In the Classroom

Indiana puts the brakes on its plan to revamp high school diplomas

PHOTO: Shaina Cavazos
The Indiana State Board of Education approved the voucher waiver requests at its June meeting.

After almost two years of work attempting to overhaul the state’s high school diplomas, the debate has been shelved.

Sarah O’Brien, a first grade teacher from Avon and the vice chairwoman of the Indiana State Board of Education, said after two hours of public testimony that the board couldn’t make a decision without more data and information on the types of diplomas students will earn when graduating this year.

“I think there are a lot of good things in the diplomas,” O’Brien said. “But our schools and our kids and our teachers are tired of change for the sake of change.”

The board overwhelmingly approved the plan to halt work on changing the diplomas, an effort led in part by state Superintendent Glenda Ritz and board member Steve Yager. She abstained from the vote to put the effort on hold while all the other board members voted yes. Ritz said she wasn’t championing any particular plan for diploma changes.

New requirements in math, fine arts and specific career “pathways” were sticking points for board members. The latest proposal from a task force of educators and other stakeholders differed just slightly from what the state board discussed last fall. At that time, vocal opposition from parents and educators led the board to create a new panel to revise the proposal. Ritz said changes to math requirements were a critical issue.

“Mathematics from the very, very, very beginning has been the topic of conversation,” Ritz said. “We have to really take a look at that information (from 2016 graduates), and I think that’s what the board wants to do. They want to see the real data before we make any changes.”

On one side of the diploma debate are educators who want to keep the current system. Some have told board members they fear students could be pigeonholed too early into career tracks or barred from earning a diploma if they can’t pass all the required math classes.

“A diploma is not a checklist, and therefore adding (math) classes won’t fix that problem,” said Steve Baker, principal at Bluffton High School. “I believe that better math is more important than more math.”

Those pushing for changes include college officials and business leaders who say they too often see Indiana high school graduates arrive unprepared for college courses or on-the-job demands.

“As a state I believe we’re failing to adequately prepare thousands of our young people,” said Pam Horne, a vice provost at Purdue University. “We don’t have have a college access problem in Indiana, we have a college completion problem.”

But it hasn’t been that long since diplomas were last updated, some educators testified to the state board today.

The state’s diplomas were changed for 2012-13 freshmen requiring them to earn six math credits in high school and take at least one math course each year. The first group of students to be held to those new standards will graduate this spring, so it’s not yet clear what effect the changes will have. Board members want to see if the new requirement reduces the number of graduates who need help to brush up their skills by taking basic level courses in college.

“I think many of us are very concerned that 2016 will be the first group of students graduating with our current diploma structure,” said Kim Dodson, executive director of the Arc of Indiana, a group that advocates on behalf of people with special needs. “We can’t recommend changes at this time until we see data.”

And there’s no mandate that the diplomas must be changed at all. Rather, the bill passed by the Indiana General Assembly in 2014, which launched the debate, merely called for a review of diploma types. Any changes had to be presented to the board, which has full authority to decide whether or not to adopt any proposed changes.

The latest version of the plan would let students starting high school in 2019 pursue three diploma options instead of the current four — a “core 44” diploma, an “honors” diploma and an updated “general” diploma. The four existing options are general, core 40, core 40 honors and career and technical honors diplomas.

The newest proposal is different from what was presented last fall mainly in how the programs are structured, with some changes to credits and courses required. The core 44 draft diploma — which most Indiana students would be expected to complete if the plan were approved — replaced the earlier “college- and career-ready” diploma draft. The versions remain very similar with a few simplifications to the math class “sequences” and clearer language around how students may use elective credits.

Some educators say the suggestions for electives could limit students in the future from exploring their interests, as electives are supposed to allow them to do.

“We have flexibility under the current system that allows our students to tailor in their area of interest or need,” said Tom Zobel, principal at Whiteland Community High School.

The new general diploma draft would drop from an eight-credit math option in the “workforce ready” draft to six credits. It also loosens an earlier capstone class requirement, making it instead “strongly encouraged.”

Some educators worried that the additional requirements in the “workforce ready” diploma could be barriers for students with special needs who already struggle to complete high school.

Before the legislature made changes earlier this month, a loophole in state law allowed schools to choose which diploma types they offered. To try to boost student skills, some high schools stopped offering general diplomas. But students and educators said that meant some kids who might have qualified for a general diploma but couldn’t meet the requirements for a core 40 diploma were left without a credential, blocking them from jobs, college or training programs.

But that changed when House Bill 1219 was passed with broad support earlier this month by the Indiana General Assembly. The bill requires all schools to offer all state diplomas to students.

Even after more work to refine the proposal, some board members said they still simply weren’t persuaded by the new plan.

“I don’t think I’m any closer to being able to make a decision on this than I was a month ago,” O’Brien said.

Passing ISTEP emphasized in A-F formula vote

Separately, the state board approved a proposal to determine how student test score improvement will factor into school A-F grades.

Once results from the 2016 ISTEP are calculated, the state will use a chart, called a “growth table,” to determine how many “growth points” a student has earned. Points are awarded based on an evaluation of whether a student’s score improved, fell or did not change from the previous year.

Under the proposed table adopted unanimously by board members, students who make one year of growth and pass the test receive 100 “growth points,” while students who make one year of growth but don’t pass receive 75 points. The other option would’ve given both groups of students 100 points.

For now, the different models don’t result in vastly different numbers of As, Bs, Cs, Ds or Fs.

“With 100 points it’s indicating … you’re passing and staying on-track,” Cynthia Roach, the state board’s testing director said. “On the old model those kids never received credit. (With 75 points) you’re still doing OK, but it’s not enough.”

In the Classroom

How Memphis students came face to face with the painful history in their school’s backyard

PHOTO: Laura Faith Kebede/Chalkbeat
Students at Memphis Grizzlies Preparatory Charter School examine a historical marker meant to share a more complete story of Nathan Bedford Forrest, a Confederate general, slave trader, and early leader of the Ku Klux Klan.

A few yards across from the parking lot of an all-boys Memphis school lies a small, tree-lined courtyard, where a class of eighth-graders studies a large historical marker.

The new marker tells them that children were sold as slaves in this spot. An older, nearby marker had failed to tell the whole story — Nathan Bedford Forrest, the subject of the marker, made Memphis a hub of the slave trade near that busy downtown corner.

The boys at Memphis Grizzlies Preparatory Charter School, who are nearly all black, earlier learned about the painful legacy while watching an episode of “America Divided,” a documentary series featuring celebrities exploring inequality across the nation. The episode featured the Memphis campaign that eventually removed a nearby statue of Forrest, a Confederate general, slave trader, and early leader of the Ku Klux Klan.

PHOTO: Laura Faith Kebede/Chalkbeat
Memphis Grizzlies Preparatory Charter School students visit county commissioners Tami Sawyer and Van Turner (back row), who were key in the city’s campaign to remove Confederate statues.

Being so close to such upsetting history that only recently has bubbled to the surface of public display was a lot for eighth-grader Joseph Jones to take in.

“I can’t believe that this history is right outside our school,” he said. “I think I barely know what happened in Memphis. So many things that I don’t know, that I need to know, and that I want to know, happened in this very city.”

Lately, Memphis — along with several other cities in the South — has been grappling with how tell the complete stories of historical figures who many felt were war heroes, but who also contributed to the enslavement of black Americans.

The new and larger historical marker about Forrest was erected on the 50th anniversary of the assassination of civil rights icon Martin Luther King Jr. He was killed two miles from the all-boys charter school. City leaders vowed and succeeded in taking down Forrest’s statue, which had loomed downtown for more than 100 years, before honoring King’s legacy.

From the archives: Meet the Memphis educator leading the charge to take down her city’s Confederate monuments

PHOTO: Laura Faith Kebede/Chalkbeat
Teacher Tim Green travels to several schools to teach students how to express their emotions in a healthy way.

Tim Green, a teacher at Grizzlies Prep, prompted discussion among students about how to use their newfound knowledge about history in positive ways to improve their city. It’s part of Green’s larger effort to teach students how to express their feelings on difficult topics.

Recently, that has meant delving into the city’s racial history, which is fraught with tragedy that has not been fully reckoned with in public discourse.

“Me forming this class was a way to talk about some of things we deal with and one of those things is our past,” he recently told students. “As African-American men — and African-Americans in general — we don’t have a clear understanding of where we came from.”

Students said their initial feelings after watching the documentary included anger, sadness, and fear.

“It kind of makes me feel scared because you know your parents and your teachers say history repeats itself,” said student Sean Crump. “So, we never know if it’s going to happen again because some things that people said are going to stop have came back. … That makes me feel scared of when I grow up.”

Watching the documentary was the first part of the class’ history exploration before meeting with two key people who organized the removal of Forrest’s statue at the county government building about two blocks from the school.

The documentary shows actor Jussie Smollett interviewing the younger brother of Jesse Lee Bond, a 20-year-old black sharecropper. He was killed in a Memphis suburb in 1939 after asking for a receipt at a store owned by a prominent white family that depended on the credit balances of its black customers.

The brother, Charlie Morris, said he was ready to go on a revengeful rampage after learning his brother had been shot, castrated, dragged by a tractor, and staked to the bottom of a nearby river. He said he still carried the trauma, but doesn’t carry the hate he felt nearly 80 years ago.

PHOTO: Laura Faith Kebede/Chalkbeat
Students watch as Charlie Morris, the brother of lynching victim Jesse Lee Bond, explains the racism that led to his brother’s murder in an episode of “America Divided.”

“The first step to equal justice is love. Where there’s no love, you can forget the rest,” he said in the documentary. Morris died in June at the age of 98.

After the episode ended, the class was silent for a moment. The first question from a student: Were the people who lynched Jesse Lee Bond ever convicted?

The answer made one student gasp in shock, but was predictable for anyone familiar with the history of lynching in America during the Jim Crow era that legalized racial segregation. Two men were charged and tried for Bonds’ murder, but were quickly acquitted.

Students seamlessly tied the past to racism and violence they see in their city today.

“I feel sad because there’s lynchings and people — mostly white Americans — they know there’s lynchings and they know what the Confederacy did to cause those,” said student Tristan Ficklen.

“I would have felt the same too because all he asked for was a receipt,” student Jireh Joyner said of Morris’ initial reaction to Bond’s death. “And now these days there’s still police brutality and it’s hurtful.”

In the Classroom

How an Indianapolis district became a national model for teacher leadership

PHOTO: Shaina Cavazos
Amy Peddie, a teacher at Southport High School, helps a student on an assignment in her class.

Kelly Wilber had been teaching in Perry Township for about seven years when the school district rolled out a new approach to teacher evaluation, mentorship, and coaching — and she felt the change almost immediately.

“I felt like I was a good teacher before,” Wilber recalled. “I mean, I studied all the things in the books, and we had professional development.”

But when the district started using the new approach, the TAP System, “we found the answer of what we needed to do to help our students grow,” said Wilber, who teaches fifth grade at Southport Elementary School.

The TAP System was developed as a strategy for improving instruction, and it is popular in Indiana, where state policymakers have encouraged schools to adopt the system. Perry Township has used it for seven years, and the district has become something of a poster child for the National Institute for Excellence in Teaching, the group behind TAP. On Thursday, the nonprofit recognized Perry Township schools with the organization’s first National Award of Excellence for Educator Effectiveness, which came with a $50,000 prize.

TAP relies on mentors and teacher leaders who are paid stipends to coach their colleagues — a tactic that’s becoming popular among schools as a way to allow experienced teachers to take on more responsibility without entirely leaving the classroom. Each week, groups of teachers meet with master teachers who work with them on strategies they can use in the classroom, like how to tackle word problems or use manipulatives in math.

The model also has guidance on common problems teachers encounter. In the first year of TAP, for example, Wilber had a student who said he wasn’t interested in school or homework and told her, “I’m only here because my brother came here, and I like to do what my brother does,” she recalled.

Wilber began trying techniques that TAP recommended, like using his name during model lessons and having him read the learning objectives. Soon, he was raising his hand in class.

“I felt like I knew what I needed to do because we had so much training and support,” Wilber said.

Perry Township has an unusual set of challenges. Nearly three-quarters of students are poor enough to get subsidized meals. About 25 percent of students are English language learners, and many of them are refugees fleeing religious persecution in Burma.

There is not much outside research on whether TAP improves student test scores. A 2012 study of the results in Chicago found that the program did not raise test scores, but it increased teacher retention. TAP’s developer has disputed the validity of the study, saying the TAP program was not properly implemented in Chicago schools.

But in Perry Township, educators say the approach is helping improve student results.

“If you want to make a difference with kids who are in poverty as well as have a lot of cultural differences, this format and this foundation is the best thing that you can utilize,” Superintendent Patrick Mapes said.

Joe Horvath, a master teacher at Southport High School, said his role is the same as coaches in other districts. Instead of having his own classroom, he is in charge of training 28 other teachers. One day a week, he meets with those teachers in groups. The rest of the week, he observes teachers in their classes, gives feedback, and models lessons.

“We are all on the same level,” Horvath said. “It’s not like I am their boss in any way shape or form. This is just something that allows us to continue to give a peer-to-peer feedback thing that I think is kind of missing sometimes.”