By the numbers

School suspensions fall sharply, but continue to land most heavily on black students

PHOTO: Jackie Schechter

The number of school suspensions fell by 17 percent last academic year as the city shifts away from that more punitive approach to discipline, yet schools continued to suspend black students and those with disabilities at disproportionately high rates.

Schools gave out about 9,000 fewer suspensions in 2014-15 than in the previous academic year, according to city education department data released Friday. In addition, arrests by school security officers dropped by 27 percent, and summonses fell by 15 percent, officials said.

The declines come as the city has ordered educators to rely less on removing disruptive students from school and more on addressing the causes of their misbehavior.

But while schools suspended fewer students from almost every group, certain groups continue to be suspended at disproportionate rates.

About 52 percent of suspensions went to black students, even though they represent just 28 percent of students — a wide gap that has narrowed slightly. Students with disabilities received 38 percent of all suspensions, though they make up just 18 percent of the city’s students. That disparity grew somewhat since last year.

Meanwhile, just 7.4 percent of suspensions went to white students, who make up 15 percent of city students. Hispanic students, who make up over 40 percent of students, accounted for 36 percent of suspensions.

The imbalances come amid a national discussion about racial discrimination fueled by the Black Lives Matter movement and increased scrutiny of police presence in schools.

Kesi Foster, a coordinator for the advocacy group Urban Youth Collaborative, applauded the overall reduction in suspensions, which he said reflects the education department’s pressure on schools to move away from that approach. However, he said the department will not be able to end the disparities between student groups without making that an explicit component of its discipline policies and trainings.

The school system must “struggle with those deep questions about racial inequity if we’re going to close the discipline gap,” said Foster, who is a member of a city task force on school discipline.

Suspensions have plummeted since 2012, when the city began publicly reporting those numbers. During that time, the education department also revised its discipline code to emphasize alternatives to suspension.

The department made additional changes to the code this year that required principals to get approval before suspending students for insubordination, and banned a more serious type of suspension for “minor physical altercations.” However, the number of suspensions was already on the decline last year before the new policies went into effect in April.

This summer, the discipline task force issued a report saying that a tenth of the city’s schools give out 41 percent of all suspensions. The 150-member task force recommended that the city invest in extra training and counselors for those schools and create a plan to reduce the discipline disparities among student groups, among other suggestions.

The mayor’s office promised to announce an implementation timeline for the recommendations it would adopt by the start of the school year. However, an education department spokesman said Friday that the city is still reviewing the recommendations.

In addition to revising the discipline code, the city has offered conflict resolution training to school employees and hired more guidance counselors, the spokesman said. The city is also piloting a program where school safety agents will issue “warning cards” instead of tickets.

“While we have taken important steps in the right direction, reducing the need for suspensions and keeping our schools safe remains one of my top priorities — particularly for our black and Hispanic students and our students with special needs,” Chancellor Carmen Fariña said in a statement, “and we are working tirelessly toward that end.”

YOUNG ADVOCATES

New program aims to make advocates out of Memphis high schoolers

PHOTO: Campaign for School Equity
Students discuss advocacy topics during their session at Fairley High School, one of 10 schools in Shelby County participating in the program.

When it comes to conversations about education policy, students are often the least heard.

But amplifying young voices is the goal of a new program launched by two Memphis-based advocacy groups, Campaign for School Equity and Latino Memphis.

“I joined the group because of things that are going on around school, and I believe that we as leaders can change it,” said Angel Smith, 16, a senior at Hillcrest High School, one of 10 schools in the program. “I want to change how our school does discipline … and learn why some schools have more money than others.”

Many students feel powerless to improve conditions at their schools, said Katie Martin, who will oversee the program as advocacy manager for Campaign for School Equity. “It is so exciting to help them discover their own voices and realize that they can have a direct impact on the issues that matter to them,” she said.

About 100 high school students from Fairley, Martin Luther King Preparatory, Hillcrest, Trezevant and Southwest Early College High will take a monthly class on topics ranging from advocacy strategies to political campaign development.

Beginning in November, high-schoolers from Cordova, Wooddale, White Station, Kingsbury, and Southwind will also have classes at their schools.

Mendell Grinter, executive director of Campaign for School Equity, said students have already expressed interest in pushing for better school facilities and more discipline practices based on restorative justice.

The goal is for students to help shape Campaign for School Equity’s legislative platform and run their own school-based advocacy campaigns. In December, students will vote on priorities for the upcoming legislative season, Grinter said.

Students will take courses on research, writing opinion pieces, advocacy methods and campaign development. They also will meet with their local representatives, such as Memphis City Councilwoman Patrice Robinson, who will speak with Hillcrest High students in late October.

Campaign for School Equity is funding the program, and students were selected based on their interest and school recommendations.

Grinter said the program marks a shift in his group’s priorities. Formerly known as the Tennessee chapter of the Black Alliance for Educational Options, Campaign for School Equity has focused on promoting school choice for black families and engaging Memphis clergy around education.

“There are programs in Memphis to reach parents and community members and get them involved with advocacy, but not really students,” Grinter said. “We’re really going to double down on creating that space.”

Latino Memphis is an advocacy group for the city’s Hispanic and Latino communities and is working with Campaign for School Equity to include Latino students. 

expansion plans

Here are the next districts where New York City will start offering preschool for 3-year-olds

PHOTO: Christina Veiga
Schools Chancellor Carmen Fariña, left, and Mayor Bill de Blasio, center, visited a "Mommy and Me" class in District 27 in Queens, where the city is set to expand 3-K For All.

New York City officials on Tuesday announced which school districts are next in line for free pre-K for 3-year-olds, identifying East Harlem and the eastern neighborhoods of Queens for expansion of the program.

Building on its popular universal pre-K program for 4-year-olds, the city this year began serving even younger students with “3-K For All” in two high-needs school districts. Mayor Bill de Blasio has said he wants to make 3-K available to every family who wants it by 2021.

“Our education system all over the country had it backwards for too long,” de Blasio said at a press conference. “We are recognizing we have to reach kids younger and more deeply if we’re going to be able to give them the foundation they need.”

But making preschool available to all of the city’s 3-year-olds will require an infusion of $700 million from the state or federal governments. In the meantime, de Blasio said the city can afford to expand to eight districts, at a cost of $180 million of city money a year.

Funding isn’t the only obstacle the city faces to make 3-K available universally. De Blasio warned that finding the room for an estimated 60,000 students will be a challenge. Space constraints were a major factor in picking the next districts for expansion, he said.

“I have to tell you, this will take a lot of work,” he said, calling it “even harder” than the breakneck rollout of pre-K for all 4-year-olds. “We’re building something brand new.”

De Blasio, a Democrat who is running for re-election in November, has made expansion of early childhood education a cornerstone of his administration. The city kicked off its efforts this September in District 7 in the South Bronx, and District 23 in Brownsville, Brooklyn. More than 2,000 families applied for those seats, and 84 percent of those living in the pilot districts got an offer for enrollment, according to city figures.

According to the timeline released Thursday, the rollout will continue next school year in District 4 in Manhattan, which includes East Harlem; and District 27 in Queens, which includes Broad Channel, Howard Beach, Ozone Park and Rockaways.

By the 2019 – 2020 school year, the city plans to launch 3-K in the Bronx’s District 9, which includes the Grand Concourse, Highbridge and Morrisania neighborhoods; and District 31, which spans all of Staten Island.

The 2020 – 2021 school year would see the addition of District 19 in Brooklyn, which includes East New York; and District 29 in Queens, which includes Cambria Heights, Hollis, Laurelton, Queens Village, Springfield Gardens and St. Albans.

With all those districts up and running, the city expects to serve 15,000 students.

Admission to the city’s pre-K programs is determined by lottery. Families don’t have to live in the district where 3-K is being offered to apply for a seat, though preference will be given to students who do. With every expansion, the city expects it will take two years for each district to have enough seats for every district family who wants one.