By the numbers

NYC announces it will subsidize hiring from Absent Teacher Reserve — and sheds light on who is in the pool

PHOTO: Caroline Bauman

Ever since the city announced a new policy for placing teachers without permanent positions into schools, Chalkbeat and others have been asking questions about just who is in the pool, known as the Absent Teacher Reserve.

Now we have some answers.

The education department released figures on Friday that show a quarter of teachers currently in the the pool were also there five years ago, and a third ended up in the ATR because of disciplinary or legal issues. The average salary for teachers this past year was $94,000, according to the data.

The city also said it would extend budget incentives for schools that hire educators from the ATR, a change to its initial announcement. Principals have raised concerns about the cost of hiring from the ATR, since its members tend to be more senior, and therefore more expensive, than new teachers.

The ATR is comprised of teachers who don’t have regular positions, either because their jobs were eliminated or because of disciplinary issues. It cost almost $152 million in the last school year — far more than previously estimated — and currently stands at 822 teachers.

In July, the city announced a plan to cut the pool in half by placing teachers into vacancies still open after the new school year begins — even potentially over principals’ objection.

Critics have argued that the city’s new placement policy could place ineffective teachers in the neediest classrooms. StudentsFirstNY Executive Director Jenny Sedlis called the move “shockingly irresponsible” in a statement.

“There are reasons why no principal has chosen to hire them and this policy is bad for kids, plain and simple,” she said.

But Randy Asher, the former principal of Brooklyn Technical High School who is now responsible for helping to shrink the pool, called the new policy “a common sense approach to treating ATR teachers like all other teachers,” since they now have the opportunity to be evaluated by a school principal.

Here’s what the latest numbers tell us about who is in the pool.

How did educators end up in the Absent Teacher Reserve?

Most of the educators in the ATR were placed there because their schools had closed (38 percent) or due to budget cuts (30 percent.)

Another 32 percent entered the pool because of a legal or disciplinary case.

How effective are they?

A majority — 74 percent — received an evaluation rating of “highly effective,” “effective” or “satisfactory” in 2015-16, the most current year available. Current ratings for teachers citywide were not immediately available, but in 2014-15, 93 percent of teachers overall were rated effective or highly effective, according to the Wall Street Journal.

Twelve percent of teachers in the pool received an “ineffective” or “unsatisfactory” rating in 2015-16, and about 7 percent received a “developing” rating, one step up from ineffective.

Some teachers in the ATR say evaluations can be unfair since teachers are often placed in classrooms outside of the subjects they are equipped to teach and because they are bounced between classrooms.

Asked whether teachers with poor ratings would be placed in classrooms, Asher said “all” teachers in the ATR have traditionally been placed in school assignments.

“They’re in schools, no matter what. It’s a question of what is their role in the school, and how are they supported and evaluated,” he said. “Obviously we will look at each individual teacher and each individual assignment on a case-by-case basis.”

How experienced are they?

Teachers in the ATR have an average of 18 years of experience with the education department, and earn an average salary of $94,000. By comparison, the base salary for a New York City teacher as of May 2017 was $54,000.

How long have they been in the pool?

Almost half the educators who are currently in the pool were also there two years ago. A quarter were in the ATR five years ago. That doesn’t mean that teachers have remained in the ATR for that entire time. They could have been hired for a time, and returned to the pool.

Still, the figures could be fuel for those who argue educators in the ATR either aren’t seriously looking for permanent jobs — or that the educators in the pool are simply undesirable hires.

How will schools pay for them?

Teachers in the ATR have argued that their higher salaries are one reason principals avoid hiring them — a concern that principals voiced in a recent Chalkbeat report.

“This is part of the injustice of the ATR placement,” said Scott Conti, principal of New Design High School in Manhattan. “Schools might not want them and they will cost schools more in the future, taking away from other budget priorities.”

Under the policy announced Friday, the education department will subsidize the cost of ATRs who are permanently hired, paying 50 percent of their salaries next school year and 25 percent the following school year.

Where have they worked previously?

This question is important because the answer gives a sense of where educators in the ATR are likely to be placed this fall. The education department’s original policy called for an educator to be placed within the same district they left, but the change announced in July allowed for placement anywhere within the same borough.

Almost half of ATR members, as of June 2016-17, came from high schools. That isn’t surprising: Former Mayor Michael Bloomberg and Chancellor Joel Klein targeted large high schools for closure, breaking them up into smaller schools as part of a turnaround strategy.

Of the school districts serving K- 8 students, District 19 in Brooklyn’s East New York and District 24 in Queens had among the most educators in the ATR. Each had 26.

What subjects do they teach?

The largest share of teachers in the ATR — 27 percent — are licensed to teach in early childhood or elementary school grades. Another 11 percent are licensed social studies teachers, 9 percent are math teachers and 8 percent are English teachers.

Questions have been raised in the past about whether the teachers in the pool had skills that were too narrow or out of date. A 2010 Chalkbeat story found that a quarter of teachers then in the pool were licensed to teach relatively obscure classes like swimming, jewelry-making and accounting.

Transition

She was principal at a struggling Denver charter. Now she teaches at the school that replaced it.

PHOTO: Melanie Asmar/Chalkbeat
Mary Ann Mahoney helps her preschool students with a cutting and pasting lesson.

Her preschoolers had just finished breakfast, and teacher Mary Ann Mahoney was stooped over a low sink, scooping soggy cereal out of the drain with her bare hand. Even as she plopped the sweet-smelling mush into a nearby trash can, the former school principal smiled and remarked how much she loves being back in a classroom — wet cereal and all.

“This is just such a fun and glorious age,” Mahoney said. Four-year-olds, she said, are “little sponges” with a zest for learning and life. Those are traits shared by Mahoney, who favors Mickey Mouse leggings and jokes that she’s liable to break into song at any moment.

“We have a good time every day,” she said.

What’s unusual about Mahoney’s return to teaching is that she spent the past couple of years as principal of a northwest Denver charter school that the district threatened to close for its chronically low test scores. The school, Cesar Chavez Academy, occupied the same building where Mahoney now spends her days teaching preschool.

Instead of fighting the district to stay open, the leaders of Cesar Chavez Academy decided to do the opposite. They dissolved the stand-alone charter at the end of last school year and sold its coveted building in the Berkeley neighborhood to Rocky Mountain Prep, a homegrown charter network with three other schools that serve the same demographic — predominantly low-income and Latino — and get impressive academic results.

This kind of deal between charters is rare in Denver. In this instance, it allowed Cesar Chavez to spare students and families the trauma of a drawn-out last stand or a hard closure, where the school would be here one day and gone the next with nothing to replace it.

At least one previous example of a struggling stand-alone charter handing off management to an academically successful network has shown positive results. The networks get something out of it, too: Many are eager to expand, and these takeover deals could be a more viable way to do that in a district where enrollment is flat and school buildings are scarce.

In fact, Rocky Mountain Prep is now in talks with another stand-alone charter, Roots Elementary in northeast Denver, to do the same thing. It’s worth noting, however, that not everyone thinks charter network expansion is a good thing. While district officials have embraced it as a way to improve schools, many parents and community members view charters, which are publicly funded but independently run, as unwanted competition.

Cesar Chavez and Rocky Mountain Prep worked together to try to make their transition smooth. For instance, Cesar Chavez allowed Rocky Mountain Prep to set up a mock classroom last year in the network’s style, with daily learning goals and charts posted on the walls tracking fictitious students’ reading and math progress. That allowed real students who were curious about the network to stop by and ask questions. Nearly 80 percent of Cesar Chavez students stayed and enrolled at Rocky Mountain Prep this year, according to school officials.

The mock classroom, and several other steps the two schools took, made all the difference, said Sara Carlson, the principal at what is now called Rocky Mountain Prep Berkeley.

“From the very first time I met with the (Cesar Chavez) team, in the spring of 2017, the way Mary Ann introduced me was, ‘I reached out to Sara, and I’m excited about what Sara and Rocky Mountain Prep do,’” Carlson said. “That changed the narrative.”

PHOTO: Melanie Asmar/Chalkbeat
Mary Ann Mahoney gets her preschool classroom ready in August 2018.

In taking over Cesar Chavez, Rocky Mountain Prep drew on lessons it learned from another transition that did not go as smoothly. In 2016, the school board in the neighboring city of Aurora voted to phase out a struggling elementary near the Denver border called Fletcher Community School and replace it, one grade at a time, with Rocky Mountain Prep.

The decision faced fierce pushback from Fletcher teachers. Carlson, who was involved in the takeover, said it also felt “cut and dried” for some families: One day the school was Fletcher and the next it was a charter with new colors, new uniforms, and new teachers.

Even though Rocky Mountain Prep guaranteed an interview to any Fletcher teacher who wanted to work for the network, none applied, Carlson said. When the network extended the same guarantee to the teachers at Cesar Chavez last year, nine took up the offer, she said. Five of them were hired, as was the former Cesar Chavez operations manager.

Arguably the most important steps the network took, though, had to do with students and families. Even before Cesar Chavez announced the transition, Carlson said she met with a group of fifth-graders to ask them what Cesar Chavez could have done better and what they would keep the same. They made it clear that close relationships were important, she said.

“They said, ‘The teachers really love us,’” Carlson said. It was notable how many of them said the staff knew not only their parents, but their cousins and extended family, too, she said.

That conversation made Carlson realize it would be key for her to get to know the community before Rocky Mountain Prep took over. Starting last October, she made a point to be at the school at least once a week, doing lunch duty or helping at dropoff and pickup.

“Mary Ann would introduce me to families who were important stakeholders,” Carlson said. “So when I started sending out invites to coffee hours and tours, there was a face to the name.”

Six weeks into the school year, parents said the transition has gone well, for the most part. There have been some complaints about the new bell schedule, which requires families to drop off and pick up later than before. One mother said she’s frustrated that she now can’t use a parking lot that Rocky Mountain Prep has reserved for staff.

And while the school uniforms have not changed much — blue polo shirts, black shoes — some students have grumbled that they’re no longer allowed to wear jeans on Fridays.

But parents seem pleased with the academics, which mother Tiesha Vigil called “challenging.” Vigil said her kindergartener and second-grader are making progress on their reading, and she’s seen huge changes in her preschool daughter, who has special needs. Before her daughter started school, she struggled with speech, and it was difficult for even her family to understand her, Vigil said. Now, a month and a half later, she’s speaking in full sentences.

“I can see how good it can be already,” Vigil said.

The promise of more rigor and structure is partly what prompted Vigil and her husband to keep their elementary-aged children at Rocky Mountain Prep after Cesar Chavez closed. (Her oldest son had to find a new middle school because unlike Cesar Chavez, which was a K-8, Rocky Mountain Prep only serves students in preschool through fifth grade.)

The promise of trusted and familiar faces — including Mahoney and her former assistant principal, who is now teaching second grade there — was a factor, as well. Parent Benedicta Pacheco, whose three older children attended Cesar Chavez, said knowing her youngest child could have Mahoney as a preschool teacher made her feel comfortable staying.

“She knows us,” Pacheco said. “My kids feel like family.”

The desire to provide continuity played into Mahoney’s decision to stay, too, she said. She’s invested in the success of the takeover, especially since the idea came from her and other Cesar Chavez leaders. She said the first time she visited Rocky Mountain Prep, she thought, “This school is doing what we’re trying to do, but they’re doing it more effectively.”

As a Rocky Mountain Prep teacher, Mahoney said she has come to see why. The network is relentless in training its staff; Mahoney had just two weeks off last summer from the time Cesar Chavez closed until training began at Rocky Mountain Prep. Administrators routinely pop into classrooms, and if they notice several teachers struggling with the same thing, such as giving precise directions, they’ll have everyone practice it in the morning before school, she said.

“I was like, ‘Oh, this is really brilliant. We should have been doing it,’” Mahoney said.

Mahoney said she has also come to see the value of the strict, step-by-step routines Rocky Mountain Prep has the students follow. The routines dictate everything from how to walk in the hallways, to how to sit on the carpet and how students get up from their desk chairs.

Such routines are controversial; critics view them as controlling and oppressive, especially since they are most often used in schools that serve a majority of students of color from low-income families. Mahoney herself was wary, but she said she’s found that the routines cut down on the time it takes to transition from one activity to another, leaving more time for learning.

And some of the ways Rocky Mountain Prep conducts that learning are different than what Mahoney had seen in her 30 years as an educator. She said she was blown away last year when, on a visit to a different Rocky Mountain Prep campus, she watched second-graders debate with each other the best way to calculate the perimeter of an imaginary fence.

“The teacher never said, ‘You’re wrong.’ The teacher said, ‘I see you disagree,’” Mahoney said. Just observing that one lesson, she said, “will change my teaching practice forever.”

“I know I will exit this year a better teacher than [when] I started,” Mahoney said.

PHOTO: Melanie Asmar/Chalkbeat
A preschool student works on a cutting and pasting worksheet in Mary Ann Mahoney’s classroom.

As happy as families are that Mahoney is back, she is even more thrilled to be in a classroom again. In a way, teaching preschool is coming full circle for her; it’s where she started her education career. “My favorite ages in life are 2- to 5-year-olds,” Mahoney said. “I just think they’re funny, and they say exactly what they want.”

That trait was on full display on a recent morning in Mahoney’s class. As her 4-year-olds choppily maneuvered blunt-tipped scissors to cut out pictures of animals and paste them in the correct habitat — land or water — Mahoney multitasked, helping the students write their names in crayon at the top of their papers, checking to see if they washed their hands after going to the bathroom, and complimenting them when they shared the glue.

At one point, she called a little boy by the wrong name.

“I’m sorry, Nathan,” she said. “I lost my brain. I lost my brain!”

Another boy looked at her seriously.

“I think it went to Las Vegas,” he said.

Mahoney threw back her head of curls and laughed.

bus breakdown

Facing his first crisis, Carranza fired a top official. But can he fix New York City’s yellow bus system?

PHOTO: Christina Veiga
Schools Chancellor Richard Carranza rode a school bus to P.S. 377 in Ozone Park, Queens, on the first day of the 2018-2019 school year.

Just days after responding to the city’s school bus crisis by firing a top official and reassigning another, schools Chancellor Richard Carranza put his staff on notice that when things go wrong they better act quickly — or he will find someone who will.

“When things don’t go right I expect a sense of urgency to serve our community,” Carranza said in an interview with Chalkbeat Monday. “And if we can’t make it happen, then we’ll make sure that there are people in place that will make it happen. It’s really that simple.”

Problems with the city’s school bus services are not unusual, especially at the start of the school year. But since the start of classes, the city’s school transportation hotline has seen a 17 percent increase in calls over the same period last year. And revelations about drivers who were not properly vetted, buses arriving late, students trapped on hours-long routes crisscrossing the city, or buses simply not arriving at all have dominated the opening weeks of Carranza’s first full school year, splashing across the front page of the Daily News.

Last week, after deeming the situation “unacceptable,” Carranza fired Eric Goldstein, the CEO of school support services responsible for transportation, school food, and the public school sports league. Carranza also reassigned Elizabeth Rose, who had been CEO of school operations and a top deputy under former Chancellor Carmen Fariña, to focus solely on transportation contracts.

Carranza said Monday that a broader shakeup to the $1.2 billion-per-year bus system, which serves roughly 150,000 students, two-thirds of whom have disabilities, could be coming.

“As we understand more fully how [the Office of Pupil Transportation] in particular operates, I wouldn’t be surprised if there aren’t some more changes,” he said. Leading that effort will be Kevin Moran, a former borough field support director who will now serve as a senior advisor to Carranza on transportation — while the city searches for a permanent leader.

The busing problems are the first significant test of Carranza’s leadership during a crisis since taking the helm of the nation’s largest school system last April. So far, Carranza’s response has echoed his reaction to much larger issues such as school segregation — that he’s interested in systemic fixes and doesn’t want to excuse the issue just because it has bedeviled past chancellors. Under changes made by Carranza’s administration, school bus drivers will undergo the same background checks and have investigations handled by the same education department unit as other schools staffers.

But so far, his response to the crisis has drawn mixed reactions from some advocates, observers, and education department insiders.

Maggie Moroff, a disability policy expert at Advocates for Children, said busing issues often linger through much of the school year. In the past, the education department has reacted defensively, fixing bus issues in individual cases when advocacy groups get involved but rarely pledging to overhaul the system, she said.

“We get a lot of students at this time of year who have not been to school yet because they don’t have a bus,” Moroff said. “It’s exciting to hear the chancellor say, ‘it’s unacceptable and we’re going to do something about it.’”

But overhauling the bus system will be a massive undertaking, partly owing to the technical complexity of ferrying students to schools with different schedules, shifting rosters of students necessitating new routes — but also because the system is dependent on a rough-and-tumble web of private bus companies. (Goldstein, the support services CEO who Carranza fired, reportedly faced down the CEO of a bus company who confronted him with a loaded pistol during contract negotiations in 2010.)

Eric Nadelstern, a top education department deputy during the Bloomberg administration, said Carranza may be underestimating the bus system’s complexity and the value of keeping leaders with deep knowledge of it.

“Goldstein at the very least understood where the pitfalls were,” Nadelstern said, adding that removing a leader in the middle of a crisis may prove unwise. “I don’t think there’s anyone else in the system who has that knowledge or capacity.”

The Bloomberg administration attempted an overhaul of the bus system in 2007, hiring private consultants in an attempt to make it more efficient. That effort turned out to be a flop, the New York Times reported, “leaving shivering students waiting for buses in the cold and thousands of parents hollering about disrupted routines.” Klein eventually apologized but largely defended the reorganization at the time, saying, “I never think that the pain is worth it. On the other hand, I don’t think there’s any good time to make these changes.”

Others, including one current education department administrator who spoke on condition of anonymity, said they worried that Carranza wanted to show he was taking charge of the situation by making heads roll without immediately addressing the underlying problems.

But while Carranza admitted he does not yet have a full explanation of why the school bus system has repeatedly fallen short, he said he is committed to a longer-term solution.

“My understanding is this goes back at least decades,” Carranza told Chalkbeat. “There are some systemic issues that I don’t want to put a band-aid on, I want to actually find the root cause and fix.”