money matters

When diversity backfires: How schools can lose funding as they try to integrate

PHOTO: Christina Veiga

For years, M.S. 442 Carroll Gardens School for Innovation served mostly low-income students. But with more well-off families picking the Brooklyn school than ever before, it is at a tipping point — and so is its budget.

Schools in Brooklyn must enroll at least 60 percent poor students to receive Title I money, a pot of federal funding that supports schools with many needy families. The recent influx of middle-class students has pushed M.S. 442 right below that threshold, to just under 59 percent last school year, likely leaving it with a budget hole of almost $120,000.

“We’ll have to dig deep,” said Principal Noreen Mills. “My main concern and goal is for my students to have all the opportunities we have now, when we do have Title I funding.”

Across New York City, parents, educators and students have led a grassroots effort to better integrate schools, which are among the most segregated in the country. But for all its academic and social benefits, greater socioeconomic diversity can create new problems for school budgets.

When high-poverty schools attract just enough middle-class families to fall below the Title I cut off, the federal funding spigot abruptly shuts off. While the city education department extends the funding for one year after schools cease to qualify, principals are soon left scrambling to plug the budget hole — even as they continue to serve a large share of low-income students who may need extra support.

“There’s no nuance in it,” said Jody Drezner Alperin, a parent at M.S. 442. “You either are, or aren’t,” a Title I school.

PHOTO: Christina Veiga/Chalkbeat
Students start the school day at M.S. 442 in Brooklyn.

Those newly diverse schools may not yet have enough higher-income families who are able to raise or donate funds equivalent to the lost Title I money. But even if that’s possible, some principals hesitate to rely too heavily on parents’ checkbooks. They worry that doing so would devalue the contributions of families who can’t afford to donate, while giving affluent parents greater sway over school decision-making and programming.

“It throws it over to the middle class to be the financial saviors of the school,” said Julie Zuckerman, the principal of Castle Bridge School, a mixed-income school in Washington Heights that doesn’t yet qualify for Title I. “We want to have the resources to do right by all the kids.”

At M.S. 442, more than 74 percent of students qualified for free lunch just five years ago, the measure the city uses to decide whether a school will get Title I money. That was before the school underwent a makeover and moved to a new building, which drew in many higher-income families. Today, about 48 percent of students qualify for free lunch.

But the influx of middle-class parents has not meant an infusion of cash. The school still relies on its roughly $120,000 in Title I funding per year to pay for student clubs, sports teams, teacher training, and mental-health services for students and families. (Because the school dipped below the Title I cutoff last year, it is currently receiving its one-year funding extension.)

The parent organization still gets $1 donations and holds bake sales. On its website, it asks families to consider pledging $4.42 a month — far short of the $200 yearly suggested donation at a nearby middle school with a less needy population.

PHOTO: Christina Veiga
Noreen Mills is the principal of M.S. 442 Carroll Garden School for Innovation, which has fallen just below the threshold to qualify for federal Title I funding.

Rather than selling tickets to events like movie nights as a way to raise money, the M.S. 442 parent organization invites families to come for free, Drezner Alperin said. It sees the gatherings as opportunities to build community — but it also knows that charging admission would place a burden on some families.

“Our fundraising ability is reflective of the community of our school,” Drezner Alperin said. “Some people give, some people can’t.”

Now, schools have a new tool to try to save their Title I funding — and their socioeconomic diversity.

In 2015, the education department launched the “Diversity in Admissions” program, which allows schools to reserve a portion of their seats for disadvantaged students — some have saved spots for students who qualify for free or reduced-price lunch or who are still learning English. So far, 42 schools have joined.

For schools in gentrifying neighborhoods, the program can help ensure they remain an option for low-income families — and that the schools hold onto their Title I funding. But it can also work in the other direction: Schools popular with middle-class families can set aside spots for a larger number of disadvantaged students than they currently serve. Doing so can boost their diversity and also, potentially, help them qualify for Title I money.

That’s what Principal Zuckerman is hoping to engineer at the Castle Bridge School.

The school’s progressive approach, where students get to choose which books to read and projects to pursue, appeals to many middle-class families, among others. But its dual-language classes taught in English and Spanish — along with targeted recruitment — has ensured the school enrolls many low-income students, too.

The result is a mixed-income school that has, until now, fallen just short of the Title I cutoff. Without that boost, the school uses $100,000 from its budget to pay for after-school programs, while the parent organization raises more than $2,000 a month to support a snack program that lets students cook and share food.

So when Zuckerman had the chance to become one of the first schools to join the Diversity in Admissions program, she jumped at the opportunity to protect the school’s diversity from the threat of gentrification — and to push it above the Title I threshold. With 60 percent of seats reserved for students who qualify for free or reduced-price lunch, and another 10 percent set aside for children with incarcerated parents, she expects Castle Bridge to qualify for Title I funding next school year.

The extra funding would free up money in the school’s budget to take students on a camping trip where students from different backgrounds would get to explore the world together, Zuckerman said. In that way, the Title I money would help the school truly take advantage of its diversity.

“The idea is that we want to bring multiple communities that can learn how to speak across cultural divides or differences,” she said.

funding dance

Indiana to tap reserves to free up $140M for teacher pay, Holcomb promises

PHOTO: Dylan Peers McCoy/Chalkbeat
Governor-Elect Eric Holcomb speaks to Republican supporters at an Election night event.

Indiana plans to free up $140 million over two years for schools with the goal of increasing teacher pay, Republican Gov. Eric Holcomb pledged Tuesday night in his State of the State address.

The state will tap into its $2 billion in reserves to pay down a pension liability for schools, Holcomb said, reducing schools’ expenses so more money could go to educators.

“Just like paying off your mortgage frees up money in your personal budget, this state investment will save all local schools $140 million over the biennium with continued savings thereafter,” Holcomb said.

He said he hoped schools would use the savings to increase teacher salaries. Lawmakers said after the speech that they would look for ways to make sure local districts direct more dollars to teachers.

The freed-up funding would equate to relatively small raises for Indiana’s roughly 70,000 public school teachers. In a bill seeking designated funds for teacher pay, Sen. Eddie Melton, D-Gary, estimated it would cost $315 million to raise educators’ salaries by 5 percent over two years.

The move to find the money to increase teacher pay comes after education leaders raised concerns over not having earmarked dollars. Holcomb previously suggested that schools use their overall funding, proposed to increase by 2 percent each year, for teachers’ salaries. Other Republican lawmakers have also proposed increasing teacher pay by reducing school budgets in other areas.

Still, the $140 million would come from reduced expenses, not a new influx of state dollars. Lawmakers would still have to approve the move.

“Personally, I think it’s a wise use of surplus,” said House Speaker Brian Bosma, R-Indianapolis.

Against a backdrop of an ongoing teacher strike in Los Angeles and large-scale teacher demonstrations in places such as West Virginia, Oklahoma, and Arizona, Indiana has made addressing teacher pay a top priority in this year’s legislative session. Indiana ranks 18th highest in the nation for teachers salaries adjusted for cost of living, according to an analysis of data from the National Center for Education Statistics and Council of Community and Economic Research — leading some to fear teachers will flee to higher-paying states.

But while the issue has easily won bipartisan support and united unlikely allies, it has proved more difficult to find a solution — namely, the money — that satisfies educators and lawmakers on both sides of the aisle.

“It’s too early to pick a number,” Bosma said, though both Republican and Democratic leaders agreed after the speech that the $140 million — while a “creative” approach — wasn’t enough.

“We can do that this year,” said Senate Minority Leader Tim Lanane, D-Anderson. “We can find a way to give an increase in teacher pay this year. We don’t have to kick the can down the road. We don’t have to say, oh, let’s turn it back over to the local school districts and let them find the money.”

But a meaningful solution could take time: Holcomb also announced Tuesday night the formation of a commission to study teacher compensation and search for ways to improve salaries, with the goal of proposing action in 2021. Business leader Michael L. Smith, an investment fund co-founder and retired Anthem executive, will lead the commission.

“Teachers deserve compensation that reflects one of the most honorable, critical and challenging occupations in the state,” tweeted Lawrence Township teacher Tamara Markey, Indiana’s Teacher of the Year, who was among community leaders invited by House Republicans to provide social media commentary on the speech.

Holcomb’s State of the State speech also emphasized workforce development, including preparing high school students for careers. He introduced Mary Roberson, superintendent of Perry Central Community Schools, to tout the district’s partnerships with local manufacturers to give students hands-on training.

“A strong economy depends on a world-class workforce,” Holcomb said. “That workforce depends on a great education. A great education depends on great teachers.”

universal choice

Denver’s window for choosing schools opens Tuesday

PHOTO: Photo by AAron Ontiveroz/The Denver Post
Sophia Camacena sits with classmates in kindergarten on the first day of school at McGlone Academy in Denver on Aug. 15, 2018.

The one-month window for Denver families to list their top school choices for next school year starts Tuesday and runs through Feb. 15.

Denver Public Schools expects to inform families of their school placement results in late March.

Denver Public Schools has a universal school choice system that allows families to use a single online form to request to attend any district-run or charter school in the city. Charter schools are publicly funded but independently run. This year, 60 of Denver’s 213 schools are charters.

While many school districts nationwide have a contentious relationship with charter schools, Denver is known for its collaboration with them, which includes the universal enrollment system. That collaboration has been the subject of criticism from parents, teachers, and community members who see the independent schools as siphoning students and resources from district-run schools.

The 93,000-student school district especially encourages families with children going into the so-called transition grades of kindergarten, sixth, and ninth grade to fill out a choice form. Families list their top five school choices, and the district uses a lottery system to assign students.

Schools can set their own enrollment priorities. Many district-run schools give high priority to students who live within their boundary and to siblings of current students, for example.

The district also has 15 “enrollment zones,” which are expanded boundaries with several schools in them. Students who live in zones are guaranteed a spot at one of the schools in the zone but not necessarily the school closest to them.

Denver has used zones as a way to increase school integration. Many neighborhoods in Denver are segregated by race and income, and the district’s reasoning is that widening boundaries provides the opportunity for a more diverse school population.

But a 2016 district analysis found that enlarging middle school boundaries had not decreased school segregation as much as district officials hoped it would.

The district also has a school integration pilot program that gives students from low-income families priority to enroll at schools that serve mostly students from affluent families. The results have been modest, and district officials are exploring ways to expand the impact.