First Person

Editor's blog: School lunch

Even when the food is good, some kids won’t eat it

You couldn’t live in a better place than Boulder to eat hot lunch at school. Ann Cooper, head of the district’s nutrition services and an EdNews Parent expert, has transformed the menu so that every day there are healthy choices for kids.

fresh vegetables and fruit on school lunch trayToday’s meal, for instance, is traditional cheese or meat pizza,  salad bar, fresh fruit and skim or 1 percent white milk.  (Check out this month’s meals in Boulder Valley).

I think it’s all great – except that my third-grader refuses to eat any food served or prepared in a school kitchen. Not even a free coupon could entice her. I thought maybe I could meet her at school and eat the school lunch with her. Forget it. Apparently the only thing worse than eating hot lunch is having your mother show up to eat it with you.

I think it has to do with the cultural stigma  around school lunch that persists even when the food is pretty good. Pick up just about any popular children’s book and there is bound to be a scene about gross school food. And the Internet is filled with images of grayish meat, canned green beans and other school lunch atrocities.

(The food was so bad when I was a kid that my mom wouldn’t let me eat hot lunch. She packed my sack lunch full of healthy items, such as peanut butter and banana sandwiches on wheat bread or cheese sandwiches with alfalfa sprouts. I was always trying to trade my lunches for some junk food. Turns out my mom was way ahead of her time).

Kids still find reasons to ridicule school food

My daughter’s primary objection for not eating at school – or so she says – is the food itself. There is a smart girl in her class who conducts experiments on her food every day. One experiment involves exploring all the veins found in a piece of chicken. This would gross anyone out. So, I ask my daughter, “Why not eat at school when they’re serving something you like, like pizza?” To this, I hear about the pizza experiment, which involves placing a napkin or paper towel atop the pizza slice, laying your hand on it, and lifting up a perfectly formed grease handprint for all to see.

In our case, I don’t think it’s just the food, however. I think my daughter is afraid of the process. She’s afraid of going through the line. She’s never done it before. She’s a worrier, and she’s also concerned that she won’t have enough time to eat. Recess comes after lunch. And, if you’re in third grade, there is nothing more important than getting outside to play as quickly as you can. Don’t you know the world will end if you stay inside to adequately chew food from every food group while your buddies hit the monkey bars? Turns out this actually is a valid worry. Children today rarely have enough time to eat lunch. (Cooper addressed this very issue in this  EdNews Parent post in response to another parent question. EdNews Parent expert Julie Hammerstein also provided some good tips to parents whose kids come home from school having hardly eaten any lunch).

I am hoping the day comes when my daughter will give the food at school a try, or at least let me come in to give it a try. (Here’s Ann Cooper’s response to a question I posed a while back about my daughter’s reluctance to eat school lunch). It’s a major undertaking to  transform the quality and nutritional value of food served on a mass scale at school kitchens across the country. And you need kids to eat it if it’s going to work. Bite by bite, I am sure it will happen – with or without my daughter.

Does your son or daughter eat food served at school? Take the poll, and I’ll publish the results in an upcoming newsletter.
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First Person

I’ve spent years studying the link between SHSAT scores and student success. The test doesn’t tell you as much as you might think.

PHOTO: Photo by Robert Nickelsberg/Getty Images

Proponents of New York City’s specialized high school exam, the test the mayor wants to scrap in favor of a new admissions system, defend it as meritocratic. Opponents contend that when used without consideration of school grades or other factors, it’s an inappropriate metric.

One thing that’s been clear for decades about the exam, now used to admit students to eight top high schools, is that it matters a great deal.

Students admitted may not only receive a superior education, but also access to elite colleges and eventually to better employment. That system has also led to an under-representation of Hispanic students, black students, and girls.

As a doctoral student at The Graduate Center of the City University of New York in 2015, and in the years after I received my Ph.D., I have tried to understand how meritocratic the process really is.

First, that requires defining merit. Only New York City defines it as the score on a single test — other cities’ selective high schools use multiple measures, as do top colleges. There are certainly other potential criteria, such as artistic achievement or citizenship.

However, when merit is defined as achievement in school, the question of whether the test is meritocratic is an empirical question that can be answered with data.

To do that, I used SHSAT scores for nearly 28,000 students and school grades for all public school students in the city. (To be clear, the city changed the SHSAT itself somewhat last year; my analysis used scores on the earlier version.)

My analysis makes clear that the SHSAT does measure an ability that contributes to some extent to success in high school. Specifically, a SHSAT score predicts 20 percent of the variability in freshman grade-point average among all public school students who took the exam. Students with extremely high SHSAT scores (greater than 650) generally also had high grades when they reached a specialized school.

However, for the vast majority of students who were admitted with lower SHSAT scores, from 486 to 600, freshman grade point averages ranged widely — from around 50 to 100. That indicates that the SHSAT was a very imprecise predictor of future success for students who scored near the cutoffs.

Course grades earned in the seventh grade, in contrast, predicted 44 percent of the variability in freshman year grades, making it a far better admissions criterion than SHSAT score, at least for students near the score cutoffs.

It’s not surprising that a standardized test does not predict as well as past school performance. The SHSAT represents a two and a half hour sample of a limited range of skills and knowledge. In contrast, middle-school grades reflect a full year of student performance across the full range of academic subjects.

Furthermore, an exam which relies almost exclusively on one method of assessment, multiple choice questions, may fail to measure abilities that are revealed by the variety of assessment methods that go into course grades. Additionally, middle school grades may capture something important that the SHSAT fails to capture: long-term motivation.

Based on his current plan, Mayor de Blasio seems to be pointed in the right direction. His focus on middle school grades and the Discovery Program, which admits students with scores below the cutoff, is well supported by the data.

In the cohort I looked at, five of the eight schools admitted some students with scores below the cutoff. The sample sizes were too small at four of them to make meaningful comparisons with regularly admitted students. But at Brooklyn Technical High School, the performance of the 35 Discovery Program students was equal to that of other students. Freshman year grade point averages for the two groups were essentially identical: 86.6 versus 86.7.

My research leads me to believe that it might be reasonable to admit a certain percentage of the students with extremely high SHSAT scores — over 600, where the exam is a good predictor —and admit the remainder using a combined index of seventh grade GPA and SHSAT scores.

When I used that formula to simulate admissions, diversity increased, somewhat. An additional 40 black students, 209 Hispanic students, and 205 white students would have been admitted, as well as an additional 716 girls. It’s worth pointing out that in my simulation, Asian students would still constitute the largest segment of students (49 percent) and would be admitted in numbers far exceeding their proportion of applicants.

Because middle school grades are better than test scores at predicting high school achievement, their use in the admissions process should not in any way dilute the quality of the admitted class, and could not be seen as discriminating against Asian students.

The success of the Discovery students should allay some of the concerns about the ability of students with SHSAT scores below the cutoffs. There is no guarantee that similar results would be achieved in an expanded Discovery Program. But this finding certainly warrants larger-scale trials.

With consideration of additional criteria, it may be possible to select a group of students who will be more representative of the community the school system serves — and the pool of students who apply — without sacrificing the quality for which New York City’s specialized high schools are so justifiably famous.

Jon Taylor is a research analyst at Hunter College analyzing student success and retention. 

First Person

With roots in Cuba and Spain, Newark student came to America to ‘shine bright’

PHOTO: Patrick Wall
Layla Gonzalez

This is my story of how we came to America and why.

I am from Mallorca, Spain. I am also from Cuba, because of my dad. My dad is from Cuba and my grandmother, grandfather, uncle, aunt, and so on. That is what makes our family special — we are different.

We came to America when my sister and I were little girls. My sister was three and I was one.

The first reason why we came here to America was for a better life. My parents wanted to raise us in a better place. We also came for better jobs and better pay so we can keep this family together.

We also came here to have more opportunities — they do call this country the “Land Of Opportunities.” We came to make our dreams come true.

In addition, my family and I came to America for adventure. We came to discover new things, to be ourselves, and to be free.

Moreover, we also came here to learn new things like English. When we came here we didn’t know any English at all. It was really hard to learn a language that we didn’t know, but we learned.

Thank God that my sister and I learned quickly so we can go to school. I had a lot of fun learning and throughout the years we do learn something new each day. My sister and I got smarter and smarter and we made our family proud.

When my sister Amira and I first walked into Hawkins Street School I had the feeling that we were going to be well taught.

We have always been taught by the best even when we don’t realize. Like in the times when we think we are in trouble because our parents are mad. Well we are not in trouble, they are just trying to teach us something so that we don’t make the same mistake.

And that is why we are here to learn something new each day.

Sometimes I feel like I belong here and that I will be alright. Because this is the land where you can feel free to trust your first instinct and to be who you want to be and smile bright and look up and say, “Thank you.”

As you can see, this is why we came to America and why we can shine bright.

Layla Gonzalez is a fourth-grader at Hawkins Street School. This essay is adapted from “The Hispanic American Dreams of Hawkins Street School,” a self-published book by the school’s students and staff that was compiled by teacher Ana Couto.