school closures

City plans to close struggling Bronx middle school that faced threat of state takeover

PHOTO: Alex Zimmerman
J.H.S. 162 Lola Rodriguez De Tio.

New York City will shutter a long-struggling Bronx middle school that has been under threat of state takeover, according to a city plan released Friday, and open a new school in its place.

The plan to close J.H.S. 162 Lola Rodriguez de Tio at the end of the school year allows the city to skirt a state program that would have forced the city to either name an independent manager to run the school or take more dramatic action. An “independent monitor” selected by Chancellor Carmen Fariña and approved by the state education commissioner will oversee the closure.

City officials say they want to open a new school in the building in time for the 2017-18 school year with a dual-language and STEM program, pending state approval.

“This proposed plan is what’s best for the J.H.S. 162 community,” District 7 Superintendent Elisa Alvarez said in a statement, “and I’ll continue to work closely in the coming weeks and months to provide a smooth transition and support students, families and school staff throughout the process.”

The decision is a first step toward clarity for the J.H.S. 162’s teachers and students, who have been waiting to find out how the state’s rules would affect its future. If the plan is approved, many may not return: the school’s current sixth and seventh graders will be able to choose the new school or other nearby options, and teachers will have to compete with others for jobs at the newly created school.

A sudden closure would be a rare move for the de Blasio administration. But the uncertainty that has swirled around J.H.S. 162 this year was a microcosm of the conflict between the city’s approach to improving its struggling schools and a more aggressive approach codified in state law.

Under the state’s 2015 receivership law, schools that had performed poorly on state tests for years were given only a year or two to show academic gains or face the prospect of outside management. The city, meanwhile, has been infusing schools like J.H.S. 162 with extra resources and social services while expecting incremental but steady improvement.

By a couple of measures, J.H.S. 162 was showing signs of improvement. Last year, the school met most of its goals within the city’s “Renewal” turnaround program, and its low English proficiency rates rose from 4 percent to 9 percent. Only 3 percent of its students were proficient in math.

It has also maintained enrollment of roughly 375 students over the past several years, underscoring the unusual nature of the closure. Recently, the city has closed schools immediately when sagging enrollments made them effectively unsustainable.

In recent weeks, there has been little organization at the school to save J.H.S. 162 from closure — neither parent groups nor the school’s principal have spoken out. Even though the city formally submitted its proposal earlier this week, school officials were apparently not part of the decision to close the school, and several parents said there was confusion about the school’s future.

Multiple parents said the school seemed to be making progress. Nelson Santiago, whose daughter attends sixth grade, pointed out that J.H.S. 162 was removed last year from the state’s list of persistently dangerous schools.

But, he said, he was not necessarily opposed to a closure.

“If it’s not up to par, then that means my daughter’s education is not up to par,” he said.

City officials said that parents received phone calls and letters about the plan Friday, and that a town hall meeting was scheduled at the school on Monday at 6 p.m. The proposal must also be approved by the city’s Panel for Education Policy, which will likely vote on the plan in February.

By the numbers

Early reports indicate New York opt-out rates are decreasing statewide, a possible sign of eased tension

PHOTO: Ann Schimke

Early opt-out estimates started rolling in Wednesday, the day after students sat for their first round of New York state standardized tests this year.

The number of families refusing to take the controversial tests seems to have decreased slightly in Rochester, the Hudson Valley, Buffalo and Albany. In Long Island, typically an opt-out hotbed, the rates thus far seem similar to last year. It’s still too soon to tell in New York City, but the number of families refusing to take tests has been traditionally been much lower in the city than in the rest of the state.

These are only preliminary numbers, based mostly on reports from school districts. Both High Achievement New York and New York State Allies for Public Education are tracking these reports closely and providing early tallies. The state will release an official tally this summer and would not provide any information at this time. But if it is true that opt-out rates are declining, it could be a sign that tension is slowly seeping out of what has been a charged statewide education debate.

“I think slowly and steadily, the situation is calming,” said Stephen Sigmund, executive director of High Achievement New York, a coalition of groups that promotes testing. “The changes that the state made are good changes and have helped calm the water.”

On the other side, Lisa Rudley, a founding member of New York State Allies for Public Education, said the numbers still look strong, the decreases are “very minor” and there is still a lot of information to be collected.

“The reality is, whether the numbers go up or down, there’s still a major problem with the testing in our state,” Rudley said.

Over the past few years, the number of families opting their children out of tests statewide has been on an upward trajectory, as teachers and parents protested what they saw as an inappropriate emphasis on testing. (There are currently three testing sessions each for English and math administered to students in public school grades 3-8.)

Backlash to the tests heightened in response to the state’s decision to adopt the Common Core learning standards and to tie those test results to teacher evaluations. The opt-out rate climbed to one in five students in 2015.

Partly in response to the movement, the state began to revise learning standards and removed grades 3-8 math and English tests from teacher evaluations tied to consequences. The Board of Regents selected a new leader, Betty Rosa, endorsed by opt-out supporters. Last year, the tests themselves were shortened slightly and students were given unlimited time to complete them. But, officials were unable to quell the tension. Roughly the same number of students sat out of the tests last year as the year before.

It’s difficult to estimate whether the opt-out rate has increased or decreased in New York City yet, said Kemala Karmen, a New York City representative for NYSAPE. She said that, anecdotally, in schools she has been in contact with, opt-out rates have either remained constant or decreased. Yet she has also heard of opt-outs in schools that had not reported them in the past. Karmen is also critical of the state’s changes to testing, which she thinks do not do nearly enough to assuage parents’ concerns.

New York City has traditionally had much lower opt-out rates than the rest of the state. While statewide 21 percent of families opted out last year, less than three percent did in the city. In part that’s because the movement hasn’t taken hold with as strongly with black and Hispanic families, who make up the majority of the city’s student body. Still, the movement’s political ramifications are being felt statewide.

iZone lite

How Memphis is taking lessons from its Innovation Zone to other struggling schools

PHOTO: Laura Faith Kebede
From left: Sharon Griffin, now chief of schools for Shelby County Schools, confers with Laquita Tate, principal of Ford Road Elementary, part of the Innovation Zone during a 2016 visit.

One of the few qualms that Memphians have with Shelby County’s heralded school turnaround initiative is that more schools aren’t in it.

The district’s Innovation Zone has garnered national attention for its test score gains, but it’s expensive. Each iZone school requires an extra $600,000 annually to pay for interventions such as an extra hour in the school day, teacher signing and retention bonuses, and additional specialists for literacy, math and behavior.

But instead of just replicating the whole iZone model, the district is trying a few components on some of its other struggling schools.

PHOTO: Caroline Bauman
Whitehaven High School is the anchor school for the Empowerment Zone, the first initiative to employ lessons learned from the iZone.

Last year, Superintendent Dorsey Hopson launched the Empowerment Zone, a scaled-down version of the iZone for five Whitehaven-area schools in danger of slipping to the lowest rankings in the state. The iZone’s most expensive part — one hour added to the school day — was excluded, but the district kept teacher pay incentives and principal freedoms. And teachers across the five schools meet regularly to share what’s working in their classrooms.

This year, district leaders are seeking to inject iZone lessons in 11 struggling schools that Hopson would rather transform than close. His team has been meeting with the principals of those “critical focus schools” to come up with customized plans to propel them out of the state’s list of lowest-performing schools.

As part of that effort, Hopson’s budget plan calls for providing $5.9 million in supports, including $600,000 for retention bonuses for top-ranked teachers at those schools. Spread across the 11 schools, that investment would shake out to about $100,000 less per school than what the iZone spends.

“We’re trying to provide targeted academic support based on the individual school needs. And that can include a lot of our learnings from the iZone as well as a host of other suggestions,” Hopson told school board members last month.

The iZone launched in 2012 and now has 21 schools in some of Memphis’ most impoverished neighborhoods. The initiative was thrust into the national spotlight after a 2015 Vanderbilt University study found the turnaround effort had outpaced test gains of similarly poor-performing Memphis schools in a state-run turnaround district.

Overseeing the iZone has been Sharon Griffin, the former principal who has become Hopson’s chief catalyst and ambassador on school improvements happening in Tennessee’s largest district. In January, he promoted Griffin from chief of the iZone to chief of schools for the entire district.

Griffin has long touted good leadership as the key to the iZone’s successes. The turnaround model relies on placing top principals in struggling schools and giving them the autonomy to recruit effective teachers to put in front of students. Academic supports and daily collaboration across iZone schools are also important tenets.

PHOTO: Shelby County Schools
Shelby County Schools has branded its Innovation Zone to showcase one of its most successful initiatives.

In her new role, Griffin is trying to equip principals across the school system to carry out the district’s academic strategies and spread the iZone culture of leadership and collaboration districtwide.

The latest “critical focus” initiative represents the most significant investment so far to magnify the iZone model. It also shows the level of confidence that Hopson has in Griffin, her team, and their strategies.

“We recognize that if we truly want to turn around our schools, it can’t be just one teacher at a time. It has to be one team at a time,” Griffin said Monday. “And we know if we hire the most effective leader, they hire the most effective teachers, and we’re building a team and a cadre of greatness. … Human capital is going to be our secret weapon.”

As for which iZone components will be culled this spring for each of the 11 critical-focus areas schools, that’s under review. In keeping with the iZone model, those schools are being assessed to create a “school profile” that will determine the course for interventions. Among the possibilities: Adding staff, lengthening the school day, and ramping up after-school programs.

“We’re looking at all our schools and making sure that we’re not duplicating our resources. Then we’re taking additional resources and aligning them to one mission,” Griffin said. “ … We want to give our schools an opportunity to put their own spin on an aligned curriculum and professional development.”