teacher training

The first year of teaching is notoriously tough. Denver is experimenting with a new approach

First-year teacher Krista Trofka fills in her class calendar at Denver’s North High School in 2007. (Photo by RJ Sangosti/The Denver Post)

A teacher’s first year in the classroom is often a sink-or-swim experience.

That was true for Kyle Jordan. A history major in college, Jordan underwent six weeks of training through an alternative teacher licensure program in Texas before being handed the keys to his own classroom at an alternative high school in Houston.

Being in his early 20s made it easy for him to form strong bonds with his teenage students, but he struggled with lesson planning. He was instructed in how to break up fights but not how to get his students to refocus after the skirmish was over.

The help and mentoring he’d been promised when he was hired never materialized, he said.

“The other teachers had a running bet: ‘What month is he going to bail?’” Jordan said.

He made it to the end of the year. But he realized that to stay in teaching, he needed more support. This fall, after moving to Colorado and completing a master’s degree in education, he’ll be one of six new “associate teachers” in Denver Public Schools who will teach part-time in a high-poverty school and spend the rest of their time planning, observing, and learning.

The small pilot is part of a new district strategy to better prepare new teachers to work in Denver’s many high-poverty schools, which tend to hire more novices. The students in those schools are more likely to be behind academically and in need of top-notch teachers.

Nationally, one in 10 new teachers quits after their first year, according to research by the U.S. Department of Education. Districts across the country are trying different ways to stem the tide. Denver officials hope that investing in novice teachers will allow the teachers to hone their craft faster and to stay at high-needs schools for longer.

“We know how challenging that first year can be for a new teacher, even when they’ve had high-quality training,” said Laney Shaler, the district’s director of new teacher pathways and development. “We want to extend that developmental runway.”

The teachers aren’t the only ones who stand to benefit. Some research shows high teacher turnover is detrimental to student learning, especially in high-poverty schools. For districts, it can be time-consuming and costly to hire more and more teachers each year.

Shaler said the district’s long-term vision is that all novice teachers hired to work in Denver Public Schools will first spend time training in one of its high-poverty schools as an associate teacher, a teacher resident, a student teacher, or in some other role. The difference between an associate teacher and a teacher resident or student teacher is that associate teachers are already licensed and able to teach on their own, or they’re part of a program like Teach for America, which has participants teach full-time while earning their certification.

Which Denver schools have been designated “teaching academies?”
  • North High School*
  • Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Early College
  • McAuliffe Manual Middle School*
  • Greenlee Elementary School
  • Goldrick Elementary School*
  • Gust Elementary School
  • Trevista at Horace Mann Elementary School
  • * These schools will have “associate teachers”

The district has designated seven high-poverty schools as “teaching academies” that will specialize in serving as training grounds for new teachers the way teaching hospitals do for new doctors (see box). (Because the district hires about 250 first-year teachers every year, Shaler said it’s likely that non-designated schools will train new teachers, too.)

That’s different than the way it works now, which is that various universities and teacher preparation programs have informal partnerships with individual schools to train aspiring teachers. Some of those schools serve low-income students, but others do not – despite the fact that first-year teachers are more likely to get hired to work in high-poverty schools.

Three of the teaching academies – North High School, McAuliffe Manual Middle School, and Goldrick Elementary School – will have associate teachers this fall. They will be paid slightly less than regular first-year teachers: $38,000 as opposed to $41,689. The cost will be split between the schools and the district. In all, the district will spend $325,000 in 2018-19 to get the teaching academies up and running, with $150,000 going to associate teacher salaries.

Emily McNeil will be an associate math teacher at North. She’s already familiar with the school, having done her residency there while earning her teaching license. As an associate teacher, she’ll be teaching on her own for the first time, but for three periods a day rather than five. She and the other associate teachers will spend the rest of their time planning, observing other teachers, attending training sessions, and getting advice and feedback from mentors.

McNeil hopes the role will allow her to ease into a profession she knows can be tough.

“Teaching is such an art,” she said. “It’s not something you can learn overnight.”

North Principal Scott Wolf sees the associate teacher role as one more way to authentically prepare new teachers to work at a school where 76 percent of students qualify for free or reduced-price lunch, an indicator of poverty, and 87 percent are students of color.

If a teacher trains at a predominantly white or wealthy school, “they are not going to be able to come into North and be successful right away,” he said. It takes a different mentality, and a willingness to build relationships with students, to teach in a high-poverty school, Wolf said.

“We need teachers who want to do the work not just as job but as a vocation,” he said.

Jessica Long, principal at McAuliffe Manual, said she hopes the associate teacher role will allow first-year teachers to get out of “day-to-day survival mode” and into a frame of mind that’s healthier, more sustainable, and more conducive to learning on the job.

“If you were up all night crying, and you’re exhausted and frustrated, I don’t think you’re showing up as your best self,” she said. “In a lot of ways, the education field has accepted that, and you just have to go through that. I appreciate getting this push to say, ‘Can we change that?’”

Experts said the approach seems promising. Having a gradual on-ramp for new hires is a common-sense approach used in many other professions, said Richard Ingersoll, a professor at the University of Pennsylvania Graduate School of Education, who has studied teacher preparation and remembers his own sparse training as a first-year teacher.

“Would a law firm give their newest lawyers their toughest cases?” he said. “No, they wouldn’t. That was precisely the practice in American schools.”

But the experts warned that not all high-poverty schools are fertile training grounds, especially since such schools tend to have higher turnover of teachers and principals.

“If it’s a high-poverty school with a top-notch principal, and the staff has got it together, that’s so different from a high-poverty school where half the staff has left,” said Barbara Seidl, the associate dean of teacher education at the University of Colorado Denver.

Five of the seven schools Denver has designated as teaching academies are highly rated, earning “green” last year on the district’s color-coded ratings scale, which is largely based on test scores. The other two earned a “yellow” rating, one notch below green.

North is one of the yellow schools, but Wolf notes it had a 90 percent teacher retention rate this past school year, which is higher than the district rate of about 80 percent. The school has been nationally recognized for its approach to student discipline, and its enrollment is growing, a sign of popularity in a district where students can easily choose to attend any school they want.

Jordan, the teacher from Texas, will be an associate geography teacher there this fall. He’s hopeful that after such an unsupportive experience his first time in the classroom, this new role will make his second go-round more manageable and successful.

“It’s less, ‘Oh there’s a new teacher. Let’s see if they’ll make it to the end of the year,’” he said. “It’s more, ‘You’re part of this. We’re going to help you. Your success is our success.’”

choosing leaders

Meet one possible successor to departing Denver superintendent Tom Boasberg

PHOTO: Melanie Asmar
Denver Public Schools Deputy Superintendent Susana Cordova addresses teachers at an early literacy training session.

As Denver officials wrestle with how to pick a replacement for longtime superintendent Tom Boasberg, one insider stands out as a likely candidate.

Susana Cordova, the district’s deputy superintendent, already held her boss’s job once before, when Boasberg took an extended leave in 2016. She has a long history with the district, including as a student, graduating from Abraham Lincoln High School, and as a bilingual teacher starting her career more than 20 years ago.

When she was selected to sit in for Boasberg for six months, board members at the time cited her hard work and the many good relationships they saw she had with people. This time around, several community members are saying they want a leader who will listen to teachers and the community.

Cordova, 52, told Chalkbeat she’s waiting to see what the board decides about the selection process, but said she wants to be ready, when they are, to talk about her interest in the position.

“DPS has played an incredibly important role in every aspect of my life. I’m very committed to making sure that we continue to make progress as an organization,” Cordova said. “I believe I have both the passion and the track record to help move us forward.”

During her career, she has held positions as a teacher, principal, and first became an administrator, starting in 2002, as the district’s literacy director.

Just before taking on the role of acting superintendent in 2016, Cordova talked to Chalkbeat about how her education, at a time of desegregation, shaped her experience and about her long path to connecting with her culture.

“I didn’t grow up bilingual. I learned Spanish after I graduated from college,” Cordova, said at the time. “I grew up at a point in time where I found it more difficult to embrace my Latino culture, academically. There were, I would say, probably some negative messages around what it meant to be Latino at that point of time.”

She said she went through introspection during her senior year of college and realized that many students in her neighborhood bought into the negative messages and had not been successful.

“I didn’t want our schools to be places like that,” she said.

In her time as acting superintendent, she oversaw teacher contract negotiations and preparations for asking voters for a bond that they ultimately approved that fall. Cordova’s deputy superintendent position was created for her after Boasberg returned.

But it’s much of Cordova’s work with students of color that has earned her national recognition.

In December, Education Week, an education publication, named her a “Leader to Learn From,” pointing to her role in the district’s work on equity, specifically with English language learners, and in her advocacy to protect students under the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals program, or DACA.

Cordova was also named a Latino Educator Champion of Change by President Barack Obama in 2014. Locally, in 2016, the University of Denver’s Latino Leadership Institute inducted Cordova into its hall of fame.

The Denver school board met Tuesday morning, and again on Wednesday to discuss the superintendent position.

Take a look back at a Q & A Chalkbeat did with Cordova in 2016, and one in 2014.

Super Search

Denver community has lots of advice on picking a new superintendent – who will the board heed?

PHOTO: Denver Post file
DPS Superintendent Tom Boasberg guest teaches an Advanced Placement history class at Lincoln High in 2009.

Denver teacher Carla Cariño hopes the district’s next superintendent is a bilingual person of color. Ariel Taylor Smith, a former Denver teacher and now an education advocate, wants a leader who tackles school improvement with a sense of urgency. Collinus Newsome, a leader at the Denver Foundation, hopes the search process includes community voices that have been silenced in the past.

These are just a few of the desires community members have expressed in the wake of Tuesday’s news that Tom Boasberg will step down after nearly a decade as superintendent of Colorado’s largest school district.

While the district has released few details about the process for selecting the next schools chief, board President Anne Rowe said Tuesday it’s the board’s most important role and that it will soon schedule a meeting to discuss the process publicly.

The 92,600-student district won’t be without a superintendent immediately. Boasberg‘s contract requires him to serve for another 90 days.

Randy Black, who coordinates superintendent search services for the Colorado Association of School Boards, said large urban districts like Denver typically launch comprehensive national searches to fill superintendent vacancies. On average, such searches take two to three months, but the length can vary based on district circumstances, he said.

“DPS is royally set up to do this,” Black said, using the district’s acronym. “They’ve done great strategic work in an extremely complex environment.”

The suburban Douglas County district, the state’s third largest, picked a new superintendent in April after a national search that drew more than 1,000 inquiries and culminated with three finalists. Thomas Tucker, previously superintendent of Princeton City Schools in Cincinnati, Ohio, is the new schools chief there.

While national searches are the norm for large districts, that’s not what happened when Boasberg was unanimously selected by the board in January 2009, a few weeks after his predecessor Michael Bennet was appointed to a vacant U.S. Senate seat. Boasberg was the district’s chief operating officer at the time and the sole finalist for the position.

Susana Cordova, currently the district’s deputy superintendent, is one likely internal candidate this time around. A graduate of Denver’s Abraham Lincoln High School and a longtime district administrator, she served as acting superintendent in 2016 when Boasberg took a six-month sabbatical to live abroad.

“Most urban and suburban boards will wrestle with how do you honor internals at the same time you open the door to potential matchups outside the district,” Black said. “That’s a fairly common dilemma.”

With news of Boasberg’s departure, one of the biggest questions on the minds of Denver parents and educators is how the public can weigh in on the superintendent selection.

Cariño, a teacher at North High School, responded to Chalkbeat’s online survey, wondering how the district plans to involve teachers and community members in the process.

She also wrote, “While being the superintendent of a large urban district is no easy task, the gains made under Boasberg for students of color were minimal. The fact of the matter is there is still a significant amount of work to be done so our students of color can better access and complete [a] four-year college … Our new superintendent should be a bilingual person of color who understands our communities and can make the needle move out of a genuine need to see progress for our students versus a political career.”

Ricardo Martinez, president of the parent advocacy group Padres & Jóvenes Unidos, said Wednesday he would like to see an open process where students, parents, and the community have some opportunity to ask questions and provide feedback.

He said parents he works with didn’t feel left out when Boasberg was selected because they understood the district had a short timeframe to find a replacement, and they had already worked with Boasberg and knew he supported the work they were doing together.

Now, Martinez said, parents are looking for a leader who understands and listens to the community, and who can take stock of what’s working and what’s not and use that information to find solutions.

“But making sure everyone is aware of that logic — That’s been extremely lacking with the administration. It’s about letting the community know so it’s not just an internal debrief,” he said.