testing takeaways

Unlike most states, Indiana boosted eighth-grade reading scores on 2017 ‘nation’s report card’

Indiana’s scores on the “nation’s report card” haven’t changed much since students took the federal math and reading tests two years ago, but eighth-graders’ scores did jump slightly in reading.

The national exam serves as a way for states to see how they stack up to the rest of the country.

For 2017, the state was ranked sixth in the nation in fourth-grade math and 12th for eighth-grade math, down from a ranking of fourth and 11th, respectively, in 2015. In reading, Indiana students ranked ninth for fourth-grade and sixth for eighth-grade, up from 10th and 16th.

Despite those moves, most of the changes in this year’s scores don’t have “statistical significance” from 2015. That means they don’t necessarily indicate student achievement is any lower or higher this year than last time — the change might well be due to chance.

The one area of significant growth was in eighth grade reading scores — up 4 points compared to 2015. Few states saw similar progress in eighth-grade reading. One other notable change was that the gap between white and black students on the eighth grade math exam narrowed.

But Indiana is not unique in its flat scores this year — the 2017 results also showed stagnant scores for the nation as a whole. The U.S. has seen its test scores largely remain the same for a decade, after 10 years of substantial gains in math. The country’s “achievement gaps” between black and white students, and between low-income and affluent students, have also largely held steady over the past 10 years.

The test also breaks down student achievement by proficiency level. In both grades and subjects, fewer than half of Indiana students were considered proficient. However, higher percentages of Indiana students who are Hispanic, English-learners, or have disabilities were considered proficient than those same students in the nation as a whole.

2017 NAEP Math Results

2017 NAEP Reading Results

Indiana’s scores on the National Assessment of Educational Progress have stalled since big jumps in 2013, and policymakers should start asking themselves why, said Mike Petrilli, executive director of the conservative-leaning Fordham Foundation. One hypothesis? Frequent education policy changes.

“Indiana, in the beginning of this decade … showed some of the best progress in the country,” he said. “Has the chaos over the last few years, with all the debates about standards and tests and all kinds of changes, has that kept Indiana from moving forward?”

It’s hard to prove one way or another — especially since onlookers have also attributed Indiana’s past gains to sweeping policy changes of previous administrations.

The NAEP is administered by the federal government to a sample of students across the country. The most closely watched tests are the fourth- and eighth-grade math and reading exams, since they allow us to see how scores are changing nationally, in individual states, and in a number of cities.

The longer-run trends in NAEP are more positive. Nationally, scores have improved substantially in math and modestly in reading since the early 1990s.

Special education reorganization

Only 33 black students with disabilities in Denver met expectations on state tests

Just 2 percent of black students with disabilities in Denver scored at grade-level or higher on state literacy and math tests last year. In raw numbers, that’s just 33 of the 1,641 black students with disabilities in the school district, according to Denver Public Schools data.

The percentage is similar for Latino students with disabilities: only 2.6 percent met expectations on the tests. Meanwhile, nearly 17 percent of white students with disabilities did.

Denver school officials recently revealed those shockingly low numbers and stark racial disparities as further justification for a previously proposed reorganization of the department that oversees special education. The reorganization would shrink the pool of central office staff who help school principals serve students with disabilities, and would increase the number of school psychologists and social workers.

The theory is that providing more robust mental health services in schools will allow the central office staff members who remain to shift their focus from managing behavior crises to improving academic instruction. Because of their expertise, those staff members were often tapped to help teachers deal with challenging behavior from all students, not just those with disabilities, said Eldridge Greer, who oversees special education for Denver Public Schools.

District officials also hope that increasing mental health support will reduce racial disparities in how students are disciplined. District data show black students are six times as likely to be suspended as white students, while Latino students are three times as likely.

“The biases that are in place in our society unfairly target African-American and Latino children to be controlled as a response to trauma, or as a response to readiness-to-learn (issues), instead of being provided more educational support,” Greer said.

Parents of students with disabilities have pushed back against the district’s plan to cut staff dedicated to special education. Advocates have, too.

Pam Bisceglia, executive director of Advocacy Denver, a civil rights organization that serves people with disabilities, said that while the district should be embarrassed by how poorly it’s serving students of color, she’s not sure the proposed reorganization will help.

She and others worry the district is siphoning money from special education to pay for services that will benefit all students – and that in the end, those with disabilities will lose out.

“If the district wants to have a full-time social worker and psychologist in every school, I don’t have a problem with that,” Bisceglia said. “What I have a problem with is the plan doesn’t suggest how instruction is going to look different (for students with disabilities) and how the curriculum is going to be different in terms of learning to read and do math.”

Greer said that in large part, the curriculum and strategies the district has in place are the right ones. What’s lacking, he said, is training for special education teachers, especially those who are new to the profession. Having a cadre of central office staff focused solely on academics will help, he said.

The reorganization, as detailed at a recent school board meeting, calls for cutting 45 districtwide experts who help principals serve students with disabilities – and who Greer said spent a lot of time managing behavior crises. In their place, the district would hire 15 academic specialists, eight more behavior specialists (the district already has seven), and four supervisors.

The overhaul would also ensure that all elementary schools have at least one full-time social worker or psychologist. Schools would also get money to put in place new discipline practices. The school board last year revised its discipline policy to limit suspensions and expulsions of students in preschool through third grade.

In addition, elementary schools with special programs for students with emotional needs would get $50,000 to spend on a mental health worker, teacher, or teacher’s aide.

School principals invited to discuss the reorganization with the school board said they welcomed being able to hire more social workers and psychologists. But they said they are unsure about the rest of the plan.

One principal said he relied heavily on the expert assigned to help his school serve students with disabilities. Another expressed concern about losing capable staff.

“How do we retain some of that talent so we don’t end up with a brain drain and lose all these people that have all this knowledge and expertise?” said Gilberto Muñoz, the principal at Swansea Elementary School in north Denver.

When district officials first presented the plan earlier this year, they framed it as a way to improve the academic performance of students with disabilities. Just 8 percent of Denver fourth-graders with disabilities met expectations on the state literacy test last year, compared with 44 percent of fourth-graders without disabilities.

But Greer said that when they dug into the data, they discovered the racial disparities.

“We knew there were disparities, but to see disparities as profound as the ones I shared with the board, it was important to elevate that,” he said.

Parent Sarah Young said it was courageous of the district to share such shocking data. But she said she thinks their plan to fix the disparities is lacking – and she disagrees with calling it a reorganization.

Young, who has a daughter with a learning disability, visual impairment, and epilepsy, said Denver Public Schools should call the plan what it is: cuts to special education.

“We understand you’re trying to handle behavior,” Young said, referring to the district. “But these are all vulnerable student populations, and we can’t pit them against each other. We can’t be robbing one to try to put a Band-Aid on another.”

Interrupted

BREAKING: Severed fiber optic line disrupts TNReady testing across Tennessee

PHOTO: Alan Petersime

Online testing for Tennessee students was disrupted again on Thursday, this time due to the severing of a main fiber cable between Nashville and Atlanta.

The problems arose in the morning soon after testing began for TNReady, the state’s standardized test, as internet connectivity slowed and traffic was routed to backup channels.

“This is an issue related to local connectivity, not with the testing platform,” said Sara Gast, a spokeswoman for the state Department of Education. “Testing can continue, but connectivity may be slow in areas that are impacted until this is resolved.”

Many districts chose to suspend testing for the day, while others left the decision up to school principals.

In Memphis, home to the state’s largest district, a spokeswoman for Shelby County Schools said students were “not able to connect” to the state’s online platform and that principals would decide whether to keep trying.

TNReady’s online test has experienced widespread interruptions on at least four days since the state’s three-week testing window opened on April 16. There were log-in issues on the first day, a reported cyber attack on the second, and a problem with online rosters on Wednesday after the state’s testing company, Questar, updated its software the night before.

Concerns about the subsequent validity of the results prompted state lawmakers to pass two pieces of legislation — the latest one on Wednesday — aimed at preventing students, teachers, schools, and districts from being negatively impacted by the data.

The online issues are affecting high school students statewide. Some districts also chose to expand computerized testing this year to middle grades. For the states’s youngest students, TNReady was being given on paper.

This story has been updated.