Getting from good to great

Many Detroit educators have never worked in a high-performing school. This program imports coaches who have

PHOTO: Erin Einhorn
Mumford Academyprincipal Nir Saar, left, records video of a lesson taught by Algebra II teacher Lindsey Aldridge as part of a new effort to build a video catalog that he can use to train teachers — a technique he's expanding under the guidance of school leadership coaches.

Throughout the Mumford Academy High School one morning this month, teachers were prepping their students for upcoming SAT exams. Teens flooded the hallways between classes, calling out to friends.

But for much of this day in early April, the school’s principal, Nir Saar, was isolated from the usual rush and noise of his northwest Detroit school. He was instead in a small conference room beyond the main office, huddling with his top advisors and a team of education experts in hopes of solving a problem that some say imperils the ability of schools in Detroit to be truly successful.

The problem is this: Because so many schools in Detroit are struggling, and so many are turning out grads who are ill-equipped to succeed in college, many Detroit educators have never had the chance to work in a high-performing school.

They’ve never seen an effective force of well-supported teachers working together to meet students’ needs and see them succeed.

That’s the impetus behind the new $900,000 Team Fellows Program, funded by the Detroit Children’s Fund, that kicked off earlier this year at the Mumford Academy and at two Detroit charter schools.

The program brings advisors into Detroit schools to provide intensive coaching to principals, assistant principals, deans and other top administrators. The coaches work with school leaders together as a team to collectively create improvement plans, then work to implement them.

The Children’s Fund sees the Team Fellows program as a model that could be expanded across the city. But it has already hit an early hiccup with the news that Mumford Academy is likely merging with the larger Mumford High School. The uncertainty underscores the challenges Detroit school advocates have grappled with for years, as promising programs have begun in schools that closed or were wiped out by changes in management.

Still, supporters are hopeful the concept is strong enough to weather the uncertainty.

Jack Elsey, who launched the program last year after becoming the first executive director of the Children’s Fund, said his goal is to bring strategies that have been successful in other cities to some of the more promising schools in Detroit.

“There are a whole set of best practices that happen sort of repeatedly, almost without thinking, in high-performing schools,” said Elsey, who has worked as a New York City teacher, and as a top school administrator in the main Detroit district, the Chicago Public Schools and in Detroit’s state-run Education Achievement Authority.

“At a foundational level, all high-performing schools have a clear vision for what they want to achieve,” Elsey said. “They’re constantly assessing themselves and having others assess them. … The Team Fellows is designed to provide those reflective moments.”

Cutting shadow missions

The coaches from a New York-based organization called the School Empowerment Network, which got its start helping to launch 121 new schools in New York City, first came to the Mumford Academy in January. They met with students and educators, grilling them about what was working and what needed to improve.

They then set some ambitious goals. Among them: making sure teachers are adopting an “instructional vision” that involves pushing students not just to learn information, but to think about and discuss what they’ve learned.

The team set a goal that 80 percent of current 11th graders would score a 980 on the SAT by 2019, with at least 30 percent scoring at least a 1060 — numbers that would put the school well ahead of the curve in a city where the average SAT score last year was 887 and the statewide average was 1007.

A third goal involves increasing student involvement in school-wide activities by 40 percent — an effort the team and its coaches hope will improve relationships between students and reduce the percentage of students fighting or getting into trouble.

PHOTO: Erin Einhorn
Coaches from the School Empowerment network including Carrmilla Young, left, and Jessica Westermann, center, huddle with Mumford Academy Principal Nir Saar, right, and his top leadership staff as part of a Team Fellows program that aims to push good schools to get better.

The group then mapped out a long list of action steps that Saar and his team agreed to implement. Their coaches come to Detroit every other week to keep them on task, and will be leading the team on a trip to New York City to tour three schools that the coaches consider models for success. Included on the tour are a charter high school, a small district high school inside a large Manhattan campus, and an unusual K-12 school that uses a project-based curriculum.

On that April morning in the conference room, the Mumford Academy leaders were discussing different ways to observe teachers, and to build “data dashboards” that track everything from student discipline to attendance at after-school events.

They discussed ways to cut down on what they call “shadow missions,” meaning work that takes them away from their priorities. They grappled, for example, with whether the principal and his top advisers should staff lunchtime detention for students who’ve broken school rules.

“You’re wanting to show that you’re willing to be in the trenches and do that work,” Saar said, adding that lunch detention is also a quiet time when he can get other work done.

But if Saar or his assistant principal are watching students during detention, or keeping peace in the cafeteria, they can’t attend teacher planning meetings that take place at the same time — meetings that could be key to promoting the school’s instructional vision.

The group then discussed strategies like developing a rotation so one administrator per day could peel off from lunch duty to work with teachers.

Also in the works that morning was a plan to capture Mumford Academy educators during moments of great teaching to show other teachers how it’s done.

One of the team’s coaches, Carrmilla Young, a Detroit native who has worked in schools in Texas, Chicago and Fresno, California, offered to help locate videos that demonstrate great teaching. But Saar said he preferred to produce them in the school.

“You know how it is,” he said, “when you see your kids and all of that, you rule out all the ‘Oh, these are white kids in the suburbs. They have 15 kids in the class.’ All of that stuff.  So I think we definitely should make a commitment to try to keep it in house.”

He said he and his leadership team would commit to capturing as many videos as they could on their phones so the group could watch them with their coaches to identify moments that would be useful for other teachers.

“We almost need a catalog,” Saar said, “where it’s like, in video one, we can highlight these things … If we get to a really good place, three years down the road, I’d love to have the time signatures so it’s like at a minute-fifteen, we see this element that’s really effective.”

That way, he said, teachers who are struggling with, say, classroom management, could be directed to a certain moment that was captured in a colleague’s classroom.

“That’s a really high level of functioning that I think we eventually will get to,” Saar said.

Will instability interfere?

The Team Fellows program is one of several that the Children’s Fund is kicking off in Detroit this year.

The Fund, which is affiliated with the Skillman Foundation (a Chalkbeat funder), has a stated goal of creating 25,000 high-quality school seats in Detroit by 2025. That would be a major improvement in a city where Elsey estimates that just 8,000 Detroit children currently have access to high-quality schools — a tiny fraction of the more than 100,000 school-aged children in the city.

His organization is heavily focused on training educators. In addition to the Team Fellows program, which works only with teams of leaders currently working together, the fund is now inviting educators to apply for a new Leaders Institute that will train teams of educators to take control of new or existing schools.

For the Team Fellows program, Elsey said leaders from 25 Detroit district and charter schools applied to be part of the program, which was targeted to schools the fund considered “good schools” that could become “great schools” with a little extra support.

The two charter schools that were selected are part of the same network — the Detroit Achievement Academy in northwest Detroit and its newer, sister school, Detroit Prep in Indian Village. The schools selected all had strong track records with test scores, attendance rates and other measures of school quality.

Mumford Academy, a small school that launched with just ninth-graders inside the larger Mumford High School in 2015 when the school was a part of the Education Achievement Authority, was selected last winter before the school’s future was called into doubt.

In March, Detroit Superintendent Nikolai Vitti recommended to the school board that all buildings containing more than one school be merged to save money. That means the Mumford Academy, which now has students in grades 9-11 will likely join with the larger Mumford High School in September. It’s not yet clear who will lead the newly merged school, but Vitti said he sees no reason why the Team Fellows program can’t continue at Mumford.

“If the focus is on supporting children, then they will still be there,” he said. “Just under one school, not two.”

The program was designed to continue through the 2018-19 school year but the merger could mean that Saar and his team could be split up. They might not all be selected to be a part of the new school leadership team, or they might decide to leave.

Elsey said the fund will make decisions when more information is available. After years working in Detroit schools, he said, he’s come to expect perennial change.

“Look, when you do this work, you have to be flexible with the dynamism that exists in today’s urban schools,” he said. “If there’s a way we can continue to believe and see that this program could be helpful at Mumford, then we’re committed to find a way to do that. We’re going to keep watching it.”

That “dynamism” in Detroit schools — usually described with less positive words like ‘instability’ — is one of the things that makes improving schools more difficult in Detroit than elsewhere, Young said.

Mumford alone has, since 2011, been added to the state recovery district and returned to the main Detroit district when the recovery district dissolved. It was put on a state list last year of schools in danger of being shut down. It saw the Mumford Academy created by one set of administrators, and now it faces a merger promoted by another.

“Every district has some variation of that,” Young said. “But it seems like it’s been prevalent in Detroit for a few years now.”

Still, Young said, the benefits of the Team Fellows program will continue no matter what happens to the school.

“A solid instructional vision is important, whether you’ve got 300 kids or you’ve got a whole high school full of them,” she said.

Jessica Westermann, an executive director at the School Empowerment Network and one of the coaches working at the Mumford Academy, noted that Detroit schools have far fewer resources than schools in New York City, where she has spent the bulk of her career.

But that doesn’t mean that the New York team can’t spot ways to help Detroit educators step up their game.

“We can’t bring higher per-pupil funding,” she said. “But I do think there are ways of doing more with the resources you have, of taking the people who are working together, and making sure that they are working in an aligned fashion.”

Saar said the lessons he’s learning will be valuable no matter where he ends up.

“For me as a principal who is often running around doing 20 million different things, this has been a very focusing kind of experience,” Saar said. “It’s really forced us to step back to ask, ‘What is it we actually want a high-quality school to look like?’… It’s not something we spend a lot of time thinking about, but it’s been really nice to have somebody from the outside come and ask those questions.”

Training teachers

How a doctor inspired a new way to train teachers — and how that is leading to a new kind of school

PHOTO: Anthony Lanzilote
Elizabeth Moje, dean of the school of education at the University of Michigan, studied how doctors are trained with Dr. Jonathan Zimmerman at Beaumont Hospital - Dearborn as she developed a new approach to training teachers.

After decades of training teachers in largely the same way, professors at the University of Michigan are making a radical change.

They’re moving to end the longtime practice of sending educators into their own classrooms after just a few months of student teaching.

In its place, they’re creating a new method — one based on the way doctors are trained — that will extend teacher training through their first three years on the job, supporting them as they take on the daunting responsibility of educating children.

“It was very nerve-wracking,” said Lisa Murray, who just finished her second year as an English teacher at Detroit’s Munger Elementary-Middle School.

Before starting at Munger, she’d spent 14 weeks as a student teacher in a fourth-grade classroom but suddenly found herself teaching seventh-grade English. She had a supportive mentor at her new school, she said, but “ultimately you kind of have to figure it out. It’s kind of trial and error.”

That’s how teacher training has been for generations, said Elizabeth Moje, the dean of the school of education at the University of Michigan.

“That’s what I did,” Moje said of her intimidating first teaching job when she was 21. “It’s what teachers do — and it’s ludicrous.”

Moje hopes her new approach will not only lead to better outcomes for kids, but will keep teachers in the classroom longer at a time when one in ten are leaving the profession after their first year.

She’s particularly hoping to keep teachers working in urban schools where students are more likely to be academically behind, but where limited resources for supporting teachers means that as as many as 35 percent of new teachers leave the profession after their first year.

The new approach involves this: A K-12 teaching school, similar to a teaching hospital, where future teachers — called interns — will train together under a single roof.

They’ll complete their student teaching there. Then, instead of heading out in search of a job in another school, they’ll stay on for three more years as full-time, fully certified teaching “residents.”

Residents won’t be trainees. They’ll be real classroom teachers working with real children and making a real salary — the same as any other first-, second-, or third-year teacher. But, unlike their peers in traditional schools, they’ll continue to learn from their professors and will work closely with the veteran teachers — called attendings — who will make up most of the school’s teaching staff.

Moje hopes to launch the teaching school as a partnership with a school or district in or near Detroit as soon as the fall of 2019.

Once it’s up and running, she said, she expects that between half and two-thirds of the faculty will be veteran teachers. The rest will be residents.

Details are still being ironed out, including the specifics about which school or district will partner with the university on the effort. But one option is the main Detroit district, where Superintendent Nikolai Vitti said he’s been in “active conversations” with Moje.

We are confident that something will be announced shortly about our plans,” he said. “The residency program is exactly what we need during a time when many teachers are not provided with the right support and training to assume responsibility of improving student performance, especially in Detroit.”

Vitti added that he thinks a program like this would recruit high-quality candidates to teach in Detroit and keep them in city schools.

***

PHOTO: Anthony Lanzilote
Dr. Jonathan Zimmerman, director of educational development at Beaumont Hospital -Dearborn, travels around the hospital with doctors-in-training including a medical student, a resident and an intern, stopping to ask them what they’ve learned from each patient. It’s a model the University of Michigan wants to apply to training teachers.

Moje is not the first to call for teacher training to look more like medical training.

Even as the trend in education in recent years has tilted toward accelerated certification programs like Teach for America that give non-education majors a crash course in teaching before placing them in a classroom, research has shown that if teachers aren’t well prepared and supported, they’re more likely to burn out and quit.

Teacher turnover — a problem that’s especially acute in schools with fewer resources to support new teachers — can exacerbate the very teacher shortages that alternative certification programs like Teach For America and the for-profit Teachers of Tomorrow are designed to address.

That’s why some districts and charter school networks in recent years have started year-long residency programs that are similar to student teaching but involve an entire school year.

Some schools have hired new teachers as “associates” before letting them fly solo in a classroom. The Denver school district has a new program that lets a handful of new teachers spend their first year working part-time in a classroom and using the rest of their time to plan, observe and hone their craft.

But Moje’s concept — the idea of extending teacher training for three years— is one that experts say is a novel approach that’s worth watching.

Because the residents are paid members of the school staff, the model doesn’t rely on private donations, or ask teachers to do extra training on their own dime.

“It’s exciting,” said Maria Hyler, a senior researcher for the Learning Policy Institute, an education think tank. “It fits into a lot of what’s going on in teacher prep right now, but on steroids, which is fabulous!”

Hyler noted that 30-50 percent of teachers leave the profession in the first three years, “often because of challenging working conditions or lack of preparation” so it makes sense to support them through that time.  

Karen DeMoss, who directs the Prepared To Teach program at Bank Street College, said she questioned how this model could work for large teaching colleges that bring in more candidates than they’re likely to have jobs for in any one teaching school. But she said she’ll be watching with interest to see how this model plays out for Michigan.

“I love the idea that an institution is committing to every single student having access to this kind of extended learning experience to learn how to do one of the most complicated jobs around,” she said.

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PHOTO: Anthony Lanzilote
Elizabeth Moje, the dean of the school of education at the University of Michigan joins a resident, an intern and a medical student as they meet with a patient at Beaumont Hospital – Dearborn. A school she’s developing will similarly create ways for teachers to learn from peers a year or two ahead of them.

 

Moje’s teaching school concept began in earnest around 2010 when Dr. Jonathan Zimmerman, who was the residency director for internal medicine at Beaumont Hospital-Dearborn, reached out to Moje and her colleague, Bob Bain, at Michigan’s education school for help developing a new evaluation tool for medical residents.

A partnership soon emerged that had Moje joining Zimmerman on medical rounds in the hospital and Zimmerman joining Moje to observe teachers training at Detroit’s Cody High School.

The two soon noticed key differences in the way their students are taught.

At Cody, for example, Zimmerman noted a classroom where a seasoned teacher was working with four student teachers.

The classroom teacher had divided her high school students into four groups and had assigned a student teacher to lead each group.

“I saw them doing the very best they could to get the students to pay attention to a project,” Zimmerman said of the student teachers, but while all of the student teachers were focused on the teens they were working with, none of them were watching each other.

The classroom teacher circulated to each of the small groups, but she could only see one group at a time so the other three student teachers were largely on their own.

“They were all engaged in independent practice, which is great,” Moje said. But all of the student teachers were in the first semester of their training. Most had not yet developed much skill, so three of them at any time could have been doing something wrong “and no one would know,” she said.

In contrast, medical students, interns, residents, and attendings visit patients together in daily hospital rounds. Everyone has a role to play that includes learning from the person ahead of them in their training, and teaching the person coming up behind them.

“A third-year medical student is almost always paired at the hip with an intern,” Zimmerman said. “It’s much easier to learn from a peer that’s one or two years ahead of you and it’s much easier to teach if you are teaching somebody one or two years behind you. You have a better sense of where they’re coming from and they’re not so scared. ”

When Moje and Zimmerman were on rounds one day last month at Beaumont-Dearborn, they were accompanied by a fourth-year medical student, a first-year resident (called an intern) and a second-year resident.

As the team visited a patient with a severe inflammation of the pancreas, Zimmerman asked David Dimcheff, the medical student, what he thought the patient needed next.

“We treat with antibiotics,” Dimcheff responded.

Ok, Zimmerman said but, “what are the other options?”

Dimcheff looked confused. He froze for a minute, thinking, then glanced across the patient’s bed to where the two residents, Pooja Modi and Ahmed Ali, were making a hand gesture that looked like pulling a thread from a piece of fabric.

Dimcheff hesitated until the gestures made sense.

“We could get a sample with a fine needle aspiration and determine what bacteria is causing the infection,” he said. “That would help us tailor our antibiotic treatments.”

Yes, Zimmerman said, “and it would also help us ascertain whether or not [the pancreas] is actually infected.”

Moje noted later that her student teachers at Cody didn’t have residents to turn to if they were struggling.

They were “working independently and not having the kind of support that [Zimmerman’s] team has,” Moje siad. “His fourth-year med student, David, always has somebody more senior to him and our students don’t.”

Moje believes her teaching school can change that.

She’s designing the school so that as resident teachers improve, they’ll help train teachers coming up behind them. They’ll attend classes and workshops that could be held in the school building. And they’ll participate in meetings similar to what hospitals call “grand rounds,” where doctors, residents and medical students gather to discuss the condition of patients and the best course of treatment.

“One day you might be in a classroom with a student teacher and an attending, and a [university] field instructor might also be present, and a faculty member would show up, especially if we’re teaching classes there,” Moje said. “The next day, you might be in the exact same classroom and the student teacher is in a different classroom, but the attending is there.”

The new model will simplify a lot of things for the university’s school of education, which last year had student teachers working in 356 classrooms scattered around southeastern Michigan, Moje said. The university also has interns doing observations in classrooms for several months before their student teaching begins. 

“We can’t be there every day,” she said. “The advantage of the teaching school is that they’ll be in one location so we’ll be able to concentrate a lot more of our time and attention on these interns. That’s also why we can continue to support the residents because they’ll all be in one place.”

By offering college classes in the teaching school building, students can work toward their bachelor’s degree — or pursue a master’s — without having to drive between a Detroit school and a college lecture hall 45 minutes away in Ann Arbor.

When interns first start out, they’ll rotate to different teachers’ classrooms and slowly take on more responsibility.

“A first semester intern might be in a classroom with a teaching resident for part of the day, and in a classroom with an attending teacher for part of the day,” Moje said. “While in medicine, doctors move from patient to patient, in our clases they’ll be attached to a third-grade classroom. But, for part of the day, the teaching resident is leading and the other part, the attending is leading.”

All future teachers “would see a high level of practice,” she said, and all of the extra hands in the building will enable educators of all stages to leave their classrooms to supervise junior teachers or to watch a senior teacher work.

After three years on staff in the teaching school, residents will leave as fourth-year teachers who have been trained to weather the intensive challenges of teaching in urban schools.

That’s how Moje believes her school can potentially impact the quality of instruction across a city like Detroit.

“The gamble we’re all making,” Moje said, is that residents will move on from this teaching school and take jobs in other urban schools. “We’ll start to build a sense of scale because we’re distributing the talent pool to all these other schools.”

***

PHOTO: Anthony Lanzilote
When the team of doctors at Beaumont Hospital -Dearborn use a scope to view a patient’s vocal chords, they stop to make sure medical student David Dimcheff gets a chance to look through the scope.

Moje’s vision is to eventually have at least two teaching schools — one in an urban area like Detroit and the other near the university’s main campus in more affluent Ann Arbor.

“We hope this will recruit large numbers of people who want to do something very different in terms of teacher education,” she said. ”As the school grows and gains more stature, we hope it will also draw people into teaching.”

The new teaching school could be a tough sell for some parents who might fear that the new model is too experimental, or that educating their children would take a back seat to the demands of training teachers. But Moje said children will get a lot more attention in this school than they would in a typical school.

She believes children will benefit from efficiencies like those created in the hospital when doctors and med students work together.

As Zimmerman and his team made their way around the hospital last month, Zimmerman had the group stop to watch an ear, nose, and throat specialist use a scope to examine a patient’s vocal chords, making sure that Dimcheff, the medical student, got a chance to look through the scope.

He stopped an infectious disease specialist to request an impromptu hallway lecture on bacterial growth. And when the team emerged from the room of a 91-year-old patient who’d developed a bleeding ulcer when drugs he was taking for a heart condition interacted with drugs he was prescribed for shoulder pain, Zimmerman held the group in the hallway for almost 20 minutes, questioning each member about learnings from that patient.

In some ways, stopping to teach is inefficient, he said, but the work interns and residents do in the hospital more than makes up for the time spent teaching them.

“They’re admitting all the patients,” he said. “Putting orders into the computer, following up on [test results], getting a consultant to come see the patient, gathering everybody’s opinion, talking to the family, talking to the patient over and over, checking with them over and over again.”

Moje said she envisions her teaching school working the same way.

“It’s very rare that attending teachers, or any teachers, have the time to do this kind of on-the-job teaching of teachers,” Moje said as she watched Zimmerman and his team.

“That’s one of the things we’re trying to think through,” she said. “What would it mean if we made what we’re now calling attending teachers able to move around the building more? And be able to pop in and work with a novice teacher? With a teaching resident? With a student teacher? An intern? What would we have to do structurally?”

Murray, the English teacher at Detroit’s Munger Elementary-Middle school was intrigued by the idea of teachers getting more support in their first years.

Ultimately, she said, she’s found ways to serve her students. In her second year, the main Detroit school district honored her as its rookie teacher of the year.

“I had a better understanding of how I can run my classroom,” she said. “A better understanding of the curriculum.”

But she fondly remembers the support she had from her college professors and liked the idea of formal support continuing into a teacher’s first years.

“Teaching is one of those careers that no one can ever really prepare you for,” she said.

But once you’re in a school, doing the work, “to be able to have all these connections, all these professors, and all the people I had the support from in college … That could be really powerful.”

Who's leaving?

63 teachers are leaving Detroit’s main district. Here’s a list of their names and former schools.

PHOTO: Getty Images

Is your child’s favorite teacher saying goodbye to the Detroit Public Schools Community District?

Last week, Detroit’s main district released the names of 63 teachers and 55 building staff members who retired or resigned by the end of June. We have a list of their names and the schools where they worked.

Rather than leave classrooms during the school year, teachers typically choose to retire or switch school districts while students are on break. This is only the first wave of departures expected this summer — one reason schools in Detroit are racing to hire certified teachers by the fall.

But for Detroit families, the teachers on this list are more than a number. Scroll down to see if an educator who made a difference in your child’s life — or your own — is leaving the district.

Teacher and staff separations in June 2018. Source: Detroit Public Schools Community District