Getting ready for school

How one program is training mothers, aunts and grandmothers in the ABCs of child care

PHOTO: Ann Schimke
During a recent PASO class, graduates of the program cared for the providers' children in the church nursery.

On a recent morning, 15 women gathered in a mint green classroom at First Lutheran Church in Longmont to learn more about the fundamentals of child care. They talked about mapping out daily schedules with time for reading activities, group play, meals and naps. They traded tips about the inexpensive educational materials available at Dollar Tree stores.

This was no Saturday morning babysitting boot camp. It was part of a 120-hour training course that will eventually earn participants a national child care credential.

What made the class unique was the women enrolled. Ranging in age from 20-something to 60-something, they were Spanish-speaking mothers, aunts and grandmas who care for the young children of friends and relatives in their homes. Some do it for free. Others earn a small wage.

Most are undocumented immigrants, and as a result not eligible to become licensed childcare providers in Colorado. Still, they are a critical part of Colorado’s early childhood workforce — one that is often overlooked in the policy realm.

In Colorado and nationally, so-called Family, Friend and Neighbor care is legal and ubiquitous. It cuts across racial and socioeconomic lines, with many parents choosing it because they know and trust the caregiver. While more than half of young Colorado children with working parents receive such care, the providers are often isolated and invisible.

“There’s not a database. They’re not connected to any system,” said Liz Houston, executive director of the Early Childhood Colorado Leadership Alliance.

This under-the-radar existence has meant little public awareness or support for such providers — and by extension the thousands of children in their care.

Two PASO participants work on an activity together at a recent class in Longmont.
Two PASO participants work on an activity together at a recent class in Longmont.

But with the growing push to make sure children are ready for school no matter what kind of child care they get, that’s changing.

The training session in Longmont is one example. It’s part of a program called Providers Advancing Student Outcomes, or PASO, run by the Colorado Statewide Parent Coalition. Funded mostly by grant money in four Front Range locations, it’s received national notice and represents one of the few initiatives targeted to Spanish-speaking providers.

“There’s not another program that’s as intensive as PASO out there,” said Valerie Gonzales, director of operations for the Colorado Statewide Parent Coalition.

There are other efforts, too, several coordinated by some the state’s early childhood councils. One, launched by the Denver Early Childhood Council with private grant money, was a shorter, less formal series of trainings for Family, Friend and Neighbor providers in two Denver neighborhoods. Both drew Spanish-speaking providers, although they were open to all providers. The Boulder, Arapahoe and Weld county councils have also led the way in working with Family, Friend and Neighbor providers, Houston said.

Houston’s organization, which works on behalf of Colorado’s 31 councils, also embarked on a recent effort to help unlicensed providers. Using $250,000 in federal money, the group awarded mini-grants to some Family, Friend and Neighbor providers who were seeking to become licensed.

Empowering providers

While the women in the church classroom got ready to break for lunch, PASO graduate Maria Perez recounted her own experience in the program six years ago.

Maria Perez, a PASO graduate, cares for children of current PASO participants.
Maria Perez, a PASO graduate, cares for children of current PASO participants.

She was caring for her aunt’s three children as well as two of her own at the time.

“We didn’t know anything when we started,” she said. “It’s true. The first day I came I was like, ‘Wow, we know nothing about early education.”

But she stuck with it, earning a perfect attendance certificate and coming to appreciate how each class connected to the last like a series of train cars. Today, Perez, who arrived here from Mexico 11 years ago, heads the team that provides child care in the church nursery during PASO classes. She seeks out other PASO graduates to assist her because she knows they’re well-trained.

Perez is an enthusiastic evangelist for the program and the parent empowerment it promotes. Since she took the course, which is led by instructors known as “tias” or aunts, she’s referred 10 other women.

She also urges parents of her young charges to get involved in their kids’ schools and in the community. She points to her 17-year-old son — a responsible boy who’s helpful with his younger siblings and taking Advanced Placement classes at school.

“This is thanks to the fact that I am always involved,” she said. “And I am always trying to learn in any program…I always tell that to the parents; ‘Go to the classes and pay attention.’”

Flor Marquez, community engagement coordinator for Denver’s Early Childhood Council, found the same kind of enthusiasm in the training sessions she led in northeast and southwest Denver over the summer.

Participants, who learned about topics such as child abuse prevention, nutrition and discipline, saw the power in educating themselves, she said.

“They didn’t want the group to end,” she said

In fact, the southwest Denver group didn’t end. The women in it decided to keep meeting weekly even after its official conclusion. There’s no more grant money to support it, but Marquez helps out when she can.

Expensive work

Preliminary findings from an outside evaluation also show PASO is working. Besides significantly increasing providers’ scores on performance assessments, it showed that children in their care made gains too, especially on social-emotional skills.

It’s not cheap. The classes, coaching and materials cost about $10,000 per person.

“There is sticker shock,” said Gonzales.

Currently, PASO is grant-funded and gets some additional dollars from the Boulder Valley and St. Vrain Valley school districts. In Aurora, the program is now on hiatus because the grant money recently ran out.

Gonzales wishes state money were available to help.

Some critics have argued that undocumented immigrants don’t deserve such support, but Gonzales notes that the children served by such providers are typically born here and will attend school here. Most come from low-income Latino families and will be on the wrong side of the achievement gap if they don’t get a strong start.

Marquez said much of the state funding available to help child care providers improve is focused on those who are already licensed or heading in that direction.

“I definitely think it creates a huge challenge…because these are grassroots programs that require a lot of time and effort for recruitment and sustainability,” she said.

With no master list of Family, Friend and Neighbor providers, groups that want to work with them spend lots of time on outreach — going to churches, laundromats, community events and even door-to-door.

Houston, who is hoping to secure another round of state funding for mini-grants, said while the state has done a tremendous job making improvements to its licensed child care system, more needs to be done for Family, Friend and Neighbor providers.

“It’s in the best interest of all of us to support providers across the board,” she said.

paycheck parity

How a rural preschool overcame an industrywide challenge and paid teachers more

PHOTO: Marcia Walter
Marcia Walter, a teacher and the director at Dragon's Wagon Preschool, reads to her students.

Marcia Walter has worked at Dragon’s Wagon Preschool in the small town of Holyoke in northeastern Colorado for more than 25 years — starting as a teacher’s aide and working her way up to director.

In August, she got some news that made her cry: She was getting a raise.

It wasn’t a modest cost-of-living raise. It was a whopping 44 percent increase that bumped her annual salary from $32,000 to $46,000. At the same time, the preschool’s board approved increases for other staff members, and for the first time, put in place a salary schedule.

The changes came out of a years-long process by the 10-member board to better match staff salaries with those of local school district employees. The effort represents a unique victory in a field where low wages are the norm and some child care employees earn so little they qualify for public assistance. It also provides a glimpse into the complicated funding puzzle that many preschools and child care centers face when it’s time to build their budgets.

“I’m proud of where we’ve come from and where we are now,” said Tracy Stegg, a Dragon’s Wagon board member. “They deserve it.”

On average, early childhood workers nationwide earn $10.60 an hour, according to a 2016 report put out by the U.S. Department of Education and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Those with at least a bachelor’s degree earn $14.70, about half of what other kinds of workers with bachelor’s degrees earn.

At Dragon’s Wagon — where the classroom walls are painted with rolling green hills, kite-flying bunnies and shoe-nibbling puppies — the board began talking about raises a couple years ago. Aside from Walter, the preschool’s other employees had all turned over in the space of four years, said board member Deb Williamson, who is vice president of the local bank.

“It opens your eyes,” she said. “Maybe we need to look at why we’re losing people.”

The board began to think harder about the importance of consistency for the 67 children who spend four half-days a week at Dragon’s Wagon and the ease with which Walter, a lead teacher, could find better-paying work if she wanted to.

She was nurturing and dedicated. She’d gone back to school to get her bachelor’s degree at the board’s urging. And like all of the preschool’s employees, Walter didn’t get employer-provided health insurance.

To help settle on a new compensation system, the board looked at the salaries offered by the local school district as well as a handful of other child care providers in the region. In addition to Walter’s $14,000 raise, they decided to raise the salary of the assistant director, who’d been at the preschool for two years, from $26,000 to $32,000. Teacher’s aides also got a boost, moving from $8.50 an hour to $10.

So, how did they come up with more than $20,000 to increase staff pay?

There was no magic bullet. Board members said they’d accumulated a small “nest egg” by squirreling away money in years there was a budget surplus. In addition, they relied on grants, tuition money, fundraising dollars from the school’s annual spaghetti supper and auction, and state money they received for serving at-risk students and those with special needs.

Asked how other preschools or child care centers might achieve such salary improvements, Stegg said a proactive board and careful planning helps.

Walter, who started working at Dragon’s Wagon in 1989, said community buy-in is critical. Residents — many of whom work at nearby hog farms, the local grain elevator or the hospital — have relied on and supported the preschool for years.

Kathy Miller, a regional support specialist for the state’s Colorado Preschool Program, said she considers the salary increases a “beautiful example” but expressed concern that the changes can’t be easily replicated elsewhere.

“I think it’s a model,” said Miller, who works with child care sites, including Dragon’s Wagon, within an eight-school district region. “I just don’t know if it’s possible in all communities.”

There are tight state and school district budgets to contend with, the public misconception that early childhood teachers are glorified babysitters and the fact that busy preschool directors may not be forging close connections with local business leaders, she said.

For Dragon’s Wagon, the challenge ahead will be sustaining the raises.

“I hope they can keep that up,” Miller said.

Tuition, which has remained at $80 a month for the last eight years, may eventually increase, Williamson said. Preschool leaders are also highlighting the new pay structure in grant applications, after learning that some foundations are eager to know about such improvements.

For her part, Walter is confident that the board has done its due diligence. She’d been privy to conversations about staff salaries for years. In fact, back in August, she knew she’d be getting a raise herself— she just didn’t know how big it would be.

“It made me realize that they do appreciate everything we do and that we’re worth it,” she said.

Q&A

Denver’s citywide effort to help poor children read better — explained

PHOTO: Lisa Roy
Lisa Roy, Denver Public Schools' new executive director of early childhood, started in October

Lisa Roy became Denver Public Schools’ executive director of early education — a newly created position — in October.

She’ll play a key role in launching the “Birth to Eight Roadmap,” a community effort aimed at improving literacy outcomes among young children living in areas of concentrated poverty in Denver.

Before coming to DPS, Roy was executive director of the Denver-based Timothy and Bernadette Marquez Foundation and did consulting for Grantmakers for Education, a national network of education grant-makers. She’s also worked for two other Denver-based foundations: the Piton Foundation and the Daniels Fund.

We sat down with Roy this week to discuss her background, her new position and the road map’s recommendations.

The interview has been edited for clarity and length.

What was your own early childhood experience like?
My great-grandfather was the superintendent of schools for Frederick County, Maryland, and he built one of the first high schools for African-American kids. So he was what was called the Superintendent of Colored Schools at the turn of the last century.

My grandmother and all of her siblings were teachers, and so my early childhood experience was actually my grandmother. She was a stay-at-home grandmom and took care of me and my cousins and siblings and we got a great experience. Of course, there was the ruler when I mispronounced words — a little slap on the hand — and I had to do my little rhyming before I could eat lunch or breakfast.

What was it like when your school was integrated when you were in kindergarten?
I didn’t really think about it. I had seen white kids on television and in the supermarket. I don’t think that part was as shocking. As I got older, it was a little different because I realized I was invisible. Obviously, I tested well and was put in an advanced track. It was myself and one other schoolmate that went through this advanced track together until we graduated from elementary school.

For me growing up, there was also this dissonance around if you were doing well in school somehow that meant you were trying to assimilate as opposed to this was my family background. I didn’t know how else to be.

What is the Birth to Eight Roadmap?
It’s a partnership between the City and County of Denver, Denver Public Schools and a myriad of nonprofit partners to provide supports and services around language and literacy from birth to third grade.

We have 11 different recommendations — from having an early opportunity system which ensures that kids have the developmental screenings they need and are provided the services to keep them at grade level, to hubs, which could be community-based or school-based opportunities to provide supports and services to families.

Has Denver Public Schools done anything like this before?
No, not like this. DPS and the city did work hand-in-hand with then-Mayor (John) Hickenlooper on the first Denver Preschool Program ballot initiative (which provides preschool tuition assistance for Denver 4-year-olds through a city sales tax ), but it was a very discrete ballot initiative. It wasn’t meant to solve every issue around birth to age 8. It was 4-year-olds only.

This has never been done before because it’s crossing the boundaries of what DPS is responsible for and what the community and parents are responsible for. It’s this opportunity to collaborate with parents, collaborate with nonprofit programs and child care centers, collaborate even within the district, across departments.

What is the goal of the Birth to Eight Roadmap?
The ultimate goal is that kids are reading proficiently and above by third grade.

We understand that when kids get to kindergarten it’s too late. About 38% of our children have no formal pre-K experience. We want to ensure our teachers are able to individualize according to where kids are, and their backgrounds and experiences … but also to try to the raise the percentage of kids who have some type of exposure (to early learning).

Not all parents are going to pick formal pre-K. But some of them might be willing to do a play-and-learn group or join the family literacy program or do Parents as Teachers or Home Instruction for Parents and Preschool Youngsters. We want to provide more opportunities like that with the collaboration.

What will the resource hubs will entail?
One example that we have in Denver Public Schools already is College View Academy, which has everything from play-and-learn groups to English as a Second Language and GED (classes) for parents. They even have opportunities for parents who are interested in going into the teaching profession to start off as a paraprofessional.

Again, this underlying theme around language and literacy is there throughout the building— with other supports that families need to succeed. Keep in mind that every neighborhood looks different.

How many hubs will there be and where?
We’re hoping to launch five, but keep in mind these are not hubs from scratch. These are hubs that have a lot of comprehensive services (now).

Right now, we have College View Academy, Place Bridge Academy, a school for immigrants and refugees; Florence Crittenton High School, a school for pregnant and parenting teens; and Focus Points Family Resource Center, near Swansea Elementary.

What do you see as the biggest challenge in implementing the Roadmap recommendations?
Well, it could be like herding cats. When you’re dealing with a lot of different people that have to raise their own funding, that are in various communities … it makes an interesting avenue to launch this kind of work.

What’s the timeline for the Roadmap?
Some of these things will be going to go on into perpetuity I would hope. But for the next three to four years we’re going to intensively look at three different phases. By the end of four years, it will really take shape, in a way you can say, “Yes, that’s the result of the Birth to Eight Roadmap.”