Corporal punishment

U.S. education chief wants Tennessee, other states to stop paddling their students

PHOTO: EWA/Katherine Taylor

U.S. Education Secretary John King on Tuesday urged Tennessee and 21 other states to stop allowing corporal punishment in schools, a practice he called “harmful, ineffective, and often disproportionately applied to students of color and students with disabilities.”

The nation’s education chief instead advocated the use of disciplinary measures that create a positive school climate and promote nonviolent techniques for conflict resolution.

King outlined his concerns in a letter to the governors and education chiefs of states that allow disciplinary techniques such as paddling or spanking.

“…  The very acts of corporal punishment that are permissible when applied to children in schools under some state laws would be prohibited as criminal assault or battery when applied to adults in the community in those very same states,” King wrote in his letter.

Corporal punishment is defined as intentionally inflicting pain to punish a child or in an attempt to change behavior. The U.S. Supreme Court ruled in 1977 that the practice does not violate constitutional rights. Tennessee is one of 15 states, most of which are in the South, that have policies allowing corporal punishment in public schools. Seven more indirectly allow it by not having a specific ban in place.

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Tennessee’s two largest school districts — Shelby County Schools and Metropolitan Nashville Public Schools — have banned corporal punishment, but it’s still allowed in several districts across the state.

Data collected by the U.S. Department of Education shows a racial gap in how corporal punishment is dispensed. Black boys are 1.8 times as likely as white boys, and black girls are 2.9 times as likely as white girls, to receive the disciplinary measure. And in nearly all of the states where the practice is permitted, students with disabilities were subjected to corporal punishment at higher rates than students without disabilities. Boys are also disproportionately impacted.

“These data and disparities shock the conscience,” King wrote.

King cited myriad research showing that physical punishment actually exacerbates poor behavior, rather than correcting it. Students that receive corporal punishment are more likely to be depressed or show antisocial behavior as adults.

One of the alternatives King proposed is restorative justice, which aims to address the root causes of disagreements and misbehavior through conversation rather than punishment. The practice is already gaining steam in schools in both Memphis and Nashville.

“The most frequently cited rationale (for corporal punishment) tends to be tradition and concern about how schools can ensure safe and orderly environments,” he told reporters in a briefing on Monday. “… (But) there are smarter ways to achieve safe and supportive environments.”

The letter comes as Tennessee grapples with school discipline data showing that school suspensions are concentrated at some of the state’s poorest, most segregated schools and disproportionately impact students of color.

Tennessee Department of Education spokeswoman Sara Gast said the state is redoubling efforts to promote “healthy and fair” discipline practices.

“Our state law specifically notes that each local board of education is responsible for adopting any rules they deem necessary on this topic,” she said. “While corporal punishment is legal, our state training and resources promote the use of restorative practices to foster positive discipline in schools.”

Disparities in discipline have been a rallying cry for the Obama administration, which has launched several initiatives aimed at decreasing racial disparities and increasing the use of alternatives to suspension, expulsion and corporal punishment.

It’s unclear how the administration of President-elect Donald Trump will approach the matter, but the head of the nation’s largest teachers union urged continued advocacy against corporal punishment, even as Obama’s administration ends.

“It does not matter who the secretary of education is. … This is a moral matter,” said Randi Weingarten, president of the American Federation of Teachers. “I don’t care if you are a Republican or a Democrat, a conservative or a progressive. …There is no earthly justification for paddling, caning or otherwise physically harming students in schools.”

hamming it up

History has its eyes on them: Watch these New York City students perform ‘Hamilton’-inspired raps

PHOTO: Monica Disare
Oluwafunmilayo Famuyiwa, a high school junior from Jamaica Gateway to the Sciences, during intermission at "Hamilton."

They paid tribute to the Boston Tea Party, honored “our first president, the one who made us relevant,” and traded a dizzying array of historical burns between a rapping Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton.

On Wednesday, students from 15 different New York City public high schools performed raps, songs, and spoken word about United States history on the Broadway set of “Hamilton” — the same stage where Lin-Manuel Miranda made hip-hop history a smash hit.

The students’ performances, and the chance to catch a matinee viewing of the show, were part of a Google-sponsored initiative that allowed 5,000 students across New York, Chicago and San Francisco to see the musical this week. (More than 20,000 students will attend Hamilton this school year, thanks to funding from the Rockefeller Foundation.)

In order to earn a ticket, students had to complete a six-week course about American history and come up with an original piece inspired by the show.

Sitting in one of the first rows during the “Hamilton” intermission, Oluwafunmilayo Famuyiwa, a high school junior from Jamaica Gateway to the Sciences, reflected on her own song. At first, she was nervous to take the stage, she said, but once the crowd began cheering, she started having fun. Her performance zeroed in on some of the events that led to the Revolutionary War.

“They just keep on taxing us. Without even asking us,” the song went. “Guess what? That’s not fair. But the British didn’t care.”

Asked during intermission to assess the show itself, she laughed and said that despite her solid ode to the Boston Tea Party, the actual cast was “way better.”

Here are three of our favorite student pieces:

taking initiative

Parents, students press Aurora school district to pass resolution assuring safety of immigrant students

A reading lesson this spring at an Aurora family resource center. (Kathryn Scott, The Denver Post).

As a mother of four U.S.-born schoolchildren, but being in the country illegally herself, Arely worries that immigration agents might pick her up while she is taking her kids to school one day.

But what worries her more is that her children could be picking up on her fears — and that it might hurt their focus in school. She’s also concerned for those immigrant students who could be at risk for deportation.

“There are a lot of us who are looking for the security or reassurance from the district — most of all, that our children will be safe,” said Arely, who spoke on the condition that her full name not be used because of her immigration status.

Dozens of Aurora students and parents, including Arely, are pressing the school board of Aurora Public Schools to adopt a proposed resolution for “safe and inclusive” schools that they say would help. While the Denver school board adopted a similar resolution in February, their peers in Aurora have yet to act.

“Knowing that Aurora doesn’t yet have a resolution makes me feel insecure,” Arely said.

A district spokesman said in an email the resolution won’t be on the agenda of the board’s next meeting, on Tuesday, but that it would be “part of the Board’s open dialogue.”

“Anytime the Board is contemplating a community request, the Board first openly discusses their interest in a public forum,” spokesman Corey Christiansen said. “If there is interest, the Board would decide to move forward at a future meeting to issue a statement.”

Two board members reached for comment Wednesday — Dan Jorgensen and Monica Colbert — both said they supported the resolution.

“I believe that not only do we have a legal obligation to serve all students, more importantly, we have a moral obligation to make sure that all of our students are in safe and inclusive environments,” Jorgensen said. “This resolution is about doing the right thing, including providing a public statement of support and directing reasonable action on behalf of all children in our schools.”

Colbert said not supporting the resolution would deny the strength of the district’s diversity.

“In a district like Aurora where our biggest strength is our diversity, for us not to adopt a resolution such as this would be not well serving of our students,” Colbert said.

The document presented by parents and students would direct the school district to ensure officials are not collecting information about the legal status of students or their families, that they keep schools safe for students and families, and that a memo the district sent to school leaders in February gets translated and made available to all families and all staff.

The memo outlines the procedures Aurora school leaders should follow if interacting with Immigration and Customs Enforcement agents at a school.

The resolution also calls for district officials to write a plan within 90 days for how to react if an immigration enforcement action prevents a parent from picking up a student from school.

The parents and students started sharing concerns at end of last year after President Trump’s election stoked fears in immigrant communities.

Working with RISE, a nonprofit that works with low-income parents to give them a voice in education issues, the parents and students researched other school district resolutions and worked on drafting their own.

“We didn’t want any words that seemed as if they were demanding,” Arely said. “We just want equality for our children.”

Anjali Ehujel, a 17-year-old senior at Aurora Central High School, said she has seen her friends suffering and worried a lot recently. The most important part of the resolution for her was making sure her fellow students were no longer so distracted.

“This is important because we all need education and we all have rights to get education,” Ehujel said.

Another student, Mu Cheet Cheet, a 14-year-old freshman at Aurora West College Preparatory Academy, said she got involved because she saw other students at her school bullied and depressed as they were teased about the possibility of being deported.

“For refugees they would just watch because they didn’t know how to help,” Cheet said. “When I came here, I also wanted to feel safe.”

Cheet, who came to the country as a refugee from Thailand seven years ago, found that working on the resolution was one way she could help.

More than 82 percent of the Aurora district’s 41,000 students are students of color. The city and district are one of the most diverse in the state.

“We really hope APS approves this resolution given it’s the most diverse district in the state,” said Veronica Palmer, the executive director of RISE Colorado.

Here is the draft resolution:



FINAL Resolution to Keep APS Safe and Inclusive 4 21 17 (Text)