National testing time

In first comparison with other large cities, Memphis students score poorly on national test

PHOTO: Laura Faith Kebede

Shelby County Schools has gotten its first marks on a national test considered the best way to compare student performance across locations — and the results aren’t good.

Compared to 27 large cities, the district landed in the bottom third of results from the National Assessment of Education Progress, known as NAEP. It also lagged far behind Tennessee’s scores — in which only about one-third of students met the basic standards for proficiency.

The results temper Tennessee officials’ frequently cited claim that the state’s students are improving academically faster than students in other states, but the state’s top education official said she was not surprised by Shelby County’s poor results.

The data was reported Tuesday from NAEP, a test given every two years that measures achievement among a sample of fourth- and eighth-graders across the country. Scores from 27 urban districts are reported separately. This is the first year Shelby County Schools has been compared with the other large urban districts.

NAEP is important because it has long been the only way to compare student performance across states, a distinction that has persisted even as many states adopted similar standards for what students should learn and begun testing students on whether they meet those standards. The exam, which is administered to a sample of students across each state and district, also serves as a check on state test scores.

The Memphis district ranked close to the lowest third in fourth-grade math and reading and in the lowest third in eighth-grade math and reading compared to other cities.

In addition, the scores from Shelby County Schools lagged far behind Tennessee’s scores. Candice McQueen, Tennessee’s top education official, said given Shelby County Schools’ recent performance on the state’s more rigorous test last year, the national city comparison was not surprising.

Superintendent Dorsey Hopson said the results tell him the district needs to stay the course in implementing a myriad of changes to better match instruction to state and national benchmarks.

“I think we’re doing the right work. I think it’s going to take time to implement all the things we want to implement,” he said Tuesday. “To me, it validates why you have to change. Expose kids and prepare kids for the rigor that NAEP measures as well as what the new Tennessee test requires.”

Hopson had said his district was driving the state’s gains over the past several years. He based his claims on the improvements students made on state tests that prior year. It’s still possible that Memphis students propelled the state’s outsized gains on NAEP between 2011 and 2015 — but the new data suggest that local students’ skills are hardly worth bragging about. Shelby County Schools, Tennessee’s largest district, makes up 11 percent of the state’s student population.

When the state introduced a new test in 2017, Shelby County’s performance dropped, along with the state’s. “Shelby County was in some of our lowest proficiency levels across the board, as many of our urban districts,” McQueen said. “So we need to continue to think about what are we doing specifically across all of our urban districts to provide support, resources, and intention to all students.”

The national test is low stakes for individual students and schools, but high stakes for politicians and education leaders who use the scores to tout or denounce education policies. The federal agency that administers the tests warns against connecting scores to specific policies.

A Shelby County Schools statement notes that Memphis fourth graders “surpassed their peers in cities like ours” in which 30 percent or more school-age children live in poverty.

“And with the exception of Atlanta, the cities our students are lagging behind have less than 30-percent of their school-aged children living in poverty, which makes the correlation clear.”

Of the participating school districts, Memphis’ 30 percent poverty rate for children was the fifth highest of the participating urban school districts, according to U.S. Census data. Their test scores mostly correlated with the percentage of families with children living in families, with the exception of eighth-grade reading, in which Memphis students scored higher than their poverty ranking.

Note: The score threshold for “basic” in the charts below signifies partial mastery according to NAEP’s standards.

Update, April 10, 2018: This story has been updated to include a statement from Shelby County Schools, comment from Dorsey Hopson, and more information about city NAEP scores and their poverty rates. 

We created several graphs and charts to examine NAEP scores in Memphis, Tennessee and across cities. Look through them all or skip to the ones you’re most interested in:
2017 NAEP Trial Urban District Assessment Rankings for 4th Grade Math
2017 NAEP Trial Urban District Assessment Rankings for 8th Grade Math
2017 NAEP Trial Urban District Assessment Rankings for 4th Grade Reading
2017 NAEP Trial Urban District Assessment Rankings for 8th Grade Reading
Comparing Memphis, Tennessee and nation: 4th grade reading
Comparing Memphis, Tennessee and nation: 4th grade math
Comparing Memphis, Tennessee and nation: 8th grade reading
Comparing Memphis, Tennessee and nation: 8th grade math
Large City NAEP scores by Poverty: 4th grade reading
Large City NAEP scores by Poverty: 4th grade math
Large City NAEP scores by Poverty: 8th grade reading
Large City NAEP scores by Poverty: 8th grade math

2017 NAEP Trial Urban District Assessment Rankings for 4th Grade Math

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), various years, 1990–2017 Mathematics Assessments. / Graphic by Sam Park
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), various years, 1990–2017 Mathematics Assessments. / Graphic by Sam Park

2017 NAEP Trial Urban District Assessment Rankings for 8th Grade Math

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), various years, 1990–2017 Mathematics Assessments. / Graphic by Sam Park
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), various years, 1990–2017 Mathematics Assessments. / Graphic by Sam Park

2017 NAEP Trial Urban District Assessment Rankings for 4th Grade Reading

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), various years, 1990–2017 Reading Assessments. / Graphic by Sam Park
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), various years, 1990–2017 Reading Assessments. / Graphic by Sam Park

2017 NAEP Trial Urban District Assessment Rankings for 8th Grade Reading

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), various years, 1990–2017 Reading Assessments. / Graphic by Sam Park
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), various years, 1990–2017 Reading Assessments. / Graphic by Sam Park

Comparing Memphis, Tennessee and nation: 4th grade reading

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), various years, 1990–2017 Reading / Mathematics Assessments.

Comparing Memphis, Tennessee and nation: 4th grade math

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP).

Comparing Memphis, Tennessee and nation: 8th grade reading

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP).

Comparing Memphis, Tennessee and nation: 8th grade math

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP).

Large City NAEP scores by Poverty: 4th grade reading

Large City NAEP scores by Poverty: 4th grade math

Large City NAEP scores by Poverty: 8th grade reading

Large City NAEP scores by Poverty: 8th grade math

Measure of Success

State ratings identify 163 Colorado schools in need of improvement

PHOTO: AAron Ontiveroz/The Denver Post
Students in kindergarten on the first day of school at McGlone Academy.

More than 160 Colorado schools received one of the state’s two lowest ratings, making them eligible for additional assistance but also vulnerable to intervention if they don’t improve student performance.

The watch list comprises 9 percent of Colorado’s 1,800 schools and educate roughly 74,000 students, or 8.5 percent or the state’s almost 900,000 students. That means the vast majority of students in the state attend a school with one of the two higher rankings on the four-point scale.

The State Board of Education finalized the ratings Wednesday. The state gives separate district-wide ratings, which were finalized last month.

“The state’s accountability system is built on the premise that all students should receive a high quality education and graduate ready for college or careers,” Katy Anthes, Colorado’s education commissioner, said in a statement. “Our goal is to give all students a chance to excel. These designations allow us to identify struggling schools that may need more support to help students achieve their highest aspirations. And they also highlight successful schools so that other schools can learn from them.”

All public schools receive a state rating, known as the School Performance Framework report, each year. It’s based largely on student scores on the state’s English and math tests. Student growth, or how much students learn year-to-year compared to peers with similar results on state tests, carries most weight. High school graduation and dropout rates are also factored in.

Colorado Department of Education

There are four ratings: performance (the highest), improvement, priority improvement and turnaround (the lowest).

Schools and districts that have one of the lower two ratings are placed on a watch list and have five years to improve before facing state intervention. Schools on the list are eligible for grants for leadership training and help from outside consultants, but if change doesn’t come fast enough, the state could hand over control to an external manager, require conversion to a charter, or close schools.

Earlier this fall, the State Board of Education ordered the Adams 14 school district, based in Commerce City, and two schools in Pueblo in southern Colorado to turn over control to external managers after earlier intervention efforts did not produce enough improvement.

Colorado is still figuring out what effective intervention looks like and if outsiders can make a difference for students that existing leadership has not been able to achieve.

Most Colorado schools maintained the same rating they had in 2017, with 15 percent moving down at least one level and 14 percent moving up at least one level. Eighteen schools improved enough to get off the state watch list, which is often known as the “accountability clock,” some after initial state intervention last year.

Six schools are entering their eighth year on the watch list: Aurora Central High School, Adams City High School, Aguilar Junior-Senior High School in the tiny Aguilar district in southern Colorado, Hope Online Learning Academy Elementary School in Douglas County, Heroes Middle School, and Risley International Academy of Innovation, the last two both in Pueblo.

Two are entering year six: Central Elementary School in the Adams 14 district and Minnequa Elementary School in Pueblo.

Another four are entering year five, now the last year to improve before state intervention: Manual High School and Montbello Career and Technical High School in Denver, Mesa Elementary in the Montezuma-Cortez district in southwest Colorado, and EDCSD: Colorado Cyber School in Douglas County.

In the past, some schools received more time to improve because the “clock” was paused for several years as the state changed assessments. But now there are no more extensions beyond year five.

Of the state’s 42 online schools, a little more than half received one of the top two ratings, and 31 percent did not report enough data for the state to grant a rating. Colorado has more stringent regulations of online schools than many states, but there is an ongoing debate about how well these schools serve students.

About 84 percent of the state’s 247 charter schools received one of the top two ratings, compared to 89 percent of all Colorado schools. Twenty-six charter schools, or 10.5 percent, received one of the lowest two ratings.

Look up your school here:

Literacy tutors needed

Detroit enlists volunteer tutors before third-grade reading law takes effect

PHOTO: Anthony Lanzilote

Detroit’s school district is asking the community for help getting students reading at grade level. The superintendent is hoping volunteer literacy tutors will prevent a critical mass of third-graders from being held back under the state’s tough new reading law.

“We need your help,” Superintendent Nikolai Vitti said, making an appeal for volunteers during a school board meeting Tuesday night. “Our teachers and our principals and our schools alone will not be able to ensure that every student is at third-grade level without your help.”

Which is why the district is working with two community advocacy groups, Keep the Vote/No Takeover and the National Action Network, to launch the Let’s Read program, geared to K-3 students. The program is slated to begin in February — less than a year before the reading law takes effect. Once it does, during the 2019-2020 school year, Michigan third-graders who aren’t reading at grade level will be held back.

In the Detroit district, where proficiency levels on state exams are extremely low, the consequences could be dire. During a community forum last week, Vitti said that the law could hold back as many as 90% of Detroit third-graders, though Michigan’s education department has yet to define what it means for a student to be reading at grade level. At the forum, though, he noted exemptions from the law for such as students with special education needs and those who speak little to no English.

The Let’s Read volunteers will be assigned to individual students based on need. They will read with the children and help them with book selections.

Helen Moore, a longtime community activist who represents the two community organizations behind the volunteer effort, urged people to sign up during the public comment period of the meeting.

“I know our students will succeed, because they’re brilliant,” Moore said. But they and their parents need help, she said.

Vitti said the volunteer cohort is one of many literacy-building efforts underway. In addition, he said that every district school will hold family literacy nights and that its Parent Academy will expand its classes that teach parents how to help their children with reading. A community-wide event to teach Detroiters about the reading law — and what they can do to help — will also be held.

Moore said the word is starting to get out about the Let’s Read program, noting: “The telephone has been ringing like crazy. And now the suburban districts want to be part of it.”

The focus, though, is on Detroit, she said.

Want to volunteer: You can fill out a form here, or call 313-873-7884.