price tags

Here’s how much it will cost to fix your school. Report puts a price tag on repairs at every school in Detroit’s main district.

PHOTO: Koby Levin
Middle schoolers at Golightly Education Center. The 99-year-old building needs more than $5 million in repairs.

Kindergartners arriving at Nichols Elementary-Middle School this week for the first day of school were welcomed to a building that needs massive repairs totaling $5.6 million.

That may seem like a lot, but it’s hardly out of the ordinary in Michigan’s largest school district, and it’s not nearly as much as the $29 million it would cost to bring Detroit’s storied Pershing High School up to modern standards.

Even the district’s prized newer buildings, like the one that houses Cass Technical High School, need a lot of work. Only 14 years after it was built, Cass requires $7.4 million in repairs.

News reports this week focused on problems with the district’s drinking water, which was shut off as a precautionary measure while the district develops a plan to upgrade aging plumbing systems. But a report obtained by Chalkbeat shows that plumbing is just one of many problems caused by decades of delayed maintenance.

A report released by Superintendent Nikolai Vitti in June found that the district urgently needs to raise more than $500 million to fix its crumbling facilities —  a conclusion that one board member called “tragically awful.” The full document, which was obtained by Chalkbeat, attaches a price tag to every active school in the district that is in need of repairs.

It is based on a survey completed for the district early this year by the construction consulting firm OHM Advisors, which found that district facilities are “generally in fair to poor condition.” The consultants used district documents, satellite imagery, and “professional judgment” to come up with cost estimates for Detroit schools’ warped floors, leaking roofs, and crumbling walls. Those conditions drew national attention two years ago when they prompted most of the district’s teachers to walk out of their schools in protest.

The consultants  found widespread problems with essential heating, plumbing, and fire safety systems, leading them to designate most of the repair costs as a “high priority.”

The problems are likely not limited to traditional schools in the district, which formerly owned many of the buildings currently occupied by charter schools.

These 15 district schools will be most expensive to repair.

School Age (Years) Cost of repairs (2018)
Pershing High School 89 $28,041,977
Cody High School 71 $25,500,188
Detroit International Academy for Young Women 104 $24,092,987
Detroit Collegiate Preparatory High School 48 $15,350,644
Noble Elementary School 98 $14,279,004
Osborn High School 62 $13,993,463
Frederick Douglass Academy for Young Men 15-53 $13,133,746
Carstens Academy of Aquatic Science at Remus 41 $12,872,800
Drew Transition Center 48 $12,207,944
Thurgood Marshall Elementary/Middle School 98 $11,133,931
Davis Aerospace Technical High School at Golightly 36 $9,704,498
Sampson Webber Academy 54 $9,600,826
Dixon Educational Learning Academy 55 $9,395,277
Southeastern High School 104 $8,363,595
Keidan Special Education Center 11-55 $7,916,713

The 108-year-old building that houses Nichols offers a primer on the seemingly intractable situation. The analysis found that while the building, which is in one of Detroit’s wealthiest neighborhoods, needs more than $5 million in repairs, it is barely worth $10 million. The money it would take to get Nichols in good condition would get the district halfway to a brand new building.

So, should the district make the repairs, or replace the building? That may be merely an academic question: the district currently doesn’t have the money for either option. When Michigan lawmakers ended the era of emergency management, helping the district avoid bankruptcy and putting it back in the hands of the local school board, they forbade the district from taking on new debt. Vitti and the school board began exploring the options for addressing the deteriorating facilities, including philanthropic donations and a rollback of the borrowing restrictions, but none is guaranteed.

Complicating matters further, Nichols is operating at about 60 percent capacity — about average in a district that has more available desks than students to fill them.

District leaders could try to save money by shuttering the school and consolidating it with another building. But that option would have serious consequences for the district, which could lose enrollment if students don’t land in another district school, as well as for communities where students could be forced to travel long distances to find another school.

The problem, experts say, will only get worse with time. The districtwide repair bill is expected to double in five years to more than $1 billion if nothing is done.

Not every building in the district, though, needs work. The consultants couldn’t identify any needed repairs at newer schools like Earhart Elementary-Middle school in southwest Detroit.

These 15 schools are in the best shape of any in the district.

School Age (Years) Cost of repairs (2018)
Detroit School of Arts 14 $-
Earhart Elementary/Middle School 7 $-
East English Village Preparatory Academy 6 $-
Gompers Elementary/Middle School 7 $-
King High School 7 $-
Mumford High School/Mumford Academy 6 $-
Renaissance High School 13 $-
Charles Wright Academy of Arts and Science 16 $11,874
Edward ‘Duke’ Ellington Conservatory of Music and Art 17 $40,883
Mackenzie Elementary/Middle School 6 $64,270
Munger Elementary/Middle School 6 $66,522
Clippert Academy 113 $163,879
Bennett Elementary School 107 $247,845
Fisher Magnet Upper Academy 15 $368,865
Bunche Elementary/Middle School 96 $377,170

But the problem is widespread: About one-third of the district’s schools need more than $5 million of work done. Scroll down to see how much it would cost to get your school back in good condition. Numbers used are as of 2018, though the cost of repairs is expected to rise every year that nothing is done. Schools are also ranked by Facility Condition Index (FCI), a metric used by the consultants to compare the condition of different buildings. A higher FCI means the building is in worse condition. Some construction industry experts suggest that buildings with an FCI higher than 60 percent should be replaced instead of repairs. For more on FCI, see the full report.

* Palmer Park Preparatory Academy was renovated this year after a mold infestation forced the district to move students to another building. The project used up much of the $25 million allocated by the state for repairs in the district.

Source: Facilities report commissioned by Detroit Public Schools Community District

Face-to-face

In ‘speed dating’ exercise, Detroiters grill school board candidates about third-grade reading, charter schools

PHOTO: Erin Einhorn
Corletta Vaughn, a candidate for Detroit school board, speaks to Detroiters at a forum Thursday evening as Nita Redmond (center) looks on. Vaughn says the district should be open to collaboration with charter schools and suburban districts.

On its face, the public forum Thursday night was about candidates for Detroit school board. In fact, the night belonged to the citizens.

Early in the evening, a tableful of Detroiters — most of them graduates of Detroit public schools, all of them concerned about the future of Michigan’s largest school district — set about deciding what they wanted to ask the candidates during a series of Q&A sessions that CitizenDetroit, which co-sponsored the forum with Chalkbeat, called “speed-dating.”

Shirley Corley, a first-grade reading teacher who retired from the city’s main district, honed in on the state’s “read-or-flunk” law, which could force schools in Detroit to hold back many of their third graders next year if they can’t pass a state reading exam.

“I heard that one on the TV, and I couldn’t believe my ears,” she said.

As a gong sounded, she hurried to shape her outrage into a question: “What are your plans about holding back third-grade readers, and why aren’t they reading better?”

Then Terrell George, one of the candidates for two openings on the school board, sat down across the table. She asked her question.

All across a packed union hall in Detroit’s historic Corktown neighborhood, similar scenes were playing out. Candidates rotated between tables, where they sat face-to-face with roughly 10 Detroit residents armed with prepared questions and many lifetimes-worth of combined experience with the city’s main school district. Every five minutes, someone hit a gong, and candidates got another chance to lay out their vision for the troubled district and impress the voters who will decide their future at the polls in November.

It is Detroit’s first school board election since the board regained control of Michigan’s largest district, which was run for nearly a decade by state-appointed emergency managers. And it marks a crucial milestone in the district turnaround effort led by Superintendent Nikolai Vitti, whose reforms have so far enjoyed the board’s support.

(Six of the nine candidates attended the event. Deborah Lemmons and M. Murray [the full name listed on the ballot] didn’t respond to an invitation, according to CitizenDetroit. Britney Sharp said she had a scheduling conflict and was unable to attend.)

From Natalya Henderson, a 2016 graduate of Cass Technical High School, to Reverend David Murray (his legal name), a retired social worker and minister who previously served a long, sometimes controversial stint on the school board, a broad field of candidates are vying to help steer a district through a historic turnaround effort. The winners will help decide what to do about the $500 million cost for urgent school renovations and test scores that are persistently among the worst in the nation.

(Click here to watch the candidates introduce themselves in two-minute videos, and here for short bios.)

candidate statements
PHOTO: Koby Levin
Deborah Hunter-Harvill, the lone incumbent running for school board, makes an opening statement. Candidates made one-minute opening statements, then rotated through a roomful of 130 people answering questions about their plans for the district. From left: Corletta Vaughn, Shannon Smith, Natalya Henderson, Hunter-Harvill.

The low scores are the reason the state’s third-grade reading law, which calls for students reading below grade level to be held back, will disproportionately affect Detroit. But at Table 1, Corley gleaned some hope from George’s answer to her question about the law. He said more attention should be paid to early literacy instruction: “We must start from the beginning in preschool and kindergarten.”

Corley shook her finger in approval: “That’s right.”

On the other side of the table, Viola Goolsby wanted to know how George would respond if the state attempted to close the district’s lowest-performing schools.

“I would be opposed to any school shutting down any school in any district…” George began.

Then the gong sounded. “That was quick,” George said, standing up.

The table had a five-minute break — with roughly 130 people in the room, there were more tables than the six candidates who attended — and then another candidate, Corletta Vaughn, slid into the seat reserved for candidates.

Lewis EL, a realtor who works in Detroit, read a question from the list provided by Chalkbeat and CitizenDetroit, the non-profit that hosted the event: “What are the pros and cons for the district in collaborating with charters and suburban school districts?”

Vaughn’s voice fell: “I firmly believe that the district alone is without resources. We just don’t have it. So I would like to see a collaboration.” She said other districts could help Detroit train its teachers: “I think we have to do a better job in terms of exposing our teachers to better development.”

“Are they not coming with that knowledge already?” Lula Gardfrey asked.

“But I think that we can support them more,” Vaughn replied. “Our students have mental health issues. They have economic issues. Just what the teacher learned in school isn’t going to be enough when that child arrives at 8 a.m. in the morning.”

detroiters
PHOTO: Koby Levin
Shirley Corley and Lula Gardfrey work on the questions they planned to put to candidates for Detroit school board.

When the gong sounded again, Nita Redmond felt torn. She believed Vaughn had good intentions but was suspicious of any collaboration with charter schools.

The rise of charter schools, which enroll about one-third of the city’s 100,000 students, “should have never happened,” she said. “It seems like it has lowered the regular schools.” When another candidate, Shannon Smith, joined the table, Corley got to hear a different take on her question about the third-grade reading law.

“We need to communicate with parents,” Smith said. “There are a lot of parents that aren’t aware. Second, we need to work together with the administrators and the teachers on the curriculum, and figure out which curriculum would best support the students in reading.”

On the opposite side of the hall, another table asked Deborah Hunter-Harvill, the only incumbent in the race, about her plans for improving instruction in the district.

“Because nationally we’re at the bottom in reading and math, I start from the bottom,” she said. One of our policies is that parents attend parent training free to understand what their kids are being taught. All of our parents don’t come, but if you just get 40 in one classroom in one day, they go home and tell other parents.”

Theresa White had a seat right next to Hunter-Harvill, and she liked what she saw. “That has been a culprit, the lack of participation by parents,” she said.

In the next seat over, Rainelle Burton, who attended high school in Detroit and has lived in the city for decades, came to a different conclusion.

“I’m not hearing anything that says, ‘this is inventive and creative,’” she said.

The up-close-and-personal format didn’t make things easy for the candidates.

“It was definitely not comfortable,” Vaughn said, adding that she wished she’d had access to the pre-written questions beforehand.

reverend david murray
PHOTO: Erin Einhorn
Reverend David Murray, who served on the school board member for 16 years during a period when the district was largely controlled by emergency managers, said those managers were responsible for the district’s decline.

But for voters in the room, the format made things easy. In a straw poll after the event, virtually everyone in attendance said they planned to vote.

“We were able to talk to them one-on-one, it’s not just looking on TV,” Nita Redmond said, adding that she came away with a good idea of who would get her vote (she declined to say who). “We were able to talk to them and evaluate ourselves if this would be the best person to lead my district.”

Surveying the room as the forum wound down, Michelle Broughton was of two minds. She carries with her four generations of experience with the district — she is a computer instructor at Renaissance High School, her father graduated from Chatsey High School, a Detroit Public School, in 1961, her children attended the district, and her grandson is in the eighth grade at McKinsey Elementary — and she said she’d heard a lot of what she called “pie-in-the-sky” ideas at the forum.

No one had offered a solution for the roughly 90 classrooms in the district that were without a teacher on the first day of school — a problem that had affected her family in the past.

“If my child goes to school every day and comes home and says, ‘Grandma, I don’t have a math teacher,’ that child is losing weeks,” she said.

But she said the event gave her a feel for the candidates — and reminded her how many Detroiters share her dream of a thriving school district.

“I’m here because I have hope,” she said. “I see a brighter future, and I hope that I pick somebody who will help.”

New Arrivals

In a letter to Betsy DeVos, Michigan officials highlight the plight of refugee students — and ask for testing waiver

PHOTO: Warren Consolidated Schools
Students at Warren-Mott High School in the Detroit suburbs. Officials there say that many students are arriving at the school from refugee camps, including 11th graders who had no formal schooling for nine or ten years. Such students would currently be required to take a state English test during their first year in school.

To teachers who work with recently arrived refugee students, the problem is clear: Although their students will eventually learn English, their language skills at first aren’t comparable to those of native speakers.

They’re hoping federal education officials will come to the same conclusion after reading the state’s detail-rich request to delay testing new immigrant children in English.

Michigan is the second state to ask for a waiver from a federal law that requires children who arrived in the U.S. this year to take standardized English tests a year after arriving — even if they’re just being introduced to the language. The law also requires states to count such students’ scores in decisions about whether to close low-performing schools.

“We wanted to balance between presenting hard data and some anecdotes,” said Chris Janzer, assistant director of accountability at the Michigan Department of Education. “We’re hoping that the case we present, with some of the stories, will win us approval.”

The state’s request includes stories from the Detroit area, which is home to the nation’s largest concentration of Arabic speakers, including many newly arrived refugees fleeing wars in the Middle East. This population is unique in more ways than one: It includes more than 30,000 Chaldean Christians who arrived after the U.S. invasion of Iraq in 2003 — the largest such population in the world outside Iraq. And many of its children must deal with the aftereffects of violent displacement even as they attempt to attend school in what is in many cases an entirely new language.

The state’s waiver request offers Hamtramck, a hyper-diverse city enclave in Detroit, as an example:

Hamtramck has many recent arrivals from war-torn regions in Yemen and Syria and has students from remote villages with no formal education background, as well as many others with interrupted learning. New students can have toxic stress and can even be suicidal, and often require wraparound services. Older students are also often burdened with the responsibility of helping their families financially, emotionally, and with childrearing.

Even the luckiest new arrivals would benefit if Michigan receives a waiver from parts of the federal Every Students Succeed Act, says Suzanne Toohey, president of Michigan Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages.

“The intent of the waiver is for the most needy students, but it will help all students,” she said, adding that it typically takes 5-7 years for an English learner to catch up to her native-speaking peers.

With that in mind, Toohey says current federal requirements don’t make sense.

“It would be like an adult who is many years out of school, and who took French for two years of high school, going to France and trying to take a college course,” she said. “It’s just not going to happen.”

Following the same logic, Michigan officials are asking U.S. Education Secretary Betsy DeVos to put the brakes on federal requirements for testing recently arrived English learners. If the waiver request is approved:

  • In their first year in Michigan schools, those students wouldn’t be required to take the state English language arts exam.
  • In their second, they would take the test, but schools wouldn’t be held accountable for their scores.
  • In year three, the growth in their scores on the English exam would be factored into school ratings.
  • And in year four their overall score — known as proficiency — would be counted as well as their growth.

That’s still too soon to begin testing English learners, Toohey said, noting “the waiver is a start, but we haven’t gotten all the way there.”

Even so, the proposed change still faces substantial obstacles. New York’s request for a similar waiver was denied by the U.S. Department of Education in January. In its response, the department said it was holding New York to its responsibility to “set high expectations that apply to all students.” Janzer says his staff studied New York’s waiver and concluded that Michigan’s should include more details to humanize the situations of the affected students.

Michigan officials are currently working to incorporate public comments (there were seven, all of them supportive, Janzer said) into its request, which is expected to be submitted in the coming weeks. A decision isn’t expected from federal officials for several more months.

Whoever reads the 10-page document in Washington, D.C. will be confronted with details like these:

  • Lamphere Schools, of Madison Heights, MI, has received a significant influx of students from Iraq and Syria, and at least one elementary school’s student body is roughly 70 percent recently arrived students from these two nations. Lamphere reports that some students initially undergo temporary “silent periods,” a researched stage of second language acquisition, where children are watching and listening, but not yet speaking.
  • Warren Consolidated Schools, of Warren, MI, reports that they have many students from refugee camps, including students who are testing in 11th grade after having no formal schooling for nine or ten years. Warren Consolidated has received 2,800 students from Syria or Iraq since 2007.

Read the full document here. Most local details are on pages 7-9.