Future of Work

As Indiana schools try to make every graduate count, educators fear struggling students will lose out

PHOTO: Christina Veiga

Every year, Kristie Keating sits down with each of her senior special education students, together with their parents, teachers, and other specialists, to discuss the student’s plans for graduation.

But this year, Keating, the director of special education at Pike High School, will have to consider the fact that her school could be penalized if the student graduates with the less rigorous general diploma instead of the Core 40.

“I have a student this year who’s going to be a senior, his parents were told when he was in elementary school that he would never graduate from high school,” Keating said. Now, he’s almost ready to graduate with the general diploma. Keating rankles at the thought of asking his mother if he should be on a more difficult graduation plan.

Keating and other educators are in this dilemma because new federal rules have removed the general diploma from counting toward the graduation rate. Under the Every Student Succeeds Act, states must calculate their graduation rate based on the diploma received by most students – the Core 40 diploma in Indiana.

The new policy forces the state to confront a long-standing conflict in Indiana education: wanting high schools to prepare students for the increasing demands of college and careers, and wanting to make sure struggling students have opportunities after graduation.

Students who aren’t able to complete the Core 40 diploma can still find their way to a job or community college through the general diploma. The general diploma is the state’s least rigorous graduation plan, earned by 12 percent of the state’s graduates.

The Core 40 diploma, which is the default for Indiana students, requires an extra year each of science, social studies, and math; with even more coursework, students can earn a Core 40 Honors diploma as well. Students and parents have to opt out of the Core 40 diploma in order to receive the general diploma.

The extra requirements in the Core 40 program make the general diploma the only accessible graduation pathway for some students with intellectual disabilities, Keating said.

Of course, the change in how graduation rates are calculated doesn’t mean that general diplomas will disappear – but schools will certainly try to steer more students to the Core 40. If they don’t, their graduation rates will plummet, and because the graduation rate is part of the state’s A-F grade calculation, those school ratings would fall as well.

Pike High School principal Troy Inman said Pike might have to reduce course offerings and teachers in its Career and Technical Education program – classes where students could learn skills in cooking or air conditioning maintenance, or earn a barber shop license – in order to increase academic offerings. Students who switch from the general diploma to the Core 40 track would spend less of their class time in electives, and more in extra science, math, and social studies classes.

Most students could do both, Inman said, but students who struggle academically might have to retake a harder math class or get extra support in order to pass the Core 40 requirements, leaving even less time for career-focused electives which may be more useful to them.

The Core 40 classes are “going to have to be their only focus, and I don’t know if that’s the best thing for these students,” Inman said.

Keating said she and her staff may advise some students to stay in high school for an additional year to complete the Core 40 diploma. Schools get partial credit in their A-F grades for students who take five years to get a diploma.

It is still unclear whether the new graduation rate will be calculated for the graduating class of 2018, or for the incoming freshman class, said Adam Baker, spokesperson for the Indiana Department of Education. Educators say that it may be too late to prepare students who are graduating next spring for the Core 40’s requirements.

As schools grapple with reducing the number of general diplomas they give out and making the Core 40 more attainable, some state officials say they should have already been moving in this direction.

Rep. Bob Behning, an Indianapolis Republican, introduced a bill earlier this year that would have removed the general diploma from the graduation rate, as the ESSA plan does now. He is concerned about high schools that give out general diplomas to large portions of their students, like Brown County, where 40 percent of last year’s graduates received the general diploma.

 

Top 10 Marion County high schools, by percent of graduates receiving the general diploma in 2016

SCHOOL DISTRICT GENERAL DIPLOMA
Decatur Township School for Excellence Decatur Township 59%
John Marshall Community High School Indianapolis Public Schools 30%
Pike High School Pike Township 24%
North Central High School Washington Township 21%
Southport High School Perry Township 20%
Arlington Community High School Indianapolis Public Schools 18%
Warren Central High School Warren Township 18%
Lawrence Central High School Lawrence Township 18%
Speedway Senior High School Speedway Schools 18%
Decatur Central High School Decatur Township 17%

 

Behning fears that students have been counseled into the general diploma track, even if they could do more. “You want kids to pursue the most rigorous high school track they possibly can,” Behning said. “You want them to have the most opportunities to be successful.”

Colleges and universities are asking more of students than the general diploma, or even the Core 40, can provide, Behning said. Of the high school graduates who go on to attend a public university in Indiana, 20 percent of Core 40 diploma earners and half of general diploma earners ended up needing remediation in math or English, according to the Commission for Higher Education.

Schools can’t afford to keep graduating unprepared students, warned commission member Jason Bearce, as more careers demand a college education and even non-college careers require more skills.

“What employers are asking of their employees is very similar to what colleges are asking of students,” Bearce said. “The standard of what students are being asked to do are being raised.”

However, Keating said that doesn’t line up with what she sees in her school community. Some students are better off learning skills or getting a technical license than struggling through an extra year of math. Some of them even end up earning more money than her students who go to college.

Behning acknowledged that there are some students who wouldn’t be able to graduate without the general diploma. But only a third of students who received general diplomas in 2016 were special education students.

On top of that, only a small portion of special education students have a disability that prevents them from earning a Core 40 diploma, said Kim Dodson of Arc of Indiana, a nonprofit advocating for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities.

However, she said, those who can’t earn a Core 40 still deserve to graduate and be counted.

“Every student should count, every student should matter,” Dodson said. “Every student should have the opportunity to receive a diploma and have those opportunities after high school.”

Apart from cognitive disability, there are a host of difficult circumstances that could prevent a student from being able to get the Core 40 diploma, said Warren Central High School director of counseling Bre Brown – suffering from chronic illness, becoming a parent, or dealing with traumatic home lives, for example.

Brown said schools and students shouldn’t be punished when they’re faced with difficult circumstances such as these.

“It’s a little disheartening to think that a child who is able to leave high school with a skill or with the amount of knowledge to be able to get a full-time, good-paying job or an associate’s degree,  is somehow going to be held against the school system just because there were struggles in certain areas,” Brown said.

Dodson and Brown worry about how schools themselves will react. Brown said she fears that this change might signal to two-year institutions such as Ivy Tech that students with a general diploma aren’t good enough to admit. Dodson is also concerned that high schools will use this as an excuse not to admit special education students into their schools.

“We already know that a lot of schools say they don’t have the resources to teach special ed students, and we don’t want to give them any more reason,” Dodson said.

Dodson also said that removing general diplomas from the graduation rate may cause high schools to give less priority to general diploma students, when it comes to resources and quality teachers.

“Usually what counts is what’s measured,” Dodson said. “… We get it. We get that (schools) want their graduation rates to be as high as possible. We would rather work with them to make sure the achievements of special education students still matter and count.”

Pike principal Troy Inman said it was inevitable that schools would shift their focus away from the general diploma.

“If it doesn’t count toward your graduation rate, it’s going to hurt your accountability, and that’s your grade and how your school is perceived,” he said.

Indiana’s A-F accountability ratings don’t just affect a school’s reputation with parents and students. They affect teacher bonuses, and schools that have F ratings for more than four years can be taken over by the state. ESSA also requires states to intervene in schools whose graduation rates drop below 67 percent.

The discussion about the new graduation rate isn’t quite over yet – the Indiana Department of Education is still talking with the federal government about finding a way to keep the general diploma in the graduation rate. McCormick wrote to the state’s U.S. congressional representatives on July 24, asking for their help.

One solution would be to utilize a provision of ESSA that allows students with severe disabilities to earn an alternative diploma. But Dodson and Behning both were concerned that schools would end up pushing all their special education students into that diploma track, even those that could earn the Core 40.

Another solution would be to change the state diploma structure by establishing a single diploma, with additional certifications for students who complete the Core 40 or Honors requirements. This could be done by the state legislature, but would fly in the face of the state’s attempts to shift toward a more rigorous default diploma.

“As a state you want to keep that rigor up. You want to keep up that academic capacity,” state superintendent Jennifer McCormick said in July. “It does us no good though in the meantime to have high schools that are all identified as Fs. It doesn’t benefit students, it doesn’t benefit communities.”

Whatever the outcome of these proposals, in the meantime, educators like Brown will have to strike a balance, between what the state demands and what students can achieve.

“We will certainly do our due diligence to do what’s right for our students and for our school system,” Brown said. “But it’s definitely going to make it more challenging for us.”

look up

Memphis high school’s prized planetarium still needs upgrades, but students are already fascinated by what it can do

PHOTO: Laura Faith Kebede/Chalkbeat
Principal Tisha Durrah, left, inspects a part of the planetarium that projects constellations and planets onto the large white dome screen at Craigmont High School.

Keshawn Glover remembers hearing his dad talk about field trips to Craigmont High School’s planetarium decades ago, but last week the high school senior got to experience the school’s crown jewel for himself.

Sitting back in chairs built in the 1970s, Glover leaned back with his class to watch a video that took them deep into the inner workings of a plant cell on a large immersive dome-shaped screen that spreads out above and around them.

“It feels like you’re in a roller coaster,” said Glover, a senior. “I was just amazed because it was my first time seeing it work full speed.”

The planetarium, nestled behind a door near the school’s gymnasium, shut down in 2010 after a longtime instructor retired. The equipment languished, but last week, $100,000 in restorations were completed. The work still isn’t done — a stronger audio system and better lighting are still needed. In addition, some of the features are still analog and not digital, and the huge screen desperately needs cleaning. But the school’s prized possession is up and running.

PHOTO: Laura Faith Kebede/Chalkbeat
Craigmont High School senior Keshawn Glover, left, with science teacher Wayne Oellig at the planetarium’s control center.

The planetarium is more than just a nice feature, educators say. It helps garner student interest in careers they might not have known about before, such as astronomy and aerospace engineering.

“I don’t feel like our kids are exposed to all the opportunities out there for them,” said Wayne Oellig, a science teacher at Craigmont High School who has been the school’s point person on finding ways to connect curriculum to the planetarium.

“The space industry is really growing now,” he continued. “I tell my students, ‘You might be able to have a job in space when you’re older.’”

Paying for the project has been a collaborative effort. Shelby County Schools covered the startup operational costs from money allocated to school board members to fund projects of their choice. Teresa Jones, whose district includes Craigmont High, also galvanized other board members to use some of their school project money. Finally, alumni of the Raleigh-area high school continue to raise money to cover the nearly $25,000 needed to bring the theater up to 21st-century standards.

PHOTO: Laura Faith Kebede/Chalkbeat
Planet rotation around the sun are projected through here to the large white dome screen.

Oellig compared the planetarium experience to the 1990s cartoon TV show “Magic School Bus,” where a class of students learned from experience — from venturing inside a human body to understand a cold, to traveling to the Amazon River to study frogs. “It’s kinda like Ms. Frizzle, but all around you.”


From our archives: With solar eclipse looming, shuttered school planetarium represents ‘missed opportunity’ for Memphis students


Oellig said the planetarium’s benefits extend far beyond science. History teachers can show videos designed for the giant screen that take students onto a historic battlefield as if they were there. A Spanish teacher wants to show what the night sky would have looked like to ancient Mayans and how those constellations informed culture.

And that matters to students like Glover.

Usually, “we’re either looking at a textbook or a presentation on a projector,” he said. “But to get out of the classroom but still be in a learning environment would really capture our attention, whatever subject it is.

“It will make students even more interested in it. And the more interested we are in it, the better our grades are and we’ll do better on tests,” he said.

Are Children Learning

Chicago is sending more high schoolers to college — but how to get them to graduate?

PHOTO: Adeshina Emmanuel / Chalkbeat
Mayor Rahm Emanuel, CPS CEO Janice Jackson, and other city officials convened at Michele Clark Magnet High School in the Austin neighborhood to announce the latest college enrollment statistics.

Senior Tanariya Thompson, 17, said she and her friends at Michele Clark Magnet High School are constantly asking each other about where they want to go to college. But they’re not just talking, they’re doing their research, too.

“In a lot of our seminar classes I see more kids on the computers applying for colleges instead of just sitting there looking or saying, ‘I ain’t going to college,’” she said. “We’re serious: We want to go to a college so we can become somebody. Next week, I will have my top three.”

Chicago Public Schools released data today showing that more students than ever before are enrolling in college. The mayor and district officials announced the encouraging figures on the West Side, at Michele Clark High School, where students said they’ve seen more energy, excitement and urgency among their peers around the idea of enrolling at college.

The data shows that 1,000 more Chicago Public School graduates from the Class of 2017 enrolled in college compared with 2016, a 4.8 percent increase and the biggest one-year jump in nearly a decade.

Chicago still has a problem with public school graduates staying in and completing college. In 2016, just 18 percent of ninth graders were projected to attain a bachelor’s degree within six years of high school graduation, and four-year college graduation rates have remained pretty stagnant since 2009, according to a fall 2017 report by the UChicago Consortium on School Research. (The report didn’t calculate two-year degree attainment).

But Mayor Rahm Emanuel called the latest enrollment data “an incredible statement about where Chicago Public School students are,” adding that nearly 90 percent of high school freshmen were on track for graduation.

“Every time they walk around and say, ‘not those kids, not from that school, not that background, not that ZIP code, not that family’ — you come here to Michele Clark and you tell these kids that,” Emanuel said, knocking on the wooden podium before him for emphasis.  “You guys have proved them wrong every step of the way.”

From 2010 to 2017, the college enrollment rate increased from 53.7 percent to 64.6 percent, according to the school district.  Officials credited everything from partnerships with OneGoal and other organizations focused on getting kids to and through college, to a summer text messaging campaign to nudge graduates toward completing action items along the enrollment path, and scholarships to city colleges for students who attain a B average or higher.

They also noted a shift in perspective.

“I think it’s because people have become more serious,” said Michele Clark Principal Charles Anderson. “I’ve seen it in action with people doing more college trips, people getting out to scholarship fairs, students having a different mindset.”

From 2016 to 2017, college enrollment rates for African-American and Latino students improved by 2.3 percentage points and 7.2 percentage points, respectively, according to the school district. The African-American college enrollment rate increased from 55.4 percent in 2016 to 57.7 in 2017, and the Hispanic college enrollment rate leaped from 59 percent in 2016 to 66.2 percent in 2017, according to district data.

Flanked by Chicago schools chief Janice Jackson and City Colleges Chancellor Juan Salgado, Emanuel said, “it used to be as a system, we were done just getting you to high school graduation, and our responsibility was over,” but now it’s different. The mayor added, “the biggest transformation is the mindset not just of our kids, but of the system.”

“It’s why we’re also making sure we set a goal that by 2019, every child has a plan for what comes next,” Emanuel said, alluding to a new CPS graduation requirement that demands every student “has a meaningful planning conversation with an adult, and graduates with a plan to map out their future.”

The data indicate more students are enrolling at City College of Chicago.

The district said 5.8 percent more students enrolled at city colleges in 2017 compared with the previous year. Of district graduates who attended two-year colleges in 2017, 84.5 percent enrolled at city colleges compared with 78.7 the previous year, according to the district. City Colleges Chancellor Juan Salgado praised the mayor and schools chief’s leadership, saying CPS’ gains were strong steps toward officials’ goals of “a more inclusive economy,” in Chicago.

“We also want to make sure that each of you has in a role in this economy, whether it’s downtown, or in our health-care centers, or at a logistics company, or engineering or manufacturing company or a tech company,” Salgado told the students. “This city will have a place for you.”

Officials said the climbing college enrollment rate mirrored the increasing number of district students earning high school diplomas, and also reflected district students’ overall strong academic progress. Yet the percent of students who enrolled in college in 2015 and were still enrolled the following year, 72.3 percent of graduates, is actually down slightly compared with 2010, when it was 72.8 percent.

That — and the low rates of Chicago Public School students who eventually graduate with a two- or four-year degree — are worrisome figures.

Furthermore, African-American and Latino students and students with disabilities still graduate from high school, enroll in and graduate from college at lower rates than the general population. It’s a sobering reminder of inequities in the school system.

Officials acknowledged that work remains to get more students to and through college.

That point that wasn’t lost on Michele Clark senior Naquanis Hughes, 17, who wants to study business in college but is still undecided on where. Hughes said staff, students, and even alumni offer this encouragement about getting through the hard knocks that some students encounter in higher education:

“If you come to a hard place, don’t just fall down, don’t just give up, keep pushing yourself.”