked down upon by teachers. Those students often get harsher punishments, they say, than their optional program counterparts for the same actions.

“Our school doesn’t treat everybody equally. A lot of groups aren’t treated equally in our school system,” junior Tyra Akoto said in a quote featured on one poster.

“If we get wrong with a teacher, they’ll probably write us up. But if a white student was to do it, they’ll just play it off or something like that,” said Kelsey Brown, another junior, also quoted in the poster campaign.

A district spokeswoman did not respond to questions about disciplinary issues raised by the posters, but offered a statement about their removal from the school’s walls.

White Station is known for “enabling student voice and allowing students to express their opinions in various ways,” the statement reads. “However, there are protocols in place that must be followed before placing signs, posters, or other messages on school property. Schools administrators will always work with students to ensure they feel their voices are heard.”

PHOTO: @edj.youth/Instagram
Members of the education justice arm of the Bridge Builders CHANGE program

To create the posters, Janiya interviewed about two dozen students and had been learning about about school discipline disparities as part of the Bridge Builders CHANGE program.

State discipline data does not differentiate academic subgroups in optional schools. But white students in Shelby County Schools are more likely to be in an optional school program and less likely to be suspended. And statewide in 2014-15, black students were more than five times as likely as white students to be suspended.

White Station reflects those same disparities. About 28 percent of black boys and 19 percent of black girls were suspended that same year — significantly higher than the school’s overall suspension rate of 14 percent. About 17 percent of Hispanic boys and 7 percent of Hispanic girls were suspended. By comparison, 9 percent of white boys and 2 percent of white girls were suspended.

Shelby County Schools has been working to overhaul its disciplinary practices to move from punitive practices to a “restorative justice” approach — a transition that is not as widespread as officials would like, according to Gina True, one of four specialists implementing a behavior system called Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports, or PBIS.

“The whole goal is to not get them suspended, because we want to educate them,” said True, who met this week with Janiya and several other students from Bridge Builders. “When students are cared for emotionally, they perform better academically. As counselors, that’s what we’ve been saying for years.”

Janiya acknowledges that she didn’t follow her school’s policy last week when hanging posters without permission at White Station. But she thinks her action has been a catalyst for hard conversations that need to happen. And she hopes the discussions will include more student input from her school — and across the district.

“Those most affected by the issues should always be a part of the solution,” she said.

Correction: April 10, 2017: A previous version of this story said Janiya put up 50 posters at her school. She designed 50 but actually posted only 14.