Future of Schools

Hundreds gather at Broad Ripple High School to plead for the school to stay open

PHOTO: Hafsa Razi
Hundreds of people gathered in the Broad Ripple High School auditorium Tuesday night.

Hundreds of students, alumni and parents packed into the Broad Ripple High School auditorium Tuesday night to speak out about plans to close the campus.

Despite the contentious topic and large crowd, the meeting was about to end early after the Indianapolis Public Schools board heard from everyone who had signed up in advance.

But when a resident pled with the board members to allow more speakers, they opened the floor to other people in the crowd.

PHOTO: Hafsa Razi
MaryAnn Schlegel Ruegger

“I know that you so badly want parental and community engagement in IPS, and IPS needs it so badly,” said MaryAnn Schlegel Ruegger, a frequent critic of the administration. “You’ve got a room full of people here who want to engage with you.”

In the end, dozens of people spoke during a public comment period that lasted about an hour and a half.

The meeting was the first since the Indianapolis Public Schools administration presented a plan last month to close three high schools. The proposal calls for closing Broad Ripple and John Marshall Middle School and converting Arlington and Northwest high schools to middle schools.

The board will meet at 5:30 p.m. Thursday at John Marshall and in August at Arlington and Northwest.

Many speakers urged the board not to close the school, but others seemed resigned to its inevitability. And the meeting was not as acrimonious as some of the earlier discussions of high school closings, with many speakers focusing on their love of the school.

Here are some comments — edited for brevity and clarity — from students, parents and alumni at the meeting.

Brela Akers, student

“Why take a school that has a supportive neighborhood away from students that live in an economically depressed area? Why can’t you give us a chance to actually let our program grow? We have been to Bands of America, we have the Nutcracker, we have Sisters Act, all of that. You don’t hear about schools doing that. I hear that if you close this school down, you’re going to move us to another school, but it won’t be the Ripple spirit that we have right now in this building.”

Brooke Blakemore, alumna

“I recently graduated from Broad Ripple. I am in the first sixth grade graduating class, I have been here for a total of seven years. I have stood there and played my instrument for many years. I am going to Tuskegee University, and it is because of Broad Ripple High School. I graduated tenth in my class. I do not have a childhood like most people have when they’re going to a school such as Tuskegee, but it was Broad Ripple that made me want to go to Tuskegee.”

Katie Bacone, alumna

“I’m here as a Broad Ripple alumna, as a resident of the Broad Ripple Village Association and a lifelong resident of Broad Ripple. As an alum, I am just saddened by the shocking news. And as a resident, I am full of anxiety at the possibility of the massive change that could occur if this should happen in my neighborhood.

“Six to eight million is a lot of money, but when compared with the ramifications, I don’t see how it’s worth it. I don’t think that people fully register to them how big an upset it would be for Broad Ripple and for IPS to not only close but sell this historic building. I am echoing what a lot of people have said, I just want to voice that I’m another person who wants to keep this place open.”

Scott Jenkins, resident

“I am a resident here in Broad Ripple. I serve on the Midtown Indy board. No one runs for the school board or becomes superintendent of schools in an urban school district to close schools. I know how hard this decision is. No one wants to realign school district boundaries, this very hard decision that you all are inheriting.

“What I would say to you is that the education facility that is here has a strong set of bones and genes. Unfortunately, it is an education program less a community program. Whatever you decide and wherever you move forward, you can flip that model. You can bring this community back into the school.”

PHOTO: Hafsa Razi
Mark Webster

Mark Webster, alumnus

“I’m a Class of ’83 graduate of Broad Ripple High school. I’m here today because I’m optimistic that you guys may not vote it to close, but I’m also a realist here, when I look at the economics of it, it’s gonna be hard not to close it when you got $6 to $8 million looking in your face to help your budget. My concern is though, in all the meetings we’ve gone to and we’ve been at, we’ve never heard a plan to restore and keep the history and the legacy of this school. This school joined IPS in 1923 So you’re talking about 94 years of educational opportunities right in this community, 94 years of history. Please don’t just close this school and not have a plan for history, building, I could see like a museum or something like that.

“In ’78, the same people in your same position voted to close Wood High School. Wood High School has no history. You can’t find anything about Wood. We cannot allow that to go for Broad Ripple. I will not stand for it.”

Eyes on

Happening at a campus near you: Here’s what the security review of every public school in Tennessee looks like

PHOTO: Marta W. Aldrich
Sumner County Schools safety coordinator Katie Brown and Gallatin police Lt. Billy Vahldiek examine the window pane in a school hallway to make sure the glass is shatter-resistant. The review team is one of more than a hundred across the state who are conducting security assessments this summer of every Tennessee public school.

Balancing a clipboard in one hand and a coffee tumbler in the other, Katie Brown bends down to inspect a window pane in the hallway of a 10-year-old Tennessee school building.

The glass is shatter-resistant. Check.

Down the hall, Lt. Billy Vahldiek opens an outside exit door and then watches as it latches and locks properly. Check.

Earlier that morning, both Brown and Vahldiek circled the elementary school’s outside perimeter to make sure lighting is adequate, signage is clear, and landscaping doesn’t create blind spots where an intruder could hide.

The pair — one a school safety coordinator, the other a police officer — are teaming up on this day in Sumner County, north of Nashville, to walk through several schools and review security protocols with their principals as part of a statewide review.

“A lot of these schools were built post-Columbine, and some of them are post-Sandy Hook, but none of them are post-Parkland,” said Vahldiek, a Gallatin police officer, chronologically listing three of the nation’s most horrific school shootings.

Aging school facilities and heightened safety concerns are the prime drivers behind Tennessee’s sweeping summertime inspection of all 1,800 of its public school campuses. Gov. Bill Haslam ordered the unprecedented assessment in March following an intruder’s fatal shooting rampage at Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School in Parkland, Florida.

The state’s goal is to identify vulnerabilities that could put Tennessee students and staff at similar risk — and to inform districts how they should use $35 million in safety grants in the months ahead.

Tennessee is among states that responded to Parkland by stepping up their upcoming budgets for thwarting potential attackers. This spring, Haslam and the Legislature doubled to $10 million the amount of recurring annual safety grants — and also provided a one-time investment of $25 million. A share of the money will become available to all 147 districts beginning in July based on Tennessee’s school funding formula — but only after the school systems provide the state with safety inventories of all of their schools.

"It’s a massive undertaking. It’s the first time we’ve ever looked at every school in Tennessee like this."Mike Hermann, Tennessee Department of Education

“It’s a massive undertaking. It’s the first time we’ve ever looked at every school in Tennessee like this,” said Mike Hermann, who is helping to coordinate the review in behalf of the state Education Department.

“Our work is definitely cut out for us this summer,” added Commissioner David Purkey, whose Safety and Homeland Security department is spearheading the initiative. “But there’s a sense of urgency. We want to get it all done by the start of the school year, at least that’s our goal.”

As of this week, about a third of the inspection reports had been submitted — on pace with the state’s timetable. In mid-July, Tennessee will begin accepting applications for the extra spending money.

Most of the one-time grants are expected to further harden school campuses with improvements like upgraded security cameras, fixing or replacing broken locks or outdated doors, and beefing up front entrances. The smaller annual funding could be tapped to hire law enforcement officers to police some campuses, though the money is a drop in the bucket toward providing coverage for every school. There’s also opportunity to invest in mental health services if that’s identified as a local priority.

Five things to know about school resource officers in Tennessee

Bill to arm some Tennessee teachers with handguns dies

The money will only go so far. Still, officials believe the safety review lays the groundwork for next steps.

“It’s an excellent opportunity for schools to make an honest appraisal of where they are with security,” Hermann said. “And we’re going to have a much clearer picture of where we are statewide so that future action by the next governor and General Assembly can be based on a higher level of information.”

The reviews are conducted by local teams who participated in regional trainings provided by the state Safety and Homeland Security Department. Comprised of school personnel and local law enforcement, each two-person team follows an 89-point checklist of risks and precautions based on national standards developed by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security.

PHOTO: Marta W. Aldrich
On-site security reviews are being conducted in schools statewide this summer under an order from Gov. Bill Haslam.

Depending on the building’s age and size, each review usually take two to three hours as inspection teams meet with the principal and inspect the physical facility. Can a school control access to the building? Do all staff wear photo identification badges on campus? Do teachers keep their classroom doors locked?

“The days of propping open doors on a pretty day are gone,” said Brown as she and Vahldiek went through the checklist during one inspection.

The teams also document the availability of personnel for security and for student support services such as school psychologists, as well as relationships with local law enforcement and healthcare providers. Finally, they submit their reports to the state and include copies of each school’s emergency plans and its drill logs from the previous year.

Unfortunately, summertime does not lend itself to seeing a school on a typical school day. For now, the buildings are mostly empty of students and staff as classrooms are painted, floors are waxed, and maintenance performed. But Brown views school break as a good time to look at the nitty-gritty details and to have thoughtful, unrushed conversations with school leaders that should trickle down to faculty and staff.

“We absolutely are taking this seriously,” said Brown, who is coordinating 46 reviews for Sumner County Schools.

“Most things on the checklist are not requirements or codes; they’re recommendations and best practices,” she said. “But this raises our awareness. It reinforces the good things we’re already doing. And it will inform how we use the safety grants.”

Editor’s note: This story does not name the school being inspected as a condition of Chalkbeat’s reporter shadowing the review team.

First Person

I’ve spent years studying the link between SHSAT scores and student success. The test doesn’t tell you as much as you might think.

PHOTO: Photo by Robert Nickelsberg/Getty Images

Proponents of New York City’s specialized high school exam, the test the mayor wants to scrap in favor of a new admissions system, defend it as meritocratic. Opponents contend that when used without consideration of school grades or other factors, it’s an inappropriate metric.

One thing that’s been clear for decades about the exam, now used to admit students to eight top high schools, is that it matters a great deal.

Students admitted may not only receive a superior education, but also access to elite colleges and eventually to better employment. That system has also led to an under-representation of Hispanic students, black students, and girls.

As a doctoral student at The Graduate Center of the City University of New York in 2015, and in the years after I received my Ph.D., I have tried to understand how meritocratic the process really is.

First, that requires defining merit. Only New York City defines it as the score on a single test — other cities’ selective high schools use multiple measures, as do top colleges. There are certainly other potential criteria, such as artistic achievement or citizenship.

However, when merit is defined as achievement in school, the question of whether the test is meritocratic is an empirical question that can be answered with data.

To do that, I used SHSAT scores for nearly 28,000 students and school grades for all public school students in the city. (To be clear, the city changed the SHSAT itself somewhat last year; my analysis used scores on the earlier version.)

My analysis makes clear that the SHSAT does measure an ability that contributes to some extent to success in high school. Specifically, a SHSAT score predicts 20 percent of the variability in freshman grade-point average among all public school students who took the exam. Students with extremely high SHSAT scores (greater than 650) generally also had high grades when they reached a specialized school.

However, for the vast majority of students who were admitted with lower SHSAT scores, from 486 to 600, freshman grade point averages ranged widely — from around 50 to 100. That indicates that the SHSAT was a very imprecise predictor of future success for students who scored near the cutoffs.

Course grades earned in the seventh grade, in contrast, predicted 44 percent of the variability in freshman year grades, making it a far better admissions criterion than SHSAT score, at least for students near the score cutoffs.

It’s not surprising that a standardized test does not predict as well as past school performance. The SHSAT represents a two and a half hour sample of a limited range of skills and knowledge. In contrast, middle-school grades reflect a full year of student performance across the full range of academic subjects.

Furthermore, an exam which relies almost exclusively on one method of assessment, multiple choice questions, may fail to measure abilities that are revealed by the variety of assessment methods that go into course grades. Additionally, middle school grades may capture something important that the SHSAT fails to capture: long-term motivation.

Based on his current plan, Mayor de Blasio seems to be pointed in the right direction. His focus on middle school grades and the Discovery Program, which admits students with scores below the cutoff, is well supported by the data.

In the cohort I looked at, five of the eight schools admitted some students with scores below the cutoff. The sample sizes were too small at four of them to make meaningful comparisons with regularly admitted students. But at Brooklyn Technical High School, the performance of the 35 Discovery Program students was equal to that of other students. Freshman year grade point averages for the two groups were essentially identical: 86.6 versus 86.7.

My research leads me to believe that it might be reasonable to admit a certain percentage of the students with extremely high SHSAT scores — over 600, where the exam is a good predictor —and admit the remainder using a combined index of seventh grade GPA and SHSAT scores.

When I used that formula to simulate admissions, diversity increased, somewhat. An additional 40 black students, 209 Hispanic students, and 205 white students would have been admitted, as well as an additional 716 girls. It’s worth pointing out that in my simulation, Asian students would still constitute the largest segment of students (49 percent) and would be admitted in numbers far exceeding their proportion of applicants.

Because middle school grades are better than test scores at predicting high school achievement, their use in the admissions process should not in any way dilute the quality of the admitted class, and could not be seen as discriminating against Asian students.

The success of the Discovery students should allay some of the concerns about the ability of students with SHSAT scores below the cutoffs. There is no guarantee that similar results would be achieved in an expanded Discovery Program. But this finding certainly warrants larger-scale trials.

With consideration of additional criteria, it may be possible to select a group of students who will be more representative of the community the school system serves — and the pool of students who apply — without sacrificing the quality for which New York City’s specialized high schools are so justifiably famous.

Jon Taylor is a research analyst at Hunter College analyzing student success and retention.