A Memphis nonprofit’s job is to coordinate how $40 million annually would likely be spent on prekindergarten education by 2020. But first, it has to finish the immediate task of making sure a federal grant expiring in 2019 is offset before Shelby County and the city of Memphis lock down their budgets for next year.
Though Memphis recently committed $6 million toward pre-K funding, Mark Sturgis, executive director of Seeding Success, said the nonprofit hopes both the city and county governments fund a combined $16 million for pre-K seats.
Seeding Success, affiliated with a national group formed to focus on “cradle to career” education, has led the charge to put together the $16 million in recurring funds for pre-K seats as part of its $40 million plan to raise the level of early childhood education in Memphis. Time is short because city and county budgets to determine spending for next year need to be finished before July 1.
“If the city didn’t get involved, we felt like the conversation with the county wasn’t going to go anywhere,” Sturgis said. “Now, we’re able to authentically go to the county commission to talk about an increase in their funding.”
In addition to fully paying for pre-K for all children whose families cannot afford to pay for it themselves, the nonprofit and its partners — such as the Early Success Coalition and Porter-Leath — will focus on home visitations, high-quality childcare, and tracking data to ensure the plan is actually improving kids’ lives.
Sturgis said if $16 million comes through from the city and county, he’s confident that Seeding Success can find $24 million more through private donations to make the early childhood plan a reality.
The expiration of an $8 million federal grant in 2019 made finding a new source for money even more urgent because the city would lose 1,000 pre-K seats without new dollars. To pay for every child who could not afford pre-K, Memphis would need about 8,400 seats, according to Seeding Success. Currently, more than 7,400 of the city’s 4-year-olds attend a free school program.
Memphis’ $6 million commitment – $2 million less than what the City Council had first discussed – is the city’s first major new investment in Memphis classrooms since 2013, when city and county school systems merged. Shelby County government has since carried the load on funding Memphis schools, including contributing $3 million yearly to pre-K programs.
The nonprofit’s vision is to prepare 90 percent of Shelby County’s children for kindergarten, a big leap from the current 52 percent of children who are kindergarten ready.
Currently, about 1,000 children throughout Shelby County receive home visits, but the goal is to raise $7.5 million annually to increase that number by more than 6,000 children.
Sturgis said home visitations can range in type from nurses helping with prenatal care to early interventions in child development.
The plan also calls for $11.6 million dedicated to bolstering high-quality child care in Shelby County.
There are currently more than 800 child care centers in the Memphis area, Sturgis said, but there is little collaboration between them. Seeding Success’ vision is to create a “shared service” childcare network, which would provide supports including professional development, accounting services, curriculum development and marketing strategies.
“If we fully implement this plan by 2020, we’ll be serving the vast majority of at-risk families in Shelby County during the first five years of their child’s life” Sturgis said. “We believe the impact that will have, not only on kindergarten-readiness but the quality of life of these families in general, will be massive.”
Head Start restart
Children left in limbo as Detroit Head Start providers stand to lose federal grants
Four major providers of Head Start programs in Detroit must re-apply for funding after losing their federal grants this year, throwing the future of dozens of classrooms in doubt for the fall.
One of the four providers was forced to re-compete for funding after leaving a 3-year-old outside in freezing winter weather and putting children in unsafe classrooms. The other three were ranked poorly in a federal performance review that scores how students and teachers interact.
Since then, the program had expanded, but providers are still struggling to create enough programs to use all of the 5,200 Head Start seats the federal government would fund. As of last spring, 260 seats were going unused, according to Patrick Fisher, spokesperson for the Administration for Children and Families, the federal organization that oversees Head Start.
Thousands of Detroit families rely on these programs for free childcare and meals for ages 0 to 5. Head Start is especially important for low-income families struggling with the skyrocketing cost of childcare. Despite the longstanding issues, these Head Start facilities are many families’ only option for affordable quality early childhood education. Studies on Head Start show the program can influence everything from whether kids succeed in school, to whether they become smokers as adults.
The prospect that programs could be closed or moved if current providers are not able to win new grants has been unsettling to families who might not be able to bring their children to a school that’s farther away.
“It would definitely be a disruption because I would have to travel, and a lot of us don’t have the means to travel,” said Monika Chester, the mother of three children who attend Head Start at the Samaritan Center on Detroit’s east side. “A lot of us are walking, taking the bus, getting a cab, even in the winter, and my baby is five months old.”
“But the worst thing would be for my babies to adapt to new teachers,” she said. “That’s the worst. That’s really bad.”
The four providers that must recompete — Matrix, Starfish Family Services, New St. Paul Tabernacle Head Start Agency Inc., and Metropolitan Children and Youth, Inc. — must divert attention from running facilities to competing for the federal money that allows them to run the programs.
The process to reapply for one of the five-year grants is significantly easier if providers have no issues with their federal scores, providers say. Meanwhile, providers who score below passing on the federal examinations or have other issues are forced to undergo a multistep process that can take several people a month or longer to complete.
Ann Kalass, whose Starfish Family Services leads the coordination of a large Head Start collaborative called Thrive by Five Detroit, said her biggest concern is how reapplying affects the children and families in the program, rather than the time it takes for staff to reapply.
“What I worry about is that it creates a disruption and they leave our programs in May and June not knowing who to count on in the fall,” said Ann Kalass, who runs Starfish Family Services.
“There is a lot of work going on among many providers to submit quality plans and applications in mid-January, so yes, it’s definitely taking resources for us to do that,” Kalass said. “But from my perspective, we do this work all the time — we’re always competing for grants and new opportunities, so it’s people spending time on writing grants who might otherwise be thinking about the program strategy and implementation.
“The real concern for me at a system level is that we’re trying to rebuild and reinvest and it feels like taking a step back to move a step forward,” she added.
The federal auditors grade facilities in three categories: emotional support, classroom organization, and instructional support. Providers are compared against one another nationally, and the lowest scoring 10 percent must automatically rebid for the federal money that pays for the program.
In the category of classroom organization, Matrix, Starfish, and New St. Paul all scored in the bottom 10 percent range nationally.
Kalass said teacher turnover played a role in why the scores were so low in that category.
“Classroom organization looks at the routines and the structures of learning in the classroom,” Kalass said. “It talks about routines in the classrooms, the overall management of what’s happening in the classroom, and we have a high level of teacher turnover in the city, and some of the highest rates of teacher turnover in the country.”
The median salary for a preschool teacher who works full-time in Michigan is less than $30,000 a year, according to one study, making it hard to retain teachers. A report from the Kresge and Kellogg foundations pointed to the shortage of qualified preschool teachers as one of the challenges to improving early education in Detroit.
The next category, instructional support — how children are taught — “involves how teachers promote children’s thinking and problem solving, use feedback to deepen understanding, and help children develop more complex language skills,” according to a guide to understanding the scoring metrics.
Nationwide, providers struggle to meet the federal standards for this category. The passing score has a low threshold — it is only about 2.31 out of seven. In Detroit, all three providers had low scores, but New St. Paul fell below the threshold for passing in that category.
In the emotional support category, all of the providers in Detroit scored above the minimum. This area measures how teachers “help children resolve problems, redirect challenging behavior, and support positive peer relationships.”
Providers in Detroit support the change. They believe comparing the city with providers outside of the area isn’t right. Last year, 32 percent of grantees nationwide had to recompete for grants. In Detroit, that number is higher as providers struggle with crumbling buildings, high teacher turnover, and a Head Start program that has endured years of turmoil.
But the other issues submitted to the federal office by the facilities themselves are harder to debate.
At the Samaritan Center, a Matrix facility on the east side near Chandler Park, on Jan. 8, 2018, a teacher was terminated after kicking a 2-year-old who fell asleep in a chair, according to the federal report released in February. The Samaritan Center had another violation in October of last year, when a 3-year-old was told to walk back to class unsupervised and was later found by personnel “alone, lying on the floor in a classroom crying,” according to a May report. The teacher was terminated.
The Eternal Rock Center, another Matrix facility located in Southwest Detroit, was given a violation after a 4-year-old was left in a classroom unsupervised for a short time in January. The teacher was terminated in this case as well.
Matrix Family Services declined a phone interview to speak on the low facility scores, rebidding for contracts, and the offsite reports from this year.
A report on the Metropolitan Children and Youth, Inc.’s facility was enough to trigger the contract rebid process. In winter of 2014, at the Harper/Gratiot Center on Detroit’s east side, a 3-year-old was left outside on a playground and later found by a parent crying and knocking on the door of the building. Neither the center’s investigation nor a review by the federal office was able to determine how long the child was outside in freezing temperatures.
Only Metropolitan Children and Youth is forced to rebid because of the offsite reports.
“Reviewers examine documentation sent by the grantee to identify program strengths or weaknesses, deficiencies, or that an issue has been remediated,” said Patrick Fisher, a spokesperson for the Administration for Children and Families, the federal office that oversees Head Start.
A transition occurred last year after Southwest Solutions abruptly shuttered 11 Head Start centers. Luckily for the 420 children affected, Starfish Family Services was able to transition the children and many of the teachers to other agencies, allowing many to remain in their existing facilities.
There’s no guarantee that relocation of families could happen so smoothly in the future, but the Detroit providers are keeping lines of communication open.
“I think there are a lot of encouraging signs for early childhood programing in Detroit,” Kalass said. “Providers are meeting monthly to problem solve together — around workforce, facilities, and about better connecting with families.”
“We’re in a place of rebuilding and I’m optimistic that we won’t see a situation like this again. We won’t be in this place a few years from now.”
Scroll down to read some of the reports that led to one Head Start agency being asked to reapply for funding.
Unlike the mandatory state system, called Colorado Shines, Qualistar’s system wasn’t widely used among providers because it was voluntary and expensive. Still, it was a respected tool at a time when many states had no mechanism at all for letting parents, providers, or the public know whether children were in good hands at preschool or child care.
Most states now have quality rating systems, which evaluate everything from teacher credentials to classroom set-up and parent engagement efforts. High quality child care helps children develop skills they need to start school and over the long term is associated with better health, education, and economic outcomes.
Qualistar has 30 employees and a $3.7 million annual budget.
Bill Jaeger, vice president for early childhood and policy initiatives at the Colorado Children’s Campaign, said while Colorado hasn’t yet achieved universal quality in its child care centers and preschools, Qualistar has achieved a key part of its mission by elevating discussions about quality.
“What Qualistar set out to do is becoming the norm,” he said.
Anna Jo Haynes, co-chair of the state’s Early Childhood Leadership Commission, helped found Qualistar in 1999 following the release of a multi-state study that gave Colorado low marks for child care quality.
“Boy, did we say, ‘Enough of this,’” recalled Haynes, who sat on Qualistar’s board during its early years.
Qualistar, which was originally named Educare, drew substantial philanthropic support to create and advance its four-star rating system. Those efforts, Haynes said, along with constant advocacy at Colorado’s capitol, helped convince lawmakers that measuring and improving child care quality was important.
Now, that Qualistar’s era is ending, she said, “I think they can take a bow and say, ‘We did a good job.’”
After Qualistar closes, some projects will continue under the auspices of other local early childhood organizations or, in one case, a spin-off group.
Clayton Early Learning, which does research, training and runs a well-respected child care center in northeast Denver, will take over Qualistar’s state contract to conduct on-site assessments for the Colorado Shines system. Child care centers and preschools seeking one of the top three of Colorado Shines’ five ratings must have an on-site assessment.
State officials said Qualistar’s closing will not affect any providers’ current ratings and that they’re working to ensure there will be no delays in upcoming ratings as the hand-off to Clayton unfolds.
The Early Childhood Council Leadership Alliance, which works on behalf of Colorado’s 31 early childhood councils, will take over administering a scholarship program for early childhood providers pursuing college-level classes in the field.
One Qualistar initiative, Healthy Child Care Colorado, will spin off into its own nonprofit. It will continue to provide training and technical assistance to child care providers on health, wellness and safety topics. It will also continue making grants for playground and building improvements.
Harris said the groups taking over Qualistar initiatives will have authority over staffing, but she’s hopeful a number of Qualistar employees will land jobs with them.
Harris, who took the helm of Qualistar four years ago, said she’s not sure what she’ll do next, but it will be something related to education.
Contemplating Qualistar’s legacy, she said, “Colorado and the people who led this organization before me were trailblazers and I think that’s something to be very, very proud of.”