Tennessee

Data disagreements muddy takeover debate

PHOTO: G. Tatter
Board member Amy Frogge (left) and an ASD official discuss data on the sidelines of the meeting.

Data is objective. Isn’t it?

In front of a packed auditorium at Madison Middle Prep last week,  Metropolitan Nashville Public Schools board member Jill Speering presented data to prove a point: the middle school should not be taken over by the Achievement School District.

Her voice trembling with emotion, she directed the numbers at Chris Barbic, the superintendent of the statewide school district. She started her speech by comparing Brick Church College Prep, a current ASD school, to Metro Schools overall.

She said that Brick Church wasn’t as extraordinary as Barbic asserted, according to state growth data, called the Tennessee Value Added Assessment System, or TVAAS.

“I don’t know what you’re talking about,” Barbic replied. “They were level five TVAAS [the highest score for growth].”

He then chastised her, causing the crowd to boo: “You’re a school board member. You should know how TVAAS works.”

In the wake of the ASD’s announcement that it will take over one of two middle schools in a Nashville community, district officials and their opponents have continually cited data points that seem contradictory. Both sides have accused the other of playing fast and loose with numbers, and even of lying.

But in fact, representatives from both sides of the school takeover debate were using different yardsticks to measure the same things: the growth of student test scores at the Nashville middle schools up for take over; the schools run by LEAD Public Schools (a charter operator that will manage the taken over school); and the ASD as a whole.

The ASD was created to transform Tennessee’s bottom 5 percent of schools into the top 25 percent by 2020. For the first time, both Madison Middle Prep and Neely’s Bend Middle Prep in Nashville were in the bottom 5 percent of schools this year, making them eligible for state intervention.

Opponents of intervention, led by school board members Speering and Amy Frogge, say that in fact, Madison and Neely’s Bend’s students are improving at comparable rates to LEAD’s schools and other schools in the ASD. Therefore, they say, takeover isn’t necessary, and might even be counterproductive.

ASD officials say that LEAD’s schools are improving at much higher rates than Madison or Neely’s Bend.

So what explains this glaring discrepancy?

To make decisions about a school, including whether it is eligible for ASD takeover, the Tennessee Department of Education takes into account schoolwide passing rates on the state’s standardized test, and TVAAS ratings.

TVAAS is a  way to measure if students at a school are making more or less growth than their peers across the state. (You can read more about the controversy around TVAAS here).  In order to compute it, the state Department of Education calculates a number that shows the growth of students at a school compared to students statewide.

Let’s call that the raw growth score. It’s the first of two steps the state uses in calculating TVAAS ratings.

But those were the numbers that Frogge and Speering cited. According to composite raw growth scores, that took into account test scores in math, reading, science and social studies, both Neely’s Bend and Madison had slight negative two-year a growth scores of -1, and -2.5 respectively.  The composite growth score for Brick Church College Prep, a LEAD school in the ASD that ASD officials tout as a model for their next Nashville take over, was slightly positive at .4.

Those raw numbers don’t suggest that Brick Church is improving its students scores much more than the traditional district schools are. If you break out raw scores for individual subjects, Brick Church sometimes fares worse than the schools up for take over. For example, in reading, its raw growth score for two years was -3.7, while Madison and Neely’s Bend had raw growth scores of -2.8 and -1.5, respectively.

But to get a final TVAAS rating for a school, there’s another step: the state divides that raw growth score by a standard error. Paul Changas, the director of research for Metro Schools, says the standard error takes a variety of factors into account, but that the smaller the student population at a school, the larger the standard error calculation.

“Random factors such as student focus, distractability, energy level, emotional state, or text complexity can be fairly significant when only a few students are involved,” he said. “But as the size of the group gets larger, these random factors tend to balance out – for every student having a bad day taking the typing test there is more likely to be a student having a good day.”

Source: TN.gov

Standard error also takes into account the variability in scores at a school, said Ashley Ball, a spokesperson for the Department of Education. Decision-makers on the state level want the data to tell them a clear story about what’s going on in a school, she said.

“If most of the students are exceeding expectations it tells us, wow, this is a really clear story,” she said. “If students are all across the board, you’re going to have a bigger standard error to account for the fact that the story isn’t as clear.”The number schools get after their raw score is divided by the standard error is called a “growth index.” From that, the state assigns a school a grade from levels one to five, five being the best.

Source: Paul Changas, TN.gov

Since Brick Church is a phase-in school, it has expanded one grade at a time, and the student body is still considerably smaller than other middle schools. Therefore, the school has a higher standard of error, and its growth index looks pretty different from its raw score.

The ASD has built its case for takeover on a variety of factors, among them the growth index. Brick Church’s growth index is higher than Neely’s Bend or Madison’s. Brick Church’s most recent overall growth index is a Level 5, and the Madison and Neely’s Bend are Level 1s — putting them on the hot seat for take over.

So which measurement of a schools’ success is more valid? Opinions differ. Metropolitan Nashville Public Schools officials typically go with the raw score.

“While the growth index [the numbers the ASD are citing] is important to determining how confident we are that growth exceeds a target, it is not the most meaningful scale for measurement [of] the amount of growth that has occurred,” Changas said.

But the state Department of Education disagrees, as does the ASD.

“You’re going to want to factor in standard error, because it is a buffer and a protective measure,” state education department spokeswoman Ball said. “We want to have the most accurate data possible.”

You can see Paul Changas’s data here, and check out the state’s interpretation of the same numbers at the TVAAS website.

Clarification:  The growth index is one of many factors the ASD considers when taking over schools.  An earlier version of the story described the growth index as the predominant factor.

Top 10

From forest preschools to a secret apology, here are Chalkbeat Colorado’s must-read stories of 2018

PHOTO: Ann Schimke/Chalkbeat
Megan Patterson works with children to make a dam in a creek during a recent "forest school" class.

We spend a lot of time at Chalkbeat chasing the news to keep our readers informed about controversial policy changes, fast-moving debates, and late-breaking decisions.

But we also relish the opportunity to dig deep into issues affecting students and families, shine light on innovative ideas, and hear from dedicated educators making a difference. With that in mind, we’ve gathered 10 of our best stories from 2018.

These stories don’t necessarily chronicle the biggest education issues of 2018, from teacher walkouts to unprecedented state interventions. But they are stories we think are important and insightful, and that we enjoyed reporting and writing. We hope you enjoy reading them.

No walls: Forest preschools let kids run free, but can they change to reach diverse families?

One day this past summer, about a dozen children frolicked by a Jefferson County creek — making pretend tea in small metal buckets, and building dams with sticks and mud.

They were students at Worldmind Nature Immersion School, where children spend all their time outside. So-called forest preschools like Worldmind are beloved by many families but face significant regulatory and logistical barriers in expanding their footprint nationwide. Here in Colorado, a pilot program could lead a new kind of child care license designed for them.

And being licensed could help the schools confront another problem: a lack of diversity among their students. Read more.

Colorado was never ranked 46th for teacher pay. Does this change the debate?

It was an oft-cited statistic: that Colorado, despite its booming economy, ranked 46th in the nation for teacher pay. The eye-popping number found its way onto social media posts and signs at massive teacher rallies last spring. News outlets latched on to it, too.

But it was wrong. Colorado was actually ranked 30th in the nation.

Our story breaks down how the mistake happened (hint: a new data system, an unrevised report) — and how groups with different agendas seized on the snafu to score points. Read more.

This is the letter of apology that Adams 14 leaders never sent

The Adams 14 district in Commerce City is arguably the most troubled and low-performing in Colorado. Just last month, state officials directed Adams 14 to hire an external manager to oversee the district’s operations for at least the next four years.

Back in September, Adams 14 officials considered taking a rare step: saying sorry to the community. But an apology letter was never signed nor sent out.

Chalkbeat obtained a copy of the letter, which makes mention of “various and conflicting priorities, coupled with constant turnover and organizational disarray.” Read more.

Rising test scores and dwindling trust: Denver’s Tom Boasberg leaves a complicated legacy

Colorado’s largest school district experienced a big change this year when longtime leader Tom Boasberg announced he would step down after nearly 10 years in Denver Public Schools.

Because of his school improvement strategies — some of which were controversial and heightened tensions with the community — the district that the new superintendent, Susana Cordova, will inherit in January is vastly different than it was a decade ago.

One tangible difference: Schools that once served as anchors of the community but struggled academically have been closed or replaced. That disappearance was on display on one of Boasberg’s last days, when he held his cell phone close to his mouth and enunciated each word so his GPS would understand his direction: “Montbello High School.” Read more.

Parents in one Aurora high school are visiting classrooms and giving teachers feedback

Like many schools in Colorado, Aurora’s Rangeview High School has a test score gap between white and black students. But the assistant principal there came up with a unique way to try to address it: by inviting black parents to visit classrooms and observe how students are — or are not — engaging with the teacher’s lesson, and then provide suggestions for improvement.

“We give true and honest feedback,” said one parent involved, “if they looked or appeared comfortable, how they interacted with the environment, the temperature of the room.”

Although the assistant principal considers the African American Parent Committee an experiment, she said it’s generating uncomfortable but necessary conversations. Read more.

How education reform became a wedge issue among Colorado Democrats this election year

For years, more moderate Democrats, often working in unison with like-minded Republicans, championed education reform efforts ranging from school choice to holding educators accountable for student performance.

But partly because of backlash against President Donald Trump and his education secretary, those strategies no longer fly with many Democrats — especially left-leaning Democrats who see them as undercutting public education and devaluing the work of teachers.

That sentiment was palpable in Colorado’s Democratic gubernatorial primary, and could shape the next legislative session, which starts in January. “Education is the issue that really stands to divide the left in a very substantial way,” one observer said. Read more.

How a Colorado school district turned things around at 10,000 feet above sea level

School improvement efforts look a little different high in the Rocky Mountains. While many of the strategies used by the 1,000-student Lake County school district are familiar to urban settings, they’ve been retrofitted to meet the needs of a district that’s 100 miles west of Denver.

For example, instead of firing teachers and principals who weren’t accelerating student learning fast enough, the district adopted a new curriculum and gave its teachers lots of training.

“The belief that the people are the problem is wrong,” the superintendent said. “Our teachers are professionals, and we believe in them. We’re proving that there is a framework or a pathway for rural schools to improve that’s about building capacity within your own community.” Read more.

7 things to know about how Colorado schools punish their youngest students

After state lawmakers rejected a bill to limit the use of suspensions in the earliest grades, Chalkbeat wanted to know more about the early childhood discipline landscape in Colorado. Data from the Colorado Department of Education revealed several trends.

Among them: Young black boys are suspended at disproportionate rates. Some rural school districts have the highest early childhood suspension rates in the state.

And despite nationwide debate about the impact of harsh discipline on young children and local efforts to bring the numbers down, suspensions in the early grades are actually going up. Read more.

In Denver’s gentrifying neighborhoods, some middle-class parents are avoiding the school down the block

Many neighborhoods in Denver are gentrifying, with middle-class families moving into what have historically been working-class communities. That type of demographic shift could easily lead to neighborhood schools that are more integrated by family income and race.

But that doesn’t always happen in Denver. Instead, data show that wealthier families – more often than low-income families – are using Denver Public Schools’ universal school choice process to send their kids to schools elsewhere in the city.

That’s a problem because research shows integrated schools boost test scores for students from low-income families without lowering the scores of those from wealthier ones. Denver officials want to see those benefits, but allowing parents to choose may be thwarting them. Read more.

Why this Colorado principal hand delivers birthday cards to more than 2,000 students and staff

Northglenn High School Principal Sharee Blunt is Colorado’s 2018 School Principal of the year — but perhaps even more impressive is the enormous number of birthday cards she hand delivers each year. If you’re one of those people who can barely remember your spouse’s birthday, you’ll be floored by Blunt’s annual feat.

In our interview with Blunt, part of Chalkbeat’s “How I Lead” Q&A series with distinguished school leaders, she talks about what she realized after a mother’s emotional reaction, and why she gave a teacher a pass during a lesson that went awry. Read more.

union power

Charter teachers won big in nation’s first strike. What now?

PHOTO: Yana Kunichoff / Chalkbeat
Teachers from Acero charter schools in Chicago protest stalled negotiations Oct. 24, 2018, as they readied to vote on authorizing a strike.

Some 500 unionized teachers joined in the nation’s first charter strike last week, and succeeded in negotiating wage increases, smaller class sizes and a shorter school day. Their gains could foreshadow next year’s citywide contract negotiations — between the Chicago Teachers Union, with its contract expiring in June, and Chicago Public Schools.

“The issue of class size is going to be huge,” said Chris Geovanis, the union’s director of communications. “It is a critically important issue in every school.”

Unlike their counterparts in charters, though, teachers who work at district-run schools can’t technically go on strike to push through a cap on the number of students per class. That’s because the Illinois Education Labor Relations Act defines what issues non-charter public school teachers can bargain over, and what issues can lead to a strike.

An impasse on issues of compensation or those related to working conditions, such as length of the school day or teacher evaluations, could precipitate a strike. But disagreements over class sizes or school closures, among other issues, cannot be the basis for a strike.

The number of students per class has long been a point of contention among both district and charter school teachers.

Educators at Acero had hopes of pushing the network to limit class sizes to 24-28 students, depending on the grade. However, as Acero teachers capped their fourth day on the picket line, they reached an agreement with the charter operator on a cap of 30 students — down from the current cap of 32 students.

Andy Crooks, a special education apprentice, also known as a teacher’s aide, at Acero’s Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz school and a member of the teachers bargaining team, said that even having two fewer students in a classroom would make a huge difference.

“You really do get a lot more time with your students,” Crooks said. “And if you are thinking about kindergarten in particular, two less 5-year-olds really can help set the tone of the classroom.”

In district-run schools, classes are capped at 28 students in kindergarten through third grade, and at 31 students in fourth through sixth grade. But a survey by the advocacy group Parents 4 Teachers, which supports educators taking on inequality, found that during the 2017-2018 school year, 21 percent of K-8 classrooms had more students than district guidelines allowed. In 18 elementary school classrooms, there were 40 or more students.

The issue came up at last week’s Board of Education meeting, at which Ivette Hernandez, a parent of a first-grader at Virgil Grissom Elementary School in the city’s Hegewisch neighborhood, said her son’s classes have had more than 30 students in them. When the children are so young and active — and when they come into classrooms at so many different skill levels — “the teachers can’t handle 30 kids in one class,” she told the board.

Alderman Sue Garza, a former counselor, accompanied Hernandez. She also spoke before the board about classroom overcrowding — worrying aloud that, in some grades at one school in particular, the number of students exceeded the building’s fire codes. (Board chair Frank Clark said a district team would visit the school to ensure compliance fire safety policies.)

While the Chicago Teachers Union aren’t technically allowed to strike over class sizes, the union does have a history of pushing the envelope when it comes to bargaining.

Back in 2012, when the Chicago Teachers Union last went on strike, they ended up being able to secure the first limit on class sizes in 20 years because the district permitted the union to bargain over class size.

They also led a bargaining campaign that included discussion over racial disparities in Chicago education and school closures, arguing that these trends impacted the working conditions of teachers.

“Even if you can’t force an employer to bargain over an issue, you can push them to bargain over the impact of an issue,” Bob Bruno, a labor professor at the University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana, explained.

The Chicago Teachers Union also emerged from its 2012 negotiations with guarantees of additional “wraparound services,” such as access to onsite social workers and school counselors.