College checklist

Memphis FAFSA drive seeks to build city’s college-going culture

PHOTO: Micaela Watts
Kirby High School senior Kimberly London hopes to attend the University of Memphis with financial aid. She recently completed her FAFSA form during the city's second annual FAFSA drive.

Kirby High School senior Kimberly London is the vice president of her class, president of the school’s honor society, and active in numerous extracurricular activities. But even she needs help overcoming the burdensome task of completing the Free Application for Federal Student Aid, or FAFSA, to secure financial aid for college.

“If I didn’t have this help, I probably wouldn’t have applied for financial aid,” says Kimberly, who finished her forms last month with support provided through a Memphis-wide FAFSA campaign. “If anything, I would think I just needed to work and struggle to be able to pay for college.”

Kimberly’s apprehension isn’t unique. That’s why community leaders are behind the push to help area high school seniors complete their FAFSA applications this month. The goal is to create a college-going culture in a city where building a college-trained and career-ready workforce is an ongoing challenge.

The city’s FAFSA campaign launched in early January and culminates this weekend with events in libraries, churches and schools to provide hands-on assistance. While the FAFSA deadline varies for different post-secondary schools, Feb. 15 is the cutoff for completion to remain eligible for Tennessee Promise, Gov. Bill Haslam’s initiative to provide eligible seniors with two free years of tuition at a community or technical college.

Last year, the first year of the Memphis FAFSA campaign, a network of more than 100 community organizations and high school counselors assisted more than 7,000 graduating seniors. Their work increased the city’s completion rate from 60 to 88 percent in Shelby County, according to leaders of Memphis Talent Dividend, an action initiative of Leadership Memphis.

Nationwide during 2015, the first year of eligibility for Tennessee Promise scholarships, Tennessee accounted for more than 40 percent of the increase in FAFSA completions

Opportunities after high school are especially critical in Memphis, where one in every five youth ages 16-24 are neither in school nor working, according to a 2015 study from Measure of America, a nonprofit organization that gathers data for social science policy. That makes Memphis the No. 1 large city in America for “disconnected youth,” the study says.

The FAFSA push also aligns with Shelby County Schools’ strategic plan known as Destination 2025, which aims for 80 percent of its seniors to graduate college- or career-ready, and to help 100 percent of those students enroll in college or other post-secondary opportunities.

But helping youth access funding is only part of the equation in pursuing a post-secondary education. The other challenge is making sure that parents complete the necessary financial information required under FAFSA, says Alton Cryer, coordinator for the Memphis campaign.

“The fact that they have to hand over their tax information, something that is really private, is unnerving,” Cryer said.

There are also social barriers. Many parents are caught up in systemic poverty and have little experience with government documentation outside of welfare applications or arrest records.

“If the system has let them down in many ways, then documentation is sometimes intimidating,” said the Rev. Eugene Gibson, senior pastor for the Olivet Fellowship Baptist Church, a Memphis congregation that is helping to spread the word about the city’s FAFSA drive.

The FAFSA process has been criticized as needlessly complex by U.S. Sen. Lamar Alexander. The Tennessee Republican and former governor has introduced federal legislation that would reduce the FAFSA paperwork from a hefty 108 questions down to two pertaining to family size and household income.

Until then, the FAFSA process likely will remain intimidating to many students, even high-achieving ones like Kimberly, who wants to study business marketing at the University of Memphis. She says assistance like her city’s FAFSA campaign will make a difference for seniors navigating the process.

“Scale of 1 to 10, the need for this is a 10,” she said.

language proficiency

Educators working on creating more bilingual students worry new state requirements aren’t high enough

A second grade class at Bryant Webster K-8 school in Denver (Joe Amon, The Denver Post).

Colorado educators who led the way in developing high school diploma endorsements recognizing bilingual students worry that new legislation establishing statewide standards for such “seals of biliteracy” sets the bar too low.

Two years ago, Denver Public Schools, Eagle County Schools and the Adams County School District 14 started offering the seal of biliteracy to their students. The three districts worked together to find a common way to assess whether students are fluent in English and another language, and recognize that on high school diplomas. Advocates say the seal is supposed to indicate to colleges and employers that students are truly bilingual.

A bill passed by state legislators this year that will go into effect in August sets a path for districts that want to follow that lead by outlining the minimum that students must do to prove they are fluent in English and in another language.

According to the new law, students must meet a 3.0 grade point average in their English classes and also earn a proficient score on the 11th grade state test, or on Advanced Placement or IB tests. For showing proficiency in the second language, students can either earn proficient scores on nationally recognized tests — or meet a 3.0 grade point average after four years of language classes.

Although educators say the law sends a message of support for bilingual education, that last criteria is one part of what has some concerned.

“It allows for proficiency in a world language to be established solely by completing four years of high school language classes,” said Jorge Garcia, executive director of the Colorado Association for Bilingual Education. “Language classes in one school district may have a different degree of rigor than they do in another.”

The second language criteria should be comparable to the English criteria, several educators said. In the requirements set by Denver, Eagle County and Adams 14, students must at a minimum demonstrate language proficiency through a test score, or in some cases with a portfolio review and interview if a test is not available.

The three districts also catered their requirements based on what each community said was important. In Adams 14 and in Eagle schools, students must perform community service using their language skills. Students also have to do an interview in both languages with a community panel.

“Our school district team developed the community service criteria because we wanted our kids to have authentic practice in their languages,” said Jessica Martinez, director of multilingual education for Eagle County Schools. “We also wanted students to be a bridge to another community than their own. For example, one group of students created academic tutoring services for their peers who don’t yet speak a lot of English. Another student started tutoring her mom and her parents’ friends so they could get their GED.”

The state law doesn’t require students to do community service. But it does allow school districts to go above the state’s requirements when setting up their biliteracy programs.

“Thoughtful school districts can absolutely address these concerns,” Garcia said.

Several school districts in the state are looking to start their own programs. In March, the school board for the Roaring Fork School District in Glenwood Springs voted to start offering the seal. Summit School District also began offering the seal this year.

Leslie Davison, the dual language coordinator for Summit, said that although her program will change in the next year as she forms more clear requirements around some new tests, she will continue to have higher requirements than the state has set.

This year her students had prove proficiency in their second language by taking a test in that language. They also had to demonstrate English proficiency through the ACT. In addition, students did oral presentations to the community in both languages.

“Their expectations aren’t as high as mine are,” Davison said. “We’ll probably stay with our higher-level proficiencies. I do have some work to do in terms of how that’s going to look for next year, but I certainly don’t want to just use seat time.”

Meanwhile, the districts that started the seal are increasing their commitment to biliteracy so as many students as possible can be eligible to earn seals in the future.

The Adams 14 school district in Commerce City is using Literacy Squared, a framework written by local researchers for teaching students to read English by strengthening literacy in the native language. The program is being rolled up year by year and will serve students in 34 classrooms from preschool through fourth grade in the fall.

In Eagle County, Martinez said parents have shown such a strong demand for biliteracy that most elementary schools are now dual language schools providing instruction to all students in English for half of the school day and in Spanish for the other half.

Both districts are also increasing the offerings of language classes in middle and high school. The options are important for students who are native English speakers so they too can become bilingual and access the seal. For students whose primary language is not English, the classes can help ensure they don’t lose their primary language as they learn English.

Of Eagle’s 25 students who graduated with a seal of biliteracy this year, 17 were native Spanish speakers and eight were native English speakers.

“We want all kids to see their bilingualism is an asset,” Martinez said. “It’s huge for them.”

 

back to the future

On display at Automotive High School: A plan to revitalize technical education

PHOTO: Monica Disare
At vocational education panel at Automotive High School

Brooklyn’s Automotive High School has long offered students the chance to learn how to fix a car’s engine or replace its brakes. But a different type of “vocational ed” was on display Thursday, when a neuroscientist, theoretical physicist and artificial intelligence engineer were among those gathered to talk about the future of career and technical education.

They were invited by Kate Yourke, founder of a program called Make: STEAM, which attempts to inspire learning by connecting students with hands-on activities in the sciences and arts.

Yourke says she has seen the demographics of Williamsburg and Greenpoint change and, at the same time, watched Automotive High School transition from a well-respected community hub to one of the lowest-performing schools in the city.

Yourke wants to help the school, in part by offering students the kind of technical education that will energize them. While she hopes to work with several schools in the neighborhood, Automotive is at the top of her list.

“I’ve always had this school in my heart because it’s incredible,” she said. “It’s an incredible place.”

Nationally, there has been a push to redefine vocational education and include career paths like computer science that, unlike traditional vocational ed, require more than a high school degree. (These newer programs, however, are often to difficult start in New York City.)

Yourke hopes that high-quality, hands-on learning will give students a deeper understanding of the world around them, crucial preparation for any career path.

Even complicated topics like theoretical physics can be broken down for students, she added. “There’s no reason why you can’t access this information in a way that they’re going to make meaning out of it,” she said.

To that end, Yourke is running a “Festival of Curiosity” on Saturday at Automotive High School, where students can participate in activities like making hot air balloons or learning to sew.

“I think the school needs to serve the community that it’s in,” Yourke said. “It needs to be a resource for our children.”