The big sort

Extreme academic sorting brings vastly different graduation rates in New York City high schools

PHOTO: Monica Disare
A student signs his name at a high school table during a fair at New Heights Middle School

High school graduation rates vary by about 38 percentage points among New York City schools, depending on the school’s admissions method. That’s according to a report released Friday by Measure of America, an arm of the nonprofit Social Science Research Council.

Those schools also differ starkly in the race and ethnicity of students served, according to the report, titled “Who Graduates?”

“This study shows that the high school choice process is working well for a portion of the student body — those who apply and are admitted to the more selective high schools,” the report states. “But it is not working for far too many New York City teenagers. Our analysis shows clearly that certain groups of students are at high risk for not graduating in four years.”

The on-time graduation rate at educational option schools is below 60 percent across the city, according to Measure of America. Ed-opt schools, as they are known, are designed to admit students with a range of academic abilities. But, facing stiff competition for high-performing students, a Chalkbeat analysis has shown that the schools often enroll mostly struggling students.

Limited unscreened schools had a graduation rate of about 68 percent. Though limited unscreened schools are not supposed to use any information beyond attendance at an open house or high school fair to make admissions decisions, Chalkbeat found that some schools collect survey information or ask students to complete short answer questions.

More than half of all black and Hispanic students enrolled in ed-opt or limited unscreened schools, according to the Measure of America report.

Meanwhile, the most selective high schools, which base admissions on the results of the Specialized High School Admissions Test, had an average graduation rate above 97 percent. Those schools tend to enroll mostly white and Asian students, according to the report. Screened schools, which admit students based on academic measures, had an average graduation rate above 86 percent.

The city’s education department took issue with the study’s methodology and stressed its work to support schools with everything from additional guidance counselors to more Advanced Placement courses.

“We’ll continue to work to ensure all students and families have access to high-quality high schools,” education spokesman Will Mantell wrote in an email.

The study was done in collaboration with the New York Times, with the results featured in a story that examines the impacts of the city’s purely choice-based high school admissions system.

The result, as Chalkbeat chronicled recently, is extreme academic segregation. Fueling the sorting are hazy admissions rules that can benefit families with the time and resources to navigate the process and jump through hoops like attending school visits during working hours.

“Academic screens are a mechanism for sorting the students who have had educational privilege into places where they continue to get educational privilege,” Megan Moskop, who has served as a high school admissions coordinator at M.S. 324 in Washington Heights, told Chalkbeat recently. “And the students who don’t have that privilege continue not to have it.”

City officials have said they are not interested in expanding the number of schools that use screening methods to admit students. Mayor Bill de Blasio and education department officials also say they are working on a “bigger vision” plan to address segregation in the city’s schools.

Chalkbeat reporter Monica Disare contributed to this report. 

diverse charters

In launching new charter schools, former Success Academy lawyer aims for integration

Emily Kim at a 2015 academic forum in Washington, D.C.

Former Success Academy lawyer Emily Kim says integration will be a “key” aspect in the design of the charter chain she is aiming to launch.

Kim recently left New York City’s largest network of charter schools to start her own — and given her close ties to Success, Kim’s schools are likely to be closely watched. According to a new website and documents filed with the charter authorizer SUNY, she plans to launch Zeta Charter Schools in Upper Manhattan and the Bronx.

She also appears to be aiming for the schools to join the growing number of “intentionally diverse” charters. Realizing that goal will likely require substantial outreach to families, since the districts where Zeta has applied to open are overwhelmingly poor and Hispanic. The poverty rate stands at 87 percent in Manhattan’s District 6 and 93 percent in the Bronx’s District 12. The percentage of Hispanic students is 85 percent and 70 percent, respectively. Less than 3 percent of students in either district are Asian, and less than 5 percent are white.

“We believe a diverse student population enriches the school environment and raises the level and depth of learning,” the school’s website states.

New York City schools are largely segregated, and charters are no exception. In the city, 90 percent of charter schools are “intensely segregated,” with white students making up less than 10 percent of enrollment, according to a UCLA report. Across the state, charters often serve fewer students who are learning English or have a disability, according to a 2016 report by the right-leaning American Enterprise Institute.

The lopsided enrollment is often attributed to the mission of many charter schools to target underserved students and neighborhoods. But since they admit students by lottery, rather than attendance boundaries, experts say charter schools in some areas have the potential to create diverse environments.

Kim has not yet filed full charter applications to SUNY for the schools, which would need to be approved by SUNY and the Board of Regents. The preliminary documents say the two elementary schools would launch in August 2018 and grow to enroll 675 students each.

haters gonna hate

Bronx borough president to high school grads: ‘Start breaking the mold of what the face of techies look like’

PHOTO: Christina Veiga
Bronx Academy for Software Engineering, or BASE, graduated its inaugural class on Wednesday.

The tech industry in New York City has a diversity problem. The Bronx Academy for Software Engineering was launched to help solve it.

The high school, known as BASE, graduated its first class of seniors on Wednesday. With a curriculum that blends computer programming and social justice, the school will soon provide official Career and Technical Education certification, allowing students to graduate with an endorsement of their job-readiness.

Venture capitalist Fred Wilson helped start BASE with the goal of creating a pipeline of talent for a burgeoning local technology sector, and ensuring the city’s diversity is reflected in hiring. In New York City, 53 percent of the population is black or Hispanic, but those groups make up only 20 percent of employees in the tech industry, according to a 2015 report by the Center for an Urban Future.

At BASE, about 30 percent of students are black and about 60 percent are Hispanic.

“The tech sector should look like you. All of you,” Wilson told the graduates. “I want to thank you for showing the world what’s possible … I want to ask you to go out into the world and take over the tech sector. I’m going to be rooting for you.”

About 81 percent of the inaugural class graduated, according to founding principal Ben Grossman. That’s well above the borough average of about 65 percent last year, and also beats the citywide average of about 73 percent. All of BASE’s graduates are college-bound, according to the school.

Bronx Borough President Ruben Diaz Jr. — who has pushed for computer science education in Bronx schools, and to attract the technology sector to the borough — gave the commencement speech for BASE’s first class of seniors. Here’s why he almost didn’t graduate from high school — and his advice for defying stereotypes about what it means to be from the Bronx.

This speech has been condensed and lightly edited for length and clarity.

This is a celebration and a ceremony. It’s about a journey that you’ve already been through with your family, and one that you will continue to take as life goes on. I’ll try to not to belabor this, but let me give you a little bit of what you will perhaps encounter during that journey.

Number one: It doesn’t matter where you start. It’s all about where you finish. Why? Even though I’m the borough president, I, unlike you, did not walk and did not graduate during my high school graduation. The reason why I didn’t graduate is because I transferred my senior year, chasing love. I didn’t focus on my studies the way I should. So it took me a little longer. And we got pregnant afterwards — don’t try this at home.

We started a family. I did the best that I could to provide as a messenger for the New York City Council, my first government job. Then I went on and I ran for the New York State Assembly and, at the age of 23, I became the youngest legislator in the State of New York at the time.

So it doesn’t matter how or where you start. It’s how you finish.

But even when you believe that you made it, number two: There are going to be haters. Let them hate.

I say that because even when I was in the New York State Legislature, here I am being sworn-in, I’m 23-years-old. I have my wife and children. My mom and dad. A joyous occasion, just like today. And yet, a colleague of mine at the time, who was there for a long time, he says, “What school did you graduate from again? What college?” And I was still a college student at LaGuardia Community College. And he says, “Well, I’m Harvard. Yale Law.”

Nothing wrong with being Harvard, Yale Law. God bless him. But I just didn’t like the way he said it. He was being condescending. No me gustó. I didn’t like it.

It’s the way people sometimes look at you, about where you come from. And so I said, “Wait a minute. You’re Harvard, Yale Law. I’m LaGuardia Community College. And here we are, sitting next to each other. Either I’m a great success, or you’re just a terrible failure.”

He was trying to throw shade at me. You got to let the haters hate. You’ve got to understand that people are going to judge you because, perhaps you have an accent. Perhaps you did not go to MIT. Perhaps you didn’t go to Harvard or Yale. Maybe your parents aren’t affluent or wealthy. Or maybe just because you come from the Boogie Down Bronx.

You got to go out there, and you got to conquer. Do the best that you can and be representatives for yourself, your family, your community. And break the mold.

We’re at a place now where corporate America, the tech world, is looking at our borough, like they’re looking at other places, to try to find a home. This is where you come in. This is where you start breaking the mold of what the face of techies look like.

There’s a sensitive time in this country, where even coming out of the White House, there’s this vilification of diversity. We come in all shapes and colors. We embrace them and we know that diversity is our strength. You go out there. You get your degrees. You conquer the world. And you represent BASE, you represent your family, and you represent the Boogie Down Bronx as well.

You represent evidence that, if you give a young man, a young woman from our community — with all of that swag — you give them resources, they’ll conquer the world.

Understand that you’ve already started in a better place than some of us. You’re already equipped with the backing and the love of a community — whether it’s your parents or your educators. You have the attention of giants in the fields that you want to go into.

Some might say you’re lucky. Luck is but an equation. Luck equals opportunity, plus preparation. I believe that BASE has prepared you to go out there and seize all the opportunities that will be presented in front of you.

Oh, by the way. That young lady I was chasing? Twenty-eight years later, she’s still my wife.