In the Classroom

A strong push is needed to make discipline more fair for all students, panelists say

PHOTO: Alan Petersime

Fixing problems in schools that cause black children to face harsher discipline than white students is not an easy challenge to overcome, but local education leaders say building stronger relationships between students and teachers is an essential piece of the puzzle.

When it comes to school discipline, the odds are stacked against black students in Indiana.

They are more likely than their peers to be suspended or expelled from school, no matter whether their school has few black students or many. That can have a ripple effect, dragging down their academic performance and increasing the chance that black children will drop out of school.

A panel discussion examining the issue, hosted by The Mind Trust and the UNCF tonight, drew about 70 attendees, including leaders such as Indianapolis Mayor Joe Hogsett and Indianapolis Public Schools Superintendent Lewis Ferebee.

Indiana data reveals that black students are suspended or expelled at alarmingly high rates compared to their peers. Although they make up just 12 percent of the children in Indiana schools, about 40 percent of students who are suspended or expelled are black, according to Russell Skiba, director of The Equity Project at Indiana University, which tracks disparities in discipline.

It’s easy to think of suspensions and expulsions as a last resort for students who are dangerous or violent. But in fact, only 5 percent of suspensions and expulsions stem from battery, drug-related or violent incidents.

Many students are punished severely for subjective offenses, such as defiance, said Carole Craig, a veteran educator, member of the NAACP education committee and one of the panelists. In order for Indiana to reduce discipline disparities, schools should only be allowed to suspend students for dangerous behavior, she said.

“It’s the policy that’s allowing this. It’s not the behavior of the students,” she said. “We have to look at how do we view race, what are our unbiased opinions about, what kind of perceptions do we have about black males?”

Harsh discipline can have disastrous ramifications for students, reducing the time they spend in school learning and dramatically increasing the chance that they will drop out of school, according to a research summary from Skiba.

The key to reducing suspensions among black students is strong relationships with teachers, said Wanda Legrand, IPS deputy superintendent for academics. Relationships are the bedrock of alternative discipline programs that are less punitive than suspension, she said.

“Relationships with students will eliminate most of the problems that you see in classrooms,” said Legrand, who is implementing race and equity training for the district.

Ahmed Young, who leads Hogsett’s education team, echoed the importance of getting to know students. When he was teaching, his first priority was showing students that he cared about their lives, Young said.

“As a teacher, I would spend the first almost two or three weeks not touching the standards, not touching the curriculum, not touching a single book, but really getting to know each and every one of my students,” he said. “It laid the foundation to have those difficult conversations to address those really substantive issues that each child comes into the classroom with.”

But many teachers don’t have the time or opportunity to build such deep relationships with all of their students. Schools are short on support staff, like counselors, and they don’t have the resources to provide adequate teacher training, Craig said.

“You really want to take a prep period or lunch period to talk and give students that personal attention, (but) you don’t really have that,” Craig said. “Our teachers are absolutely stretched.”

How I Teach

Interested in classroom technology? This first grade teacher has a wealth of ideas.

PHOTO: Bretta Loeffler
Bretta Loeffler, a first grade teacher in the Adams 12 district, works with students.

How do teachers captivate their students? Here, in a feature we call How I Teach, we ask great educators how they approach their jobs. You can see other pieces in this series here.

Teacher Bretta Loeffler loves mixing technology into her lessons. You might find her first-graders at Hulstrom K-8, a school for gifted and advanced students in the Adams 12 school district north of Denver, producing a newscast about the Liberty Bell or creating an online quiz about dolphins. Soon, she’ll add a 3D printer to the mix.

Loeffler was one of 52 educators nationwide — the only one from Colorado — selected as a 2017 PBS Digital Innovator in April. Winners were picked for integrating digital media and resources into their classrooms.

Loeffler talked to Chalkbeat about her favorite technologies, why she loves the zoo animal unit and how she uses the voice-activated Echo Dot device to get her students’ attention.

This interview has been condensed and lightly edited.

Why did you become a teacher?
I have always wanted to be a teacher because I’ve always had a need to help others. I knew that I loved learning so I wanted to pass on this passion to my students.

What does your classroom look like?
My classroom is a fun, inviting place to learn. I have a mixture of innovative new technology like iPads, interactive whiteboards, QR codes and soon a 3D printer, and also traditional items like a wonderful classroom library with lots of books, posters and items made by the students to support their learning.

Fill in the blank. I couldn’t teach without my __________. Why?
My students’ energy. It is what drives me to work hard each and every day. They fuel what I do.

What is one of your favorite lessons to teach?
I love teaching the students about researching animals. We take virtual and real field trips to zoos. We love watching the animal cams of the different animals. We take our information and write a traditional animal report. Then we mix in new technology. The students find a background that represents their animals’ habitat and make a mask of the animal. Then we greenscreen the report and make a QR code to share our information with the world. We also use the quiz-making application TinyTap that helps us share our information with other students all over the world.

I have many standards that I must cover, including animal research and publishing writing in an innovative way. So, my teammates and I decided on this format.

How do you respond when a student doesn’t understand your lesson?
I think of students who aren’t understanding like a puzzle. I think about what they do know and then think about the roadblocks that are holding them back. Then I put a plan in place. I really believe in blending learning and try having the students learn the concept in different ways like with music or in a more visual format. We use an application called Blendspaces that allows me to create interactive lessons using different kinds of media, including video, audio, games and pdfs.

I love teaching fractions and having all the students watching and interacting with the content in a way that makes sense for them. It is powerful and engaging for the students. I also believe in students teaching students. In our room, students will be showing work using Apple TV or doing gallery walks to showcase learning.

How do you get your class’s attention if students are talking or off task?
We have many attention-getting sayings. For example, I say “Hulstrom,” and they say “All-Stars.” My new toy is an Echo Dot. I use it to set timers and get students attention. It really seems to be working. However, the newness will wear off and then I’ll need to look for something new and improved.

How do you get to know your students and build relationships with them?
The last few years I have used an app called Seesaw. It is a digital portfolio that students can use. I get messages and pictures from students all during the year — during weekends, holidays, trips and other events. This helps me get to know them outside of school and makes learning and community go 24/7. I can also send out videos, pictures and other items to parents as they are happening in our day. This helps build relationships in a fun and meaningful way.

Tell us about a memorable time — good or bad — when contact with a student’s family changed your perspective or approach.
I think that I will always remember a student who came to our class after a traumatic experience at another school. He was shy and a little scared. His mom really wanted to make sure he was safe and in a school he enjoyed. I understood her sense of urgency. I could see it in her face and hear it in her voice. As a mom, I know that you want your child to have the best. I also wanted him to feel safe and happy at school. That year I had a remarkable class that loved learning and each other. They took him in and within a few days he looked and felt a part of our classroom community. I could see the mom start to relax and feel better. We are still in contact and she still reminds me about how as a team we took something bad and turned it into something positive.

What are you reading for enjoyment?
I wish I could list books that I am reading, but being a busy teacher doesn’t leave me much time to spend on reading. However, I am always reading blogs and connecting with other teachers to share and build on ideas. Some of my favorite blogs are Free Technology for Teachers, First Grade Fun Times, Seesaw Blog, TinyTap blog, Fearless First Grade Teachers and Education to the Core. I enjoy social media very much. I also love Pinterest.

What’s the best advice you ever received?
I think the best advice I have received is from former teachers and colleagues and that is to find enjoyment in what you do and share that with the students, families and other teachers. When I have that I can pass that along to others. This job is too hard to do without helping each other out.

Music and power

This Detroit teacher uses music to expose students to history, politics and power. ‘They walk in here and they don’t even know who they are.’

PHOTO: Erin Einhorn
Central High School teacher Quincy Stewart uses music to teach African-American history to his students. "These children have been robbed by this system. ... They’ve been miseducated, undereducated and misused," he said.

As soon as Quincy Stewart started teaching music, he realized that harmonies and melodies would never be enough — not nearly enough for a man determined to connect his students with their history and culture.

“I’m a black man and these are black children,” said Stewart, 59, a music teacher, band leader and choir director at Detroit’s Central High School. “These children have been robbed by this system, from the cradle until right now. They’ve been miseducated, undereducated and misused …. They walk in here and they don’t even know who they are.”

So Stewart’s music classes — whether he’s teaching music theory, music appreciation or the fundamentals of playing piano — take kids on a tour through black history, from the nations of Africa to Black Power and Civil Rights.  

At a time when music classes are seen as a luxury in many schools, with districts cutting arts instruction in favor of math and reading, Stewart’s approach to teaching music demonstrates that it doesn’t have to be one or the other.  The arts can be deeply integrated into core subjects.

Stewart teaches math by walking music theory students through the mathematical details of musical scoring.

He teaches writing by insisting that students write several papers a year on themes covered in class. He cuts them no break on grammar or format, marking up papers with a red pen in a manner more typical of English teachers than of those whose certifications are in instrumental music.

“Some of your papers look like a blood transfusion when I get done,” Stewart told a group of students on a recent morning. “That’s because y’all can’t write.”

But it’s history, power and politics that get the most attention in his classes.

“I found that a majority of my students didn’t know anything about … their own history,” he said.

Students knew about George Washington and Thomas Jefferson — but hadn’t gotten the full story.

“They were slaveholders and racists and white supremacists,” Stewart said. “So once we debunk all of the myths … then we get to open up that can of worms about uncovering black history and we use music to do it.”

PHOTO: Erin Einhorn
Music teacher Quincy Stewart incorporates math, writing and history in his music classes at Detroit’s Central High School

He starts his class with Africa, playing students the music of the Akan and the Ashanti people, the music of Ghana, Mali and Timbuktu.

“We’ve traveled all the way from the west coast of Africa to Jamaica and the islands to Virginia,” Stewart said. “We moved through slavery up until the first part of the 20th century and we get into Rosewood, to Oklahoma, into all those so-called race riots where blacks were slaughtered because they had towns of their own and the corresponding music that goes with it. This is the time of Louis Armstrong. This is the time of Freddie Keppard. This is the time of Bessie Smith. So we play the music from there.”

On a recent morning, he peppered his students with questions about Black Panther Party leader Fred Hampton. He drilled them on Hampton’s background, the details of the 1969 Chicago police raid that killed him and the FBI COINTELPRO operation that targeted him and other leaders of 1960s-era social movements.

“And what were some of the songs that were playing at the time of the Black Power movement?” he asked his students. “Give me some songs!”

Stewart questioned his class about the ethics of Civil Rights and Black Power leaders who worked as FBI informants and pressed them to say if, during slavery, they would have considered informing on other slaves in a bid to secure their own freedom. (One student volunteered that he’d gladly choose freedom regardless of the consequences to others).

Stewart even used the arrival of a mouse that came scurrying across his classroom as a teaching moment, comparing the rodent’s struggle to the history of African Americans in the United States.

“I’ve tried to kill him but he’s an elusive mouse,” Stewart said. “He knows his rat history. He knows that down through history, human beings don’t like him. He knows that down through history, people have set traps for him. He knows that down through history, people are out to get him. He’s become very crafty at getting away, waiting until my back is turned and then he runs.”

Stewart’s students say the history lessons have been eye-opening.

“When I signed up for this class, I thought I’d be going over Beethoven and classical artists and stuff but I found information about myself, my history,” said student Lamont Hogan. “This class gave me more information about myself than I could even imagine. Things that I never would have known and never would have imagined without Mr. Stewart teaching.”

Teaching at Central hasn’t been easy, Stewart said.

The state-run Education Achievement Authority, which took over Central and 14 other low-performing Detroit schools in 2012, has undergone dramatic changes in recent years and is going through another transition now as its schools return to the main Detroit district next week.

The changes have taken a toll on teachers and students, said Stewart, who came to the school in 2012, the first year of the EAA.

“It’s kind of like being … at the bottom of a latrine,” Stewart said. “The biggest thud from what comes into a latrine lands at the bottom … Us teachers have really felt the thud of the crap.”

He hasn’t been able to get the resources he felt he needed for his classroom. When he took over a music program that had lost most of its musical equipment to theft before he arrived, he used his own money to buy things like drums, keyboards and guitars for his students to use, he said.

PHOTO: Erin Einhorn
Music teacher Quincy Stewart said he used his own money to buy many of the musical instruments his students use at Detroit’s Central High School.

Attendance has also been an issue. His first-hour class on a morning in early June had just eight students — a fraction of the 24 enrolled.

“A lot of kids don’t have transportation,” he said. “Some are catching three and four buses to get here and, I hate to say it, but … some of it is just lack of parental support telling them to get their ass up and get to school. They have the liberty of coming to school, in many cases, when they feel like it.”

Now the latest challenge Stewart is facing is a likely cut to his salary.

He is among EAA teachers bracing for dramatic pay cuts when their schools return to the main district.

But Stewart says he’s looking forward to his first summer off in years. Since EAA teachers were required to work through the summer, the school’s return to the Detroit Public Schools Community District will mean a chance for Stewart to spend the summer playing music and performing. He is a professional musician who says he toured the world before going into teaching in his 40s.

Stewart doesn’t know what will happen next year as Central gets a new principal and as that principal responds to changes from the new Detroit superintendent. He said he plans to keep teaching this way as long as he is permitted to do so.

“I have what I can give them and I’m going to give it to them,” he said. “And if a principal comes in here and tells me I can’t do it, then that’s the day I quit. I leave. Period. Because I’m not here for the money. There is no money.”

PHOTO: Erin Einhorn
Central High School music teacher Quincy Stewart is a professional musician who got into teaching in his 40s. He played guitar during a choir rehearsal on a recent morning.