Data dive

How well are English Language Learners doing in NYC schools? That depends on the stats you consider

PHOTO: Madeleine Cummings

When New York state released its latest round of high school graduation rates, the news was mostly good — but one troubling statistic stood out.

While graduation rates for all students continued a historic climb, English Language Learners experienced a dramatic drop in both New York City and the state.

The city was quick to defend itself, saying its graduation rate was flat if you consider the number of students who were classified as English learners the year they graduated along with those who learned the language well enough to test out.

Now, a timely new study lends support to the city’s stance.

Published by the Institute of Education Sciences, the report suggests that tracking the graduation outcomes of former English learners, as well as those who take slightly longer to earn diplomas, offers a clearer picture of how this vulnerable population is faring in school.

“We’ve had data on English learners, but it hasn’t always been interpreted carefully and it hasn’t always been used in a way that’s useful to schools,” said Michael Kieffer, an associate professor at New York University and lead author of the report. “We’re starting to have a conversation … about how are we going to use data better to serve English learners better?”

The report was based on New York City student data, and was released this week by an independent research arm of the U.S. Department of Education. The researchers looked at graduation outcomes among New York City fifth- and sixth-grade students who entered school as English learners in the 2003-04 academic year.

It found 64 percent of students who were ever considered English learners earned diplomas, “higher than might be assumed,” according to the study.

Counting both groups of students only makes sense, said Caroline E. Parker, co-author of the report and principal research scientist at the nonprofit Education Development Center.

“You get a better sense of how English learners are doing across a whole system in K-12,” she said, adding that students who test out “have been served by the English learner programs and are successful.”

It’s also important to consider how many students graduate within five and six years, the study states. Learning a new language is hard enough, but learning high-level academic content in another language is even tougher. The researchers found that 15 percent of English learners didn’t graduate on time, but did earn a diploma within six years — bringing the graduation rate to about 79 percent. That is virtually on par with the six-year rate for native speakers.

The findings are particularly relevant now, as the latest round of state and city graduation data were released earlier this month. According to the state, 72.6 percent of all New York City students graduated. But for students who are still learning English, the graduation rate was 27 percent — a 9.6 point drop from the previous year.

That figure only includes students who were classified as English Language Learners during their last year of school, but still managed to graduate in four years — an important metric to help judge whether schools are serving recent immigrants well, Kieffer said.

However, if the graduation rate is adjusted to include both current English learners and those who learned the language well enough to test out of the program, it rises to about 51 percent.

Given the findings, schools might want to think about creating different pathways to graduation, according to the study, and city and state governments may want to consider using longer-term graduation rates within accountability systems under a new federal education law called the Every Student Succeeds Act.

“The group of English learners is very complex,” Parker said. “One thing this research tries to do is unpack what does that group look like … and is it possible to create policies that account for that diversity of students and allow them to be successful?”

The city, which has been under state scrutiny for lagging in providing services for English learners, is working on ways to improve instruction. This week, officials announced the opening of 68 more bilingual programs. More than 12 percent of the city’s 1.1 million students are considered English learners.

“We are committed to ensuring all ELLs have the supports they need to succeed,” Yuridia Peña, a department spokeswoman, wrote in an email. “We’re encouraged by the improvements they’ve made.”

Starting young

New York City child care centers are serving more infants, but for poor families seats are scarce

PHOTO: Logan Zabel

Yvette Cora, who works at an East New York day care center, turns down a steady stream of parents asking to enroll their babies.

The center where she works, St. Malachy Child Development Center in East New York, has a contract from New York City to care for babies and toddlers from low-income families. But most won’t get offered a spot until their child is at least 18 months old — it takes six months to a year to get off the baby room waitlist.

“I refer them to home providers, and sometimes after they go visit those homes they come back here and say they prefer it here,” said Cora.

It’s an increasingly common experience for day care providers who work with the city. As interest in early childhood education has grown in the city, more families are seeking spots in day care programs for their babies — but the programs for poor children are actually losing capacity, even as programs that serve more affluent families grow.

With the upcoming transition of the city’s subsidized child care system to the Department of Education (DOE), it remains to be seen how the DOE will prioritize infant care, and whether the agency will find a way to increase the capacity for this age group in centers.

In the past two years, the number of slots for children under 2 years old increased by 10 percent in licensed early education centers citywide — from 9,853 spots in 2015 to 10,806 in 2017, even as total capacity in centers has grown by only 2 percent. That’s according to the Center for New York City Affairs’s analysis of data provided by the city’s Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, which issues licenses to the centers.

At the same time, the child care centers that contract with the city to serve low-income families have been losing their capacity to take in infants and toddlers. The number of openings for children under 2 years old in those centers fell by 8 percent during the same time period, amounting to about 100 lost slots for young children.

The shift means that while Bright Horizons, one for-profit day care provider that charges up to $40,000 per year for full-time care, is growing, there are fewer spots for families whose total annual income is less than that.

“The capacity has grown, but not for poor people,” said Kathleen Hopkins, vice president of the Family Health Centers at NYU Langone Department of Community Programs that oversees two centers that provide infant care. “There are still not a lot of options for poor families.”

The scarcity of choice for poor families with infants is largely driven by cost. Infants and toddlers are the most expensive age group to serve in child care centers. Most babies in the subsidized child care system are placed in the far less-expensive but also less-regulated subsidized family child care programs, where women get paid meager wages to look after neighborhood kids in their homes, often their living rooms.

But studies nationwide have found family child care programs to be, on average, of lower quality than center-based care, and there’s been a growing interest in increasing the number of slots for infants and toddlers in subsidized New York City child care centers.

Some say that Mayor Bill de Blasio’s universal pre-K expansion and public awareness campaigns such as “Talk to Your Baby” added urgency to this discussion by raising awareness of the importance of receiving high-quality care during the first few years of life.

Staff at the city’s child care resource and referral agencies say they now see a growing number of parents from all backgrounds who believe that early education centers are better equipped than informal arrangements with friends and family to provide quality care and prepare young kids for school. “It’s a trend of the last five years,” says Nancy Kolben, executive director of the child care resource and referral agency Center for Children’s Initiatives.

Early childhood centers that enroll only families who can pay without public subsidies have responded by charging parents more money to offset the high costs inherent in baby care, including expensive sprinkler systems, ground floor classrooms, and that babies be cared for in small groups.

But at subsidized child care centers, rising rents combined with flat city funding have made infant care elusive, despite efforts from ACS to encourage growth.

“Everything we have seen says it’s a money-losing proposition to do [infant care] as a center-based facility because of the infrastructure you need,” said James Matison, executive director of Brooklyn Kindergarten Society, which oversees five early education centers that serve low-income families.

“We lose a lot [of space] if we try to incorporate cribs and changing tables, and enrollment numbers go down,” says Maria Contreras-Collier, executive director of Cypress Hills Child Care Corporation.
Some directors say that serving infants is easier at large child care centers that can dedicate a few rooms to babies without cutting back on overall enrollment.

Hanover Place Child Care, a center in Downtown Brooklyn, is a case in point. A large school with a total capacity for over 300 children, it accepts more vouchers to care for infants than any other center in the city. In recent years, as surrounding neighborhoods gentrified, it has begun attracting families who pay privately.

But after a special-education preschool it shared its building and some staff with closed, Hanover Place lost a security guard, art teacher and a nurse. Meanwhile, rents in the neighborhood skyrocketed as new construction crept closer and closer.

Some local parents fear it is only a matter of time before the Brooklyn real estate boom will lead the center to close its doors entirely, or at least close doors to families unable to pay the tuition necessary to keep them open.

This story is adapted from a policy brief from the New School’s Center for New York City Affairs.

Charter growth

Smaller cohort of charter schools to open in Memphis in 2018

PHOTO: Laura Faith Kebede
Daphnè Robinson, director of charter schools for Shelby County Schools, offers recommendations to the school board.

With charter schools comprising a fourth of Shelby County Schools, district leaders say they’re setting a higher bar for opening new ones in Memphis.

The school board approved only three out of 14 applications on Tuesday night, just months after the district overhauled its charter school office to strengthen oversight of the growing sector.

Opening in 2018 will be Believe Memphis Academy, Freedom Preparatory Academy, and Perea Elementary. The approvals mean the district will oversee 55 charter schools, easily the largest number of any district in Tennessee.

But it’s significantly less than last year, when the board green-lighted seven applicants. Since then, Shelby County Schools has doubled the size of its charter oversight office and stepped up scrutiny of applications.

“We want to strengthen the process every school year because, when it comes down to it, the lives of our kids are at stake and millions of dollars in taxpayer money,” said Brad Leon, chief of strategy and performance management.

This year, the district hired a new leader and new staff for its charter office. It also used five application reviewers from the National Association of Charter School Authorizers, the group that last year recommended a slew of changes for opening, managing and closing charter schools.

But even with all the changes, the school board didn’t follow all of the staff’s recommendations. Perea’s application had been recommended for denial but, after much discussion, the board voted 7-2 to let the group open an elementary school inside the recently closed Klondike Elementary building. Board members pointed to Perea’s long record of success in operating a preschool at Klondike.

The other two approvals were in line with staff recommendations. Believe Memphis Academy will be a literacy-focused college preparatory school serving students in grades 4-8 in the city’s medical district. Memphis-based Freedom Prep will open its fifth school, which eventually will serve grades 6-12 in the Whitehaven and Nonconnah communities.

Board member Teresa Jones expressed concern about deviating from staff recommendations on Perea.

“We have a process. And by all accounts, it’s not a perfect process, but it’s been applied to everyone,” she said.

But Billy Orgel, another board member, said the charter office should have taken into account the long-standing preschool’s performance, even though it’s never operated an elementary school.

“There is a track record with the funders. There is a track record with the school,” he said, adding that “no process is perfect.”

Groups vying for approval this year wanted to open schools that range from an all-girls program to a sports academy to several focused on science, technology, engineering and math.