Building Better Teachers

Tennessee’s teacher evaluation system improving, state report says

PHOTO: Vanderbilt University
A new study suggests that standards used nationwide to evaluate teacher preparation programs need an upgrade.

Tennessee’s teacher evaluation system is more accurate than ever in measuring teacher quality, according to a report released Thursday by the state Department of Education.

“Now three years into our evaluation system, we see clear indications that the system itself is improving rapidly through the dedicated work of educators across the state,” the 36-page report concludes. “Most importantly, we see significant signs that students are learning more, and that Tennessee is making progress to move itself into the top half of national performance and provide the education that our students and their families expect and deserve.”

The evaluation system was a keystone of the state’s sweeping 2010 education reforms that helped secure a $500 million federal grant called First to the Top. The state substantially altered its teacher evaluations by requiring them annually instead of every five years, as well as relying more on student test scores.

The state’s report, based primarily on the 2013-14 school year, is the third on the new evaluation system since its implementation in 2011-12. The evaluation process has been tweaked every year since its launch based on teacher feedback.

Among the findings, state education leaders are touting the higher correlation between a teacher’s value-added score (TVAAS), which estimates how much teachers contribute to students’ growth on statewide assessments, and observation scores conducted primarily by administrators. Value-added scores and observation scores still don’t always match up — meaning some teachers have low value-added scores and high observation scores, and vice versa — but Assistant Education Commissioner Paul Fleming said that’s natural.

“The goal is not perfect alignment,” Fleming said Wednesday as the state prepared to release its report.

Because good teachers sometimes have low value-added scores, those scores count for only a fraction of a teacher’s overall evaluation score, he said.

Still, misalignment between observation scores and value-added data has been a priority for the state Education Department. During the 2013-14 school year, schools that had the most instances of a teacher who performed poorly according to value-added data, but well or moderately well in observations, had the option of using a state coach to help them refine their observation practices and narrow the gap between observation scores and value-added scores. (A recent study by Vanderbilt’s Peabody College of Education and Human Development shows that principals rely on observation data far more than on value-added data.)

Assistant State Education Commissioner Paul Fleming
PHOTO: G.Tatter
Assistant Education Commissioner Paul Fleming

“What’s powerful, these team coaches, because they have been former teachers and principals themselves in these districts, have had significant results . . . in helping schools not just feel better, but give more accurate and helpful feedback to teachers, ” Fleming said.

The department also saw an uptick in the number of teachers for non-tested subjects using portfolios, rather than school-wide test scores, as part of their observations. For most Tennessee teachers, student test scores count for at least 25 percent of their evaluations, even if they teach non-tested subjects. But in 2013-2014, 11 districts — up from only three districts the year before — used one of three portfolio models in which teachers show student growth by submitting student work, instead of grading non-tested teachers based on the test scores of their co-workers. The state has approved portfolio models for teachers of world languages, fine arts and physical education.

Although the report says teachers who use portfolios have “expressed great appreciation for a model that treats them as content experts and allows them to be judged based on the merits of work that happens in their own classrooms,” Fleming said few districts have used portfolios because they are not understood well and are more time-consuming, especially for smaller districts.

“We’re trying to make sure districts have as much information as possible to take that route if they choose to,” Fleming said.

Department officials aim to expand the portfolio model and lessen reliance on school-wide test scores. In 2013-2014, 48 percent of Tennessee teachers were evaluated in part by individual growth measures, which include either value-added data or portfolios. That number could increase to 70 percent, according to department estimates. “Individual growth measures allow districts, schools and teachers to better identify how teachers are performing in every subject area, so that they can receive the support and recognition they need,” the report says.

The use of test scores for teachers of non-tested subjects has drawn the ire of the Tennessee Education Association, as well as some legislators.

Data for the report was collected through the Tennessee Teaching, Empowering, Leading and Learning (TELL) survey of 61,000 teachers and the Tennessee Consortium of Research, Evaluation, and Development survey of about 25,000 teachers, as well as in-person interviews with more than 3,000 educators.

Contact Grace Tatter at [email protected]

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By the numbers

NYC announces it will subsidize hiring from Absent Teacher Reserve — and sheds light on who is in the pool

PHOTO: Caroline Bauman

Ever since the city announced a new policy for placing teachers without permanent positions into schools, Chalkbeat and others have been asking questions about just who is in the pool, known as the Absent Teacher Reserve.

Now we have some answers.

The education department released figures on Friday that show a quarter of teachers currently in the the pool were also there five years ago, and a third ended up in the ATR because of disciplinary or legal issues. The average salary for teachers this past year was $94,000, according to the data.

The city also said it would extend budget incentives for schools that hire educators from the ATR, a change to its initial announcement. Principals have raised concerns about the cost of hiring from the ATR, since its members tend to be more senior, and therefore more expensive, than new teachers.

The ATR is comprised of teachers who don’t have regular positions, either because their jobs were eliminated or because of disciplinary issues. It cost almost $152 million in the last school year — far more than previously estimated — and currently stands at 822 teachers.

In July, the city announced a plan to cut the pool in half by placing teachers into vacancies still open after the new school year begins — even potentially over principals’ objection.

Critics have argued that the city’s new placement policy could place ineffective teachers in the neediest classrooms. StudentsFirstNY Executive Director Jenny Sedlis called the move “shockingly irresponsible” in a statement.

“There are reasons why no principal has chosen to hire them and this policy is bad for kids, plain and simple,” she said.

But Randy Asher, the former principal of Brooklyn Technical High School who is now responsible for helping to shrink the pool, called the new policy “a common sense approach to treating ATR teachers like all other teachers,” since they now have the opportunity to be evaluated by a school principal.

Here’s what the latest numbers tell us about who is in the pool.

How did educators end up in the Absent Teacher Reserve?

Most of the educators in the ATR were placed there because their schools had closed (38 percent) or due to budget cuts (30 percent.)

Another 32 percent entered the pool because of a legal or disciplinary case.

How effective are they?

A majority — 74 percent — received an evaluation rating of “highly effective,” “effective” or “satisfactory” in 2015-16, the most current year available. Current ratings for teachers citywide were not immediately available, but in 2014-15, 93 percent of teachers overall were rated effective or highly effective, according to the Wall Street Journal.

Twelve percent of teachers in the pool received an “ineffective” or “unsatisfactory” rating in 2015-16, and about 7 percent received a “developing” rating, one step up from ineffective.

Some teachers in the ATR say evaluations can be unfair since teachers are often placed in classrooms outside of the subjects they are equipped to teach and because they are bounced between classrooms.

Asked whether teachers with poor ratings would be placed in classrooms, Asher said “all” teachers in the ATR have traditionally been placed in school assignments.

“They’re in schools, no matter what. It’s a question of what is their role in the school, and how are they supported and evaluated,” he said. “Obviously we will look at each individual teacher and each individual assignment on a case-by-case basis.”

How experienced are they?

Teachers in the ATR have an average of 18 years of experience with the education department, and earn an average salary of $94,000. By comparison, the base salary for a New York City teacher as of May 2017 was $54,000.

How long have they been in the pool?

Almost half the educators who are currently in the pool were also there two years ago. A quarter were in the ATR five years ago. That doesn’t mean that teachers have remained in the ATR for that entire time. They could have been hired for a time, and returned to the pool.

Still, the figures could be fuel for those who argue educators in the ATR either aren’t seriously looking for permanent jobs — or that the educators in the pool are simply undesirable hires.

How will schools pay for them?

Teachers in the ATR have argued that their higher salaries are one reason principals avoid hiring them — a concern that principals voiced in a recent Chalkbeat report.

“This is part of the injustice of the ATR placement,” said Scott Conti, principal of New Design High School in Manhattan. “Schools might not want them and they will cost schools more in the future, taking away from other budget priorities.”

Under the policy announced Friday, the education department will subsidize the cost of ATRs who are permanently hired, paying 50 percent of their salaries next school year and 25 percent the following school year.

Where have they worked previously?

This question is important because the answer gives a sense of where educators in the ATR are likely to be placed this fall. The education department’s original policy called for an educator to be placed within the same district they left, but the change announced in July allowed for placement anywhere within the same borough.

Almost half of ATR members, as of June 2016-17, came from high schools. That isn’t surprising: Former Mayor Michael Bloomberg and Chancellor Joel Klein targeted large high schools for closure, breaking them up into smaller schools as part of a turnaround strategy.

Of the school districts serving K- 8 students, District 19 in Brooklyn’s East New York and District 24 in Queens had among the most educators in the ATR. Each had 26.

What subjects do they teach?

The largest share of teachers in the ATR — 27 percent — are licensed to teach in early childhood or elementary school grades. Another 11 percent are licensed social studies teachers, 9 percent are math teachers and 8 percent are English teachers.

Questions have been raised in the past about whether the teachers in the pool had skills that were too narrow or out of date. A 2010 Chalkbeat story found that a quarter of teachers then in the pool were licensed to teach relatively obscure classes like swimming, jewelry-making and accounting.

Training teachers

More literacy coaches to bolster Tennessee’s drive to boost student reading

PHOTO: Alan Petersime

More than half of its school districts signed on last year when Tennessee created a network of literacy coaches to help classroom teachers improve their students’ reading.

Now entering the program’s second year, another 16 districts are joining up. That means two-thirds of Tennessee districts will have instructional supports in place aimed at addressing the state’s lackluster reading levels.

Tennessee has a reading problem. Less than half of its students in grades 3-8 were considered proficient in 2015, the last year for which test scores are available. In Memphis, the numbers are even more stunning. Less than a third of Shelby County Schools’ third-graders are reading on grade level.

PHOTO: Marta W. Aldrich
Gov. Bill Haslam speaks during the statewide launch of Read to be Ready in 2016.

The state wants to get 75 percent of third-graders proficient by 2025. (New scores coming out this fall will help track progress.)

The coaching network is a major component of Tennessee’s Read to be Ready drive, launched in 2016 by Gov. Bill Haslam and Education Commissioner Candice McQueen. The focus is helping teachers improve literacy instruction for the state’s youngest students.

So far, some 200 coaches have worked directly with more than 3,000 teachers in 83 districts, including all four urban districts. This fall, 99 out of the state’s 146 school systems will participate.

About 92 percent of classroom teachers report that coaching is improving their teaching, even as many coaches say they are stretched too thin, according to a state report released Wednesday. Inadequate planning time for teachers is another barrier to success, the report notes.

To join the coaching network, districts must commit to funding a reading coach who will support about 15 teachers. New districts signing up this year are:

  • Scott County Schools
  • Smith County School System
  • Pickett County Schools
  • Jackson County Schools
  • Macon County Schools
  • Clay County Schools
  • Sumner County Schools
  • Dyer County Schools
  • Wayne County Schools
  • Bedford County Schools
  • Benton County Schools
  • Alamo City School
  • Polk County Schools
  • Kingsport City Schools
  • Oak Ridge Schools
  • Dayton City School

A complete list of participating districts can be found here.