first steps

Next year, Indiana high schoolers will have to meet more “college or career readiness” requirements to graduate

PHOTO: Shaina Cavazos
The discussions out of the graduation pathway committee have been illustrated by several graphic artists.

A year from now, Indiana high school students will have to meet an extra set of requirements to graduate in an effort to better prepare them for what comes after.

It’s not yet clear exactly what those requirements will be, but a committee led by the Indiana State Board of Education is beginning the process to figure it out. The charge to develop these “graduation pathways” came down from the Indiana General Assembly in the same bill that established the test that will replace ISTEP in 2019.

“We want these pathways to serve as the culmination of a student’s (high school) career,” said committee chairman and state board member Byron Ernest. “We want to show them a true readiness and show businesses and higher education a true readiness of our students.”

State Superintendent Jennifer McCormick, a member of the 14-member graduation pathways committee, said today that the pathways need to be a collaboration between schools, the state, community members and the workforce. It can’t fall to schools alone to fund, manage and be held accountable for new programs.

“It really does have to be a partnership,” McCormick said. “I understand some of the struggles … (the workforce) is in a crisis, too, with employees, but it’s one of those if we are going to solve the problem, we’re going to have to work hard to come up with solutions.”

The panel includes representatives from the Commission for Higher Education, Department of Workforce Development, state board, legislature, Indiana Chamber of Commerce and a few parents and educators. It is set to meet seven more times through early November.

The state board has final authority of which requirements would end up counting, but the law spells out some suggestions:

  • Passing end-of-course, International Baccalaureate, Advanced Placement, dual credit or college entrance exams, such as the ACT or SAT.
  • Earning industry-recognized certificates
  • Passing the placement exam for the U.S. military

Indiana’s academic and technical honors diplomas — which 37.9 percent of students in the state earned in 2015-16 — already include requirements that pertain to AP, IB and dual credit exams, and industry certificates. There’s no guidance in the law about how these pathways would differ from what’s already in honors diplomas.

Much of the conversation at today’s inaugural meeting followed familiar themes found in years of previous discussions by the Indiana Career Council, established in 2013: Indiana employers can’t fill jobs; students leave high school and college unprepared to enter the workforce; therefore, state education and workforce agencies, and employers need to get together to figure out a solution.

Bruce Watson, director of facilities for Fort Wayne Metals, is one such employer struggling to find prospective employees. He addressed the board during public comment.

“I can’t hire people to maintain our growth,” Watson said. “Not everybody needs a four-year degree … this is not a low-dollar, unskilled workforce. This is something significant for a career.”

The discussion today was broad and wide-ranging, covering ideas on work-based learning requirements, how to credential students for high-demand jobs, counselor and teacher shortages, character education, and how to balance the needs of rural, urban and suburban districts.

But the group did manage to agree on a few main points to guide their work going forward: Students should have flexibility to change their minds before they graduate; the pathway system should be equitable and easy to explain to students and parents; and employers should be part of the conversation.

Ultimately, practicality needs to be prioritized, said panel member John Elcesser, executive director of the Indiana Non-Public Education Association, a group that advocates for private schools.

“Can we staff it, can we resource it and can counselors manage it?” Elcesser said. “I think that has to be in the back of our mind.”

You can find the panel’s upcoming meeting schedule here. Meetings are open to the public.

Indiana graduation pathways

Indiana touts workforce readiness. But it could judge schools by a college prep test.

PHOTO: Dylan Peers McCoy

Indiana’s Republican leaders have spent the majority of this year’s legislative session highlighting the importance of preparing students for the workforce. Why then, educators ask, is the state planning to use college entrance exams to measure schools?

That apparent contradiction was among the complaints raised Friday by teachers and administrators during a public comment session about Indiana’s proposed A-F grading rules for schools.

“The intent (of A-F grades) has always been to make school performance transparent and easily understood by students, staff, parents and community members,” said Liz Walters, principal at Beech Grove High School. “The proposed accountability rule does anything but that.”

This year, there are a few major proposals that could change how the state measures schools and student learning — plans for a new testing system for all grades, new graduation requirements, and preparations to change A-F grades to comply with new federal laws. Though technically separate, they are all related, and changes to one proposal can affect the others. It’s the different intentions behind these plans, said Walters and other educators, that send mixed signals.

First, Indiana is in the process of creating a new testing system to replace ISTEP, and the high school portion is still undecided. Plans are now in the works through House Bill 1426 to have high-schoolers take a college entrance exam, such as the SAT and ACT, instead of the 10th-grade ISTEP they take now.

Indiana is also creating new “graduation pathways” to replace the current English and math exams students must pass to earn a diploma. The goal, lawmakers and policymakers have said, is to make the criteria students will have to meet more valuable to their post-high school plans, such as earning a technical license or credits for college.

And finally, Indiana, like every state in the country, is re-thinking how it rates schools as a result of new federal education law. Those new federal rules mean the state has to rewrite its A-F grading policy, which includes rules around testing and graduation. The Indiana State Board of Education can use the feedback it gets from public comments to revise its proposed rules before taking a final vote sometime this summer.

At Friday’s meeting, Jeff Butts, superintendent in Wayne Township, said making the high school test worth up to 30 percent of a school’s grade just doesn’t make sense. Exams like the SAT and ACT weren’t designed to measure high school state academic standards, Butts said, and more importantly, of the Indiana students who did take them, 78 percent had average composite scores below the recommended cut-off for college readiness from testing companies. Holding schools to such a standard is unfair, he said.

And when Gov. Eric Holcomb and other legislative leaders have made workforce readiness a central part of their 2018 legislative agendas, he said, it sends a mixed message.

“Why determine 30 percent of a high school’s success on a single exam … designed as a predictor, not indicator, of college success, taken by all kids regardless of the path chosen?” Butts said.

Butts acknowledged that the college entrance exam plan will likely move ahead. Lawmakers are wrapping up the 2018 session next week, and the bill has received support from both houses.

Rep. Bob Behning, who wrote the bill with the college entrance exam proposal, said the change would help eliminate the many test retakes that occured with the current system. It also, he has told policymakers, could prove more useful and relevant for students than a state-specific content area exam. State Superintendent Jennifer McCormick has also supported the move to a college entrance test.

Indiana’s focus on workforce readiness is part of a broader national push to ensure students are prepared for life after high school, where college is just one of several options.

Yet the state’s policy changes have gone back and forth between prioritizing the importance of rigorous college-level coursework and freedom from regulations that can make it hard for less academically inclined students to be successful. But ultimately, federal law requires a uniform measure of student learning — in Indiana’s case, A-F grades.

Educators’ other concern with the A-F grading proposal was that it no longer factors in high school students’ improvement on tests and reduces the its importance for K-8 schools.

“Capping that growth really removes the part of the great job our teachers do in the classroom,” said Todd Terrill, a superintendent from Richmond. “I truly believe that growth is the greatest indicator of academic success and accomplishment.”

Overall, about 15 people showed up for the Friday morning meeting. Richard Arkanoff, superintendent in Center Grove, argued the low attendance reflected concerns from educators that their voices aren’t being heard. He mentioned the state board’s vote in December to approve the graduation pathways plan, where dozens of educators spent hours speaking against the sweeping proposal.

“I don’t remember the last time, and I’ve been doing this for 20 years, that that many people spoke against something and it fell on deal ears,” Arkanoff said. “People are feeling as if they are not going to be heard, so why bother?”

The state board is scheduled to hold another A-F grade rule public comment session from 4-7 p.m. on Monday, March 19, at Ivy Tech’s Illinois Fall Creek Center.

Every Student Succeeds Act

Plans for a single Indiana diploma advance with new rules that raise the bar for graduation waivers

In a move that might make it more difficult for some students to graduate, Indiana lawmakers are considering raising the threshold for allowing students to earn a diploma when they have fallen short of some state requirements.

A proposal to change the graduation waiver system is the latest attempt by the state to amend graduation requirements as part of a policy initiative to ensure that students are prepared for life after high school. The change in waiver policy could make it more challenging for students who struggle academically to complete high school.

“I want to make sure we have as few waivers as possible,” said Rep. Bob Behning, Republican chairman of the House Education Committee and author of House Bill 1426, which includes the waiver changes. And if a waiver is necessary, he said, he wants the requirements to be stringent enough to ensure post-graduate success.

The proposed waiver requirements are part of a sweeping effort by the state to align state law with the state’s new graduation pathways system. The bill, which passed its first major hurdle with the approval of the House Education Committee on Tuesday, would combine the state’s four diplomas into one to deal with the effects of a change in federal law that no longer counts the state’s less-rigorous general diploma in the federal graduation rate. With one diploma, Indiana would be more likely to pass muster under the new federal rules, but final approval from the federal government won’t come for several months.

An amendment to the bill proposed on Tuesday will change Indiana’s policy for allowing students to receive a waiver that, while controversial, is widely used. More than 8 percent of the more than 70,000 students who graduated last year received waivers from meeting graduation requirements.

Supporters say waivers provide opportunities to students who might face challenges that affect their ability to meet the basic graduation requirements. But critics say they allow high schools to push through students that lack the kind of skills needed to be successfully employed.

Waiver requirements for students with disabilities would not change under the new proposal.

The current system allows students who repeatedly fail required state tests in English and math to be granted a waiver that lets them graduate if they meet other criteria.

But under the new pathways system, which will affect students now in seventh grade, the state graduation exam will be replaced with one of several new graduation pathways requirements, which could include passing a college-entrance exam, taking career and technical education classes, or passing advanced courses.

Under Behning’s proposal, a waiver would be granted if a student had earned an average GPA of 2.0; maintained 95 percent attendance; or if he or she has been admitted to college, a job training program, the military or has an opportunity to start a career.

The bill allows a school’s principal to approve alternative requirements but doesn’t address how those would be developed. The new rules could also be used by students transferring from schools that are out of state or from private schools not held to graduation pathway rules.

The current criteria to receive a waiver do not call for students to be admitted to college, the military or a job. Students do have to maintain a 95 percent attendance record and a 2.0 grade point average, and also have to complete requirements for a general diploma, take a workforce readiness assessment or earn an industry certification approved by the state board. The standards also require students to obtain letters of recommendation from teachers (with approval of the school principal) and to use class work to show students have mastered the subject despite failing the graduation exam.

It’s not yet clear how many students might be affected by a change to the graduation waiver system. In the months since the Indiana State Board of Education approved the new graduation pathways, educators have raised concerns to state board staff members about the types of students who might not have a clear-cut pathway under the plan — for example, a student headed to college who might not have an exceptional academic record. A waiver outlined by HB 1426 could give them another shot. But for students without definite post-graduation plans, that waiver could be out of reach.

None of the educators or education advocates who testified on the bill spoke out specifically on the waiver changes. Mike Brown, director of legislative affairs for the Indiana Department of Education, said that based on a “cursory look,” the department didn’t have any issues with it.

Aside from the diploma and graduation waiver changes, the bill would also:

  • Make Indiana’s high school test a college-entrance exam, such as the ACT or SAT, instead of end-of-year tests in English and math.
  • Encourage the state board to look into alternatives for Algebra 2, currently a diploma requirement.
  • Ask the state board to establish guidelines for how districts and schools can create “local” graduation pathways and how they would be approved by the state board. It would also add $500,000 to fund development of local pathways that districts and schools could apply for.
  • Eliminate the Accuplacer exam, which schools now use to see if high school students need remediation in English or math before they graduate.

Because the bill includes a request for state funding, it next heads to the House Ways and Means Committee.