checking biases

Banned from texting students, educators are urged to be ‘warm and demanding’ to make connections

PHOTO: Courtesy of BAM
The BAM program in action at William J. Bogan High School

In 2006, Tim King opened the first Urban College Prep, a charter school for young black men in Englewood. Speaking to a group of educators, he recalled arriving at a student’s house to drive him to college, only to see the young man walking out of the house with a trash bag.

King, who now oversees three all-boys campuses, says he urged the student to hurry, mistakenly thinking he’d caught him trying to finish a chore. Instead, the trash bag contained the young man’s clothes and belongings. King, who is black, said the moment made him check his own bias, recalling his startling realization as he contrasted his student with himself: “I took my things to college in a suitcase.”

Such anecdotes animated a day devoted to teaching educators about harnessing technology to personalize learning, in sessions offered Tuesday at the Leap InnovatEd Summit at the Hyatt McCormick Place. Getting to know learners beyond their surface-level classroom work is a key part of reaching students at every level, said Phyllis Lockett, the founder and CEO of Leap Innovations, the group behind the summit. “We call it being ‘learner focused’ — developing a deep understanding of each learner’s life, challenges and interests,” she said. 

But it was reflections like King’s that struck chords that resonated with participants, on the importance of equity in their work. King’s panel — on how educators can improve the odds for black boys — drew a standing-room-only crowd.

Their interest was driven by stark realities. Black boys are more likely than any other group to drop out of high school in Chicago. Fewer than 10 percent of those who do graduate are projected to earn a bachelor’s degree in any given cohort, according to the University of Chicago Consortium on School Research.

While many of the Tuesday’s sessions were designed to help teachers rely more on technology to identify learning gaps, differentiate instruction, and “meet students where they are,” King and co-panelists skipped computers and instead stressed the value of “warm and demanding” educators. They also warned of downsides of new Chicago Public Schools policies that, for example, inhibit communicating with students by banning text- or social media interactions between them and staff.

“I know we have some people out there who have been doing really bad things,” said King, referring to a sexual misconduct scandal that has been roiling the district, “but there are kids who don’t have anywhere to go or need someone to talk to, via Twitter, Facebook, via text messaging. CPS has created a policy that says we cannot engage and interact with students where they are. I think that is a mistake.”

The panel also included Shayne Evans, a former principal who is managing partner of the Academy Group, and Phillip Cusic, the program director of Becoming A Man, or BAM, a mentoring program active in more than 100 Chicago schools. Nicole Beechum from the University of Chicago moderated.

“I was the kid with the garbage bag,” said Cusic, who grew up one of 11 children on Chicago’s South Side. “But we can get to a certain point in life and we forget the stuff we’ve gone through — it’s almost like a psychic break.” Recognizing the privilege of many of the adults, even black ones, who work in schools is a crucial step.

So is the realization, he added, that “social emotional learning isn’t just for children.”

Educators have to recognize their own microagressions and control how they respond when teenagers argue or show attitude. No one is immune to having a bad day, and teachers are saddled by issues that make them too quick to react. “We all have to step back and think about our collective responsibility to make ourselves whole,” said Cusic.

Another suggestion: Giving students case studies grounded in the experiences of leaders who look like them so students see a possible future path. He said his program recently gave some 11th graders a set of Harvard business case studies written by an African-American prof. “Our students crushed those.”

And it was Evans who set the expectations that educators be “warm and demanding.” School leaders should be able to “create spaces where black men can be vulnerable,” he said. “It doesn’t cost anything despite what our budgets may say.”

Shenann Finley-Jones, assistant principal of Brunson Math & Science Specialty School, a predominantly black and low-income school in Austin, said after the discussion that her school has embraced ways to help students with their physical needs and their emotional ones. Breakfast hours have been extended for students who show up hungry, and an empty classroom has been transformed into a hygiene closet where students in need can go for deodorant or other personal supplies.

Brunson is now holding “morning meetings” in classrooms where teachers take the emotional temperature of their students and discuss any issues popping up in class. This year, they’ll also experiment with a Staff Time Out, or STO, that sends an administrator to relieve a teacher feeling besieged until a situation de-escalates.

“Teachers are trained to have to teach no matter what, but sometimes you’re thinking, Why can’t I get past this point? Why can’t I get past this issue right now?” Brunson asked. “Let’s stop and address this issue.”

Her principal, Carol Wilson, said she’s not concerned that the district’s new social media restrictions will dampen staff-student interactions. She said the morning meetings have helped train kids to talk about what’s bothering them. They also use Google Hangouts to facilitate group interactions and support — since there are multiple students in a “hangout,” this use of technology doesn’t appear to violate the district’s new code.



new money

House budget draft sends more money to schools, but not specifically to teacher raises

PHOTO: Laura Faith Kebede/Chalkbeat

Despite months of heated debate, Indiana House Republicans are not setting aside extra dollars for meaningful teacher raises in their version of the state’s $14.5 billion education budget plan released Monday night.

Even though lawmakers are proposing preserving a controversial merit-based bonus pool and adding small amounts for teacher training programs, their budget draft would largely leave it up to school districts to dole out raises through increased overall funding.

The budget draft proposes increasing what Indiana spends on schools overall by $461 million — or 4.3 percent — through 2021, a little more than increases in years past. The basic per-student funding that all districts get would jump from $5,352 per student this year to $5,442 per student in 2020 and $5,549 per student in 2021. House lawmakers are also adding in a one-time payment of $150 million from state reserves that would pay down a pension liability for schools. But while lawmakers and Gov. Eric Holcomb have said that pension payment would free up about $70 million in schools’ budgets each year, the state likely wouldn’t require the cost-savings be passed along to teachers.

Although increasing teacher pay is a top goal for House Republicans, lawmakers have crafted bills that hinge on districts spending less money in areas such as administration or transportation rather than adding more money to school budgets and earmarking it for teacher salaries.

Their criticism of school spending has raised the ire of superintendents and educators who say they have little left to cut after years of increasing costs and state revenue that has barely kept pace with inflation.

But budget draft, which is expected to be presented to and voted on by the House Ways and Means Committee on Tuesday, doesn’t completely omit efforts to incentivize teachers to stick around. Unlike Holcomb’s budget proposal, House lawmakers are keeping in the current appropriation of $30 million per year for teacher bonuses.

The House budget draft would also set aside $1 million over two years for a teacher residency pilot program and $5 million over two years for schools that put in place career ladder programs that allow teachers to gain skills and opportunities without leaving the classroom.

Teacher advocacy groups, such as the Indiana State Teachers Association and Teach Plus, have been supportive of residency and career ladder programs, but the organizations have also called for more action this year to get dollars to teachers. Additionally, the ideas aren’t new — similar programs have been proposed in years past.

Calls for the hundreds of millions of dollars it would take to raise teacher salaries to be more in line with surrounding states will likely go unheeded for now as the state instead prioritizes other high-profile and expensive agencies, such as the Department of Child Services and Medicaid.

But while plans for major teacher pay raises appear to be on hold, House lawmakers are looking to boost funding in other areas of education to support some of the state’s most vulnerable students.

The budget draft would increase what the state must spend on preschool programs for students with disabilities from the current $2,750 per-student to $2,875 in 2020 and $3,000 in 2021 — the first such increase in more than 25 years.

House lawmakers are also proposing the state spend more money on students learning English as a new language, at $325 per student up from $300 per student now. While all schools with English learners would receive more money per student under this plan, the new budget draft removes a provision that had previously allocated extra dollars to schools with higher concentrations of English learners.

A 2017 calculation error and an uptick in interested schools meant state lawmakers did not budget enough money for schools with larger shares of English-learners in the last budget cycle, so they ended up getting far less than what the state had promised. But even the small increases were valuable, educators told Chalkbeat.

House lawmakers also suggested slashing funding for virtual programs run by traditional public school districts. Going forward, funding for both virtual charter schools and virtual schools within school districts would come in at 90 percent of what traditional schools receive from the state — now, only virtual charter schools are at the 90 percent level. It’s a marked change for House lawmakers, who in years past have asked that virtual charter school funding be increased to 100 percent.

The virtual funding proposal comes as lawmakers are considering bills that would add regulations for the troubled schools, where few students pass state exams or graduate.

The budget draft also includes:

  • $5 million per year added to school safety grants, totaling $19 million in 2020 and $24 million in 2021
  • Doubling grants for high-performing charter schools from $500 per student to $1,000 per student, at a cost of about $32 million over two years. The money is a way for charter schools to make up for not receiving local property tax dollars like district schools, lawmakers say.
  • $4 million per year more to expand the state’s private school voucher program to increase funding for certain families above the poverty line. Under the plan, a family of four making between $46,000 and $58,000 annually could receive a voucher for 70 percent of what public schools would have received in state funding for the student. Currently, those families receive a 50 percent voucher.
  • About $33 million over two years (up from about $25 million) for the state’s Tax Credit Scholarship program.

rethinking the reprieve

Indiana lawmakers take step to eliminate generous ‘growth-only’ grades for all schools, not just those in IPS

PHOTO: Anthony Lanzilote

A panel of Indiana lawmakers took a first step Monday to stop giving new and overhauled schools more generous state A-F grades that consider only how much students improve on tests and cut schools slack for low test scores.

The House Education Committee was initially looking to clamp down on Indianapolis Public Schools’ innovation schools, barring them from using student test score improvement as the sole determinant in their first three years of A-F grades. The more generous scale has boosted IPS’ performance as it launches a new strategy of partnering with charter operators, by allowing some innovation network schools to earn high marks despite overall low test scores.

But lawmakers expanded the scope of the bill to stop all schools from receiving what are known as “growth-only grades” after Chalkbeat reported that IPS’ overhauled high schools were granted a fresh start from the state — a move that would allow the high schools to tap into the more lenient grading system.

“I want to be consistent, and I felt like [grading] wasn’t consistent before, it was just hodge-podge,” said committee Chairman Bob Behning, an Indianapolis Republican. “We need to be transparent with parents.”

Read: Why it’s hard to compare Indianapolis schools under the A-F grading system

The committee unanimously approved the bill. If it passes into law, Indianapolis Public Schools stands to be one of the districts most affected. Growth-only grades for innovation schools have given the district’s data a boost, accounting for eight of the district’s 11 A grades in 2018. All of its high schools could also be eligible for growth-only grades this year.

Indianapolis Public Schools officials did not immediately respond to requests for comment. In the past, they have defended the two-tiered grading system, arguing that growth on state tests is an important window into how schools are educating students. Growth-only grades were originally intended to offer new schools time to get up and running before being judged on student test scores.

IPS was also the target of another provision in the updated bill that would add in stricter rules for when and how schools can ask for a “baseline reset” — the fresh start that its four high schools were recently granted.

Read: IPS overhauled high schools. Now, the state is giving them a fresh start on A-F

The resets, which districts can currently request from the state education department if they meet certain criteria that show they’ve undergone dramatic changes, wipe out previous test scores and other student performance data to give schools a fresh start. The reset schools are considered new schools with new state ID numbers.

The state determined a reset was necessary for IPS’ four remaining high schools because of the effects of decisions last year to close three campuses, shuffle staff, and create a new system a new system for students to choose their schools. Each school will start over with state letter grades in 2019.

But Behning and other lawmakers were skeptical that such changes merited starting over with accountability, and they were concerned that the process could occur without state board of education scrutiny. If passed into law, the bill would require the state board to approve future requests for accountability resets.

A state board staff member testified in favor of the change. The state education department did not offer comments to the committee.

Rep. Vernon Smith, a Democrat from Gary, said he didn’t like the fact that a reset could erase a school’s data, adding that he had concerns about “the transparency of a school corporation getting a new number.”

The amended bill wouldn’t remove the reset for IPS high schools, but by eliminating the growth-only grades, it would get rid of some of the incentive for districts to ask for a reset to begin with. Under current law, reset schools are considered new and qualify for growth-only grades. But the bill would require that reset schools be judged on the state’s usual scale, taking into account both test scores and test score improvement — and possibly leading to lower-than-anticipated state grades.

The amended bill would still offer a grading grace period to schools opening for the first time: New charter schools would be able to ask the state to give them no grade — known as a “null” grade — for their first three years, but schools’ test score performance and test score growth data would still be published online. Behning said he didn’t include district schools in the null-grade measure because they haven’t frequently opened new schools, but he said he’d be open to an amendment.

The bill next heads to the full House for a vote.