getting what you pay for

Want more young people to aspire to become teachers? Try paying teachers more

PHOTO: Chalkbeat file photo
Ashley Farris, an AP English teacher at KIPP Denver Collegiate High School, with her students.

What teachers are paid is usually a function of local budgets and politics — not cutting-edge research. But there’s building evidence that higher teacher pay helps encourage people to enter and stay in the classroom.

The latest study, published in the peer-reviewed American Educational Research Journal, examines interest in teaching across different countries, including the United States.

“In countries where teacher salaries are higher, 15-year-old students are more likely to expect to work as teachers,” the researchers Seong Won Han, Francesca Borgonovi, and Sonia Guerriero conclude, using data from the OECD, the group that administers the PISA exam, which tests 15-year-olds worldwide to evaluate education systems.

The relationship is strong: an increase in teacher pay by 50 percent is associated with a 75 percent increase in high schoolers’ likelihood to say they plan to go into teaching.

This comes as fewer American high school students want to become teachers, according to a 2016 analysis by the ACT, the college-entrance testing company. Policymakers may be particularly nervous about this trend in light of the decline in recent years of college students enrolling in teacher preparation programs.

A major caveat to the study, which is consistent with prior work, is that the results are correlational, meaning the study can’t prove that better salaries cause more high schoolers to become interested in teaching. Moreover, comparing educational systems across countries — with widely varying cultures and contexts — is inherently tricky. The report also shows that other factors beyond salary — like how well-respected teachers are — are related to interest in the career.

Still, the findings generally match up with research from the United States showing that teacher salary matter a great deal.

Increased pay, including through bonuses, tends to get teachers to stay in the job longer. There is less evidence on how compensation affects teacher recruitment, but what exists is generally positive. Higher pay may be particularly important for keeping math and science teachers — often areas of shortage — since they tend to be able to earn higher salaries outside teaching.

One study found that a New York City charter school that pays teachers $125,000 salaries led to notable gains in student achievement (although the analysis couldn’t show whether the hefty paychecks were the cause).

Of course, significant debate exists on whether to base pay on performance and how to distribute retirement benefits. More generally, researchers disagree on whether teachers are over or underpaid, and how exactly to determine this.

The OECD data suggests that teachers are paid substantially less than in most other countries, as a percentage of per capita GDP. A more fine-grained analysis by the Economic Policy Institute, a left-leaning think tank, found that, counting benefits and hours worked, teachers are paid about 11 percent less than similarly educated workers.

Comparisons are challenging: another recent study found that although high school teachers are underpaid, elementary and middle school teachers earn somewhat more than comparable professionals.

But asking teachers if teachers are over or underpaid may be the wrong question — as well as an impossible-to-answer one — according to some researchers. The right question, argued the University of California, Santa Barbara economist Dick Startz in a recent blog post, is, “Are we attracting and retaining enough great teachers?”

“My view,” he continued, “is that we’re getting lots of great teachers, but we’re not getting nearly as many as we need. If you agree, then you should want higher teacher salaries.”

negotiations

Aurora school board reverses course, accepts finding that district should have negotiated bonuses with union

Students in a math class at Aurora Central High School in April 2017. (Photo by Yesenia Robles, Chalkbeat)

Following weeks of criticism, the Aurora school board on Tuesday reversed course and accepted an arbitrator’s finding that a pilot bonus system violated the district’s agreement with the teachers union.

The Aurora school district rolled out an experiment last year to offer bonuses to some teachers and other staff in hard-to-fill positions, such as psychologists, nurses and speech language pathologists.

The teachers union argued that the plan should have been negotiated first. An arbitrator agreed and issued a report recommending that the pilot program stop immediately and that the district negotiate any future offerings. The union and school board are set to start negotiations next month about how to change teacher pay, using new money voters approved in November.

When school board members first considered the arbitrator’s report last month, they declined to accept the findings, which were not binding. That raised concerns for union members that the district might implement bonuses again without first negotiating them.

Tuesday’s new resolution, approved on a 5-1 vote, accepted the full arbitrator’s report and its recommendations. Board member Monica Colbert voted against the motion, and board member Kevin Cox was absent.

Back in January 2018, school board members approved a budget amendment that included $1.8 million to create the pilot for incentivizing hard-to-fill positions. On Tuesday, board member Cathy Wildman said she thought through the budget vote, the school board may have allowed the district to create that incentive program, even though the board now accepts the finding that they should have worked with union before trying this experiment.

“It was a board decision at that time to spend that amount on hard-to-fill positions,” Wildman said.

Board president Marques Ivey said he was not initially convinced by the arbitrator’s position, but said that he later read more and felt he could change his vote based on having more information.

Last month, the Aurora school board discussed the report with its attorney in a closed-door executive session. When the board met in public afterward, it chose not to uphold the entire report, saying that the board could not “come to an agreement.” Instead board members voted on a resolution that asked the school district to negotiate any future “long-term” incentive programs.

Union president Bruce Wilcox called the resolution “poorly worded” and slammed the board for not having the discussion in public, calling it a “backroom deal.” Several other teachers also spoke to the board earlier this month, reminding the newest board members’ of their campaign promises to increase transparency.

Board members responded by saying that they did not hold an official vote; rather the board was only deciding how to proceed in public. Colorado law prohibits schools boards from taking positions, or votes, in private.

The board on Tuesday also pushed the district to provide more detailed information about the results of the pilot and survey results that tried to quantify how it affected teachers deciding to work in Aurora.



story slam

The state of teacher pay in Indiana: Hear true stories told by local educators

It’s time to hear directly from educators about the state of teacher pay in Indiana.

Join us for another Teacher Story Slam, co-hosted by the Eiteljorg Museum of American Indians and Western Art, Chalkbeat Indiana, and Teachers Lounge Indy. Teacher salaries are the hot topic in education these days, in Indiana and across the country. Hear from Indianapolis-area teachers who will tell true stories about how they live on a teacher’s salary.

Over the past two years, Chalkbeat has brought readers personal stories from the teachers, students, and leaders of Indianapolis through our occasional series, What’s Your Education Story? Some of our favorites were told live during teacher story slams hosted by Teachers Lounge Indy.

Those stories include one teacher’s brutally honest reflection on the first year of teaching and another teacher’s uphill battle to win the trust of her most skeptical student.

Event details

The event will be held from 6-8 p.m. on Friday, March 15, at Clowes Court at the Eiteljorg, 500 W Washington St. in Indianapolis. It is free and open to the public — please RSVP.

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