getting what you pay for

Want more young people to aspire to become teachers? Try paying teachers more

What teachers are paid is usually a function of local budgets and politics — not cutting-edge research. But there’s building evidence that higher teacher pay helps encourage people to enter and stay in the classroom.

The latest study, published in the peer-reviewed American Educational Research Journal, examines interest in teaching across different countries, including the United States.

“In countries where teacher salaries are higher, 15-year-old students are more likely to expect to work as teachers,” the researchers Seong Won Han, Francesca Borgonovi, and Sonia Guerriero conclude, using data from the OECD, the group that administers the PISA exam, which tests 15-year-olds worldwide to evaluate education systems.

The relationship is strong: an increase in teacher pay by 50 percent is associated with a 75 percent increase in high schoolers’ likelihood to say they plan to go into teaching.

This comes as fewer American high school students want to become teachers, according to a 2016 analysis by the ACT, the college-entrance testing company. Policymakers may be particularly nervous about this trend in light of the decline in recent years of college students enrolling in teacher preparation programs.

A major caveat to the study, which is consistent with prior work, is that the results are correlational, meaning the study can’t prove that better salaries cause more high schoolers to become interested in teaching. Moreover, comparing educational systems across countries — with widely varying cultures and contexts — is inherently tricky. The report also shows that other factors beyond salary — like how well-respected teachers are — are related to interest in the career.

Still, the findings generally match up with research from the United States showing that teacher salary matter a great deal.

Increased pay, including through bonuses, tends to get teachers to stay in the job longer. There is less evidence on how compensation affects teacher recruitment, but what exists is generally positive. Higher pay may be particularly important for keeping math and science teachers — often areas of shortage — since they tend to be able to earn higher salaries outside teaching.

One study found that a New York City charter school that pays teachers $125,000 salaries led to notable gains in student achievement (although the analysis couldn’t show whether the hefty paychecks were the cause).

Of course, significant debate exists on whether to base pay on performance and how to distribute retirement benefits. More generally, researchers disagree on whether teachers are over or underpaid, and how exactly to determine this.

The OECD data suggests that teachers are paid substantially less than in most other countries, as a percentage of per capita GDP. A more fine-grained analysis by the Economic Policy Institute, a left-leaning think tank, found that, counting benefits and hours worked, teachers are paid about 11 percent less than similarly educated workers.

Comparisons are challenging: another recent study found that although high school teachers are underpaid, elementary and middle school teachers earn somewhat more than comparable professionals.

But asking teachers if teachers are over or underpaid may be the wrong question — as well as an impossible-to-answer one — according to some researchers. The right question, argued the University of California, Santa Barbara economist Dick Startz in a recent blog post, is, “Are we attracting and retaining enough great teachers?”

“My view,” he continued, “is that we’re getting lots of great teachers, but we’re not getting nearly as many as we need. If you agree, then you should want higher teacher salaries.”

Struggling Detroit schools

The list of promises is long: Arts, music, robotics, gifted programs and more. Will Detroit schools be able to deliver?

PHOTO: Detroit Public Television
Detroit schools Superintendent Nikolai Vitti answers questions at a community meeting in Detroit.

Arts. Music. Robotics. Programs for gifted kids. New computers. New textbooks. Dual enrollment programs that let high school students take college classes. International Baccalaureate. Advanced Placement.

They’re all on the list of things that Detroit schools Superintendent Nikolai Vitti told a group of community members assembled in a Brightmoor neighborhood church that he would introduce or expand as soon as next school year.

Vitti didn’t get into the specifics of how the main Detroit district would find the money or partnerships needed to deliver on all of those promises, but they’re part of the plan for the future, he said.

The comments came in a question and answer session last month with students, parents and community members following Vitti’s appearance on Detroit Public Television’s American Black Journal/One Detroit Roadshow. The discussion was recorded at City Covenant Church. DPTV is one of Chalkbeat’s partners in the Detroit Journalism Cooperative.

Vitti has been appearing at community events since taking over the Detroit schools last spring. He is scheduled next week to join officials from two of the city’s major charter school authorizers, Central Michigan University and Grand Valley State University, at a State of the Schools address on October 25.

 

Watch the full Q&A with Vitti below.

Another error

Missing student data means 900 Tennessee teachers could see their growth scores change

PHOTO: TN.gov

Tennessee’s testing problems continue. This time the issue is missing students.

Students’ test scores are used to evaluate teachers, and the failure of a data processing vendor to include scores for thousands of students may have skewed results for some teachers, officials said.

The scores, known as TVAAS, are based on how students improved under a teacher’s watch. The scores affect a teacher’s overall evaluation and in some districts, like Shelby County Schools, determine if a teacher gets a raise.

The error affects 1,700 teachers statewide, or about 9 percent of the 19,000 Tennessee teachers who receive scores. About 900 of those teachers had five or more students missing from their score, which could change their result.

The latest glitch follows a series of mishaps, including test scanning errors, which also affect teacher evaluations. A delay earlier this summer from the Tennessee Department of Education’s testing vendor, Questar, set off a chain of events that resulted in the missing student scores.

To calculate a teacher’s growth score, students and their test scores are assigned to a teacher. About 3 percent of the 1.5 million student-teacher assignments statewide had to be manually submitted in Excel files after Questar experienced software issues and fell behind on releasing raw scores to districts.

RANDA Solutions, a data processing vendor for the state, failed to input all of those Excel files, leading to the teachers’ scores being calculated without their full roster of students, said Sara Gast, a state spokeswoman. The error will not affect school or district TVAAS scores. (District-level TVAAS scores were released in September.)

Gast did not immediately confirm when the state will finalize those teachers’ scores with corrected student rosters. The state sent letters to districts last week informing them of the error and at least one Memphis teacher was told she had more than 80 of her 120 students missing from her score.

In the past, the process for matching students to the right teachers began at the end of the year, “which does not leave much room for adjustments in the case of unexpected delays,” Gast said in an email. The state had already planned to open the process earlier this year. Teachers can begin to verify their rosters next week, she said.