study says...

What the F? Here are the surprising ways failing grades helped New York City schools

Sometimes a bad grade is a good sign.

New research suggests that in New York City, giving schools a failing or near-failing grade reduced teacher turnover and helped attract more effective educators.

These results cut against the theory that low district-assigned grades would have precisely the opposite effect. They also provide new evidence that the now defunct A–F grading scale sparked improvements at underperforming city schools.

The study will be published in the peer-reviewed Journal of Human Resources. Because it focuses on comparing low-rated schools to those that received slightly higher grades, the study doesn’t offer a definitive verdict on how the grading system the city used from 2007 to 2014 affected the district as a whole.

What the findings do show: Schools that received a letter grade of D or F saw a 20 percent reduction in teacher turnover, compared to similar schools that barely scored one grade higher. The schools with lower grades also attracted higher-performing teachers, as measured by their ability to improve student test scores over time.

“This is an important counterpoint to the people who worry about the stigmatization effects of letter grades,” said Jonah Rockoff an education researcher at Columbia University, who reviewed the journal article and has studied the city’s school grading system.

And the results dovetail with Rockoff’s own previously published research showing New York City schools that received low grades went on to boost student achievement in reading and math.

Grades were based on student improvement on test scores over time, absolute student performance, and the school environment as measured by attendance and surveys. The grading system was at the heart of a sweeping set of reforms Mayor Michael Bloomberg’s administration implemented to give schools more autonomy, but also harsh consequences if they did not measure up.

Principals at top-scoring schools could become eligible for bonuses and extra funding, while bottom-ranked schools were subject to leadership changes or even closure. Critics feared that low grades would stigmatize schools and demoralize educators. And they voiced concerns that progress scores bounced around too much from year to year to be reliable. Echoing some of those worries, schools Chancellor Carmen Fariña, who retired in April, eliminated the system in 2014.

To measure the grading system’s impact during its first two years, the study uses data from 156 elementary and middle schools and compares those that barely received a D or F with those that scored just high enough to earn one grade higher. Lower ratings reduced teacher turnover, from about 11.5 percent of teachers leaving each year to 9 percent. That goes against both conventional wisdom and previous research from Florida, which also put in place letter grades for schools.

Reduced turnover could also signal that educators at low-performing schools had more trouble than their counterparts getting hired elsewhere. But Rebecca Dizon-Ross, the paper’s author and a professor at the University of Chicago, argues that it’s more likely that schools responded to the low grade by making improvements that encouraged teachers to stay.

Her study points out that teachers who attempted to leave low-rated schools were no less likely to be hired at other city schools, and lower-rated schools didn’t see fewer teachers transfer into them. Moreover, the teachers who did join schools after they received a failing grade tended to be more effective at improving test scores than teachers hired at top-ranked schools.

In addition, teachers at low-scoring schools tended to give their principals higher ratings after the poor grades became public — suggesting that school leaders made improvements in light of the added pressure from the district.

“If you’re at a school with a good principal that is responding well to a low accountability grade, that’s where teachers wind up staying,” Dizon-Ross said.

But the new findings come with some important caveats.

For one, each school’s letter grades were published after the school year started, making it difficult for teachers to leave immediately or mid-year, and potentially dampening any stigma effect.

And there is some evidence that not all bottom-ranked schools reduced turnover. Dizon-Ross’ data shows schools that received the lowest scores in the D or F range actually had higher turnover than schools that also received a D or F but were on the cusp of a higher grade. Her method focuses on schools that just missed the cutoff, so it can’t completely account for the experiences of schools that were the lowest performers.

Dizon-Ross acknowledged those limitations, but said her findings still show that the letter-grading system produced some important benefits, at least in New York City.

“The letter grading policy seemed to have this upside — it was designed to encourage low-performing schools to improve,” she said. “It’s a hopeful picture for accountability.”

another path

‘They’re my second family.’ Largest Pathways to Graduation class earn their diplomas

Jasmine Byrd receives an award for excellence after giving a speech to her fellow graduates.

Before last fall, Jasmine Byrd never envisioned herself striding across the stage to receive a diploma at a graduation ceremony.

But then Byrd moved to the Bronx from Utah and entered New York City’s Pathways to Graduation program, which helps 17- to 21-year-olds who didn’t graduate from a traditional high school earn a high school equivalency diploma by giving them free resources and support.

Just walking into this space and being like, this is what you’ve accomplished and this is what you’ve worked hard for, is a great feeling,” said Byrd, who also credits the program with helping her snag a web development internship. “I’ve built my New York experience with this program. They’re my second family, sometimes my first when I needed anything.”

Byrd is one of about 1,700 students to graduate during the 2017-18 school year from Pathways, the program’s largest graduating class to date, according to officials.  

This year, students from 102 countries and 41 states graduated from Pathways, which is part of District 79, the education department district overseeing programs for older students who have had interrupted schooling.

The program also saw the most students ever participate in its graduation ceremony, a joyful celebration held this year at the Bronx United Palace Theater. According to Robert Evans, a math teacher at one of the program’s five boroughwide sites and emcee of the graduation, about 600 students typically show up to walk the stage. But students can be a part of the ceremony even if they received their passing test results that morning, and this year more than 800 graduates attended.

There were still students coming in last night to take photos and to pick up their sashes and gowns,” said Evans.

The graduation ceremony is unique in part because the program is. Students who have not completed high school attend classes to prepare to take the high school equivalency exam. But the program also prepares students to apply for college, attend vocational school, or enter the workforce by providing help applying for colleges, creating resumes, and other coaching.

To make sure that the program is accessible to all students, there’s a main site in every borough and 92 satellite sites, located in community centers and youth homeless shelters like Covenant House. Students who want to work in the medical field, like Genesis Rocio Rodriguez, can take their courses in hospitals. Rodriguez, who graduated in December, is now enrolled in the Borough of Manhattan Community College, and passing the exam meant being one step closer to her dream of becoming a nurse.

When I got my results I was with my classmate, and to be honest I thought I failed because I was so nervous during it. But then I went online, and I was like, ‘Oh my gosh I did it!’ My mom started crying and everything.”

Byrd said the program worked for her because of the supportive teachers and extra resources.

“The teachers are relatable,” said Byrd. “They don’t put on an act, they don’t try to separate the person from the teacher. They really reach out, even call you to get you out of bed in the morning.”

Carmine Guirland said the supportive environment of social workers, guidance counselors, and teachers is what attracts him to the work at Bronx NeOn, a site where students who are on probation or who are involved with the court system can prepare for the exam, college, and careers.

When students are on parole they will have really involved [parole officers] who would text me at the beginning of class to check in so that we could work together,” said Guirland. “It’s really about that village thing. The more support systems that are available the more success the students will have.”

Reflecting on his experiences with the graduating class, Guirland’s most treasured memory was when one of his students proposed to his girlfriend in a guidance counseling session. Even though they aren’t together anymore, the moment was a reflection of the relationships that many of the students build during their time at Pathways to Graduation.

“It’s this amazing high moment where this student felt like the most comfortable place for him to propose to his girlfriend and the mother of his child was in our advisory circle,” said Guirland.

New Standards

Tennessee updates science standards for first time in 10 years. New guidelines stress class discussion, inquiry

PHOTO: Rebecca Griesbach
Fourth grade science teachers Lamarcus Marks, of Rivercrest Elementary, and Angie Clement, of Bartlett Elementary, test out a lesson on kinetic and potential energy at Arlington High School, one of 11 statewide sites where Tennessee teachers are training for next year's new science standards.

How can a wolf change the river? Why doesn’t a cactus have leaves? Why can’t you exterminate bats in Tennessee?

With new state science standards coming to classrooms next fall, these are the kinds of questions students will explore in their science classes. They’ll be tasked not only with memorizing the answers, but also with asking questions of their own, engaging on the topic with their teacher and classmates, and applying what they learn across disciplines. That’s because the changes set forth are as much about teaching process, as they are about teaching content.

“At the lowest level, I could just teach you facts,” said Detra Clark, who is one of about 300 Tennessee educators leading teacher trainings on the new standards to her peers from across the state. “Now it’s like, ‘I want you to figure out why or how you can use the facts to figure out a problem.’”

PHOTO: Rebecca Griesbach
Detra Clark, a science coach in Shelby County’s iZone, demonstrates a sample lesson for sixth grade science teachers.

On Wednesday, Clark — a science coach for the iZone, a group of underperforming schools that Shelby County Schools is looking to turn around — unpacked for her peers, who gathered at Arlington High School, a key component of the new material: three-dimensional modeling. Under three-dimensional modeling, students should be able to do something with the content they learn, not just memorize it.

In recent years, Tennessee students have performed better on state science tests than on their math and English exams. But state science standards for grades K–12 haven’t been updated since 2008. By contrast, math and English benchmarks have undergone more recent changes. To give the stakeholders time to adjust, results from next year’s science test, the first to incorporate the new standards, won’t count for students, teachers, or schools.

At the training session, Clark, standing before a room of sixth-grade science teachers, held up a chart with the names of woodland animals, such as elk and deer. Under each name, she tracked the population over time.

“At our starting population, what do we see?” she asked.

“The deer, it decreases again because it’s introduced to a predator,” a teacher responded.

“More resources, more surviving animals” another teacher chimed in.

“How can we explain what happened in year two, when we’re dealing with students?” Clark asked the group.

“The population went up,” a teacher said.

“They start to reproduce!” another teacher interjected.

Clark nodded.

In another classroom, this one composed of kindergarten teachers, Bridget Davis — a K-2 instructional advisor for Shelby County Schools — clicked through a video of fuzzy critters, each paired with a close relative, such as two different breeds of dogs.

PHOTO: Rebecca Griesbach
In a teacher training session on Wednesday, kindergarten teachers highlight the three dimensions of three-dimensional modeling, a key part of new state science standards.

She encouraged the teachers to ask their students what traits the animals shared.

“The first thing they’re going to say is, ‘Well, one’s big and one’s small,” she said. “What we really want them to say is, ‘Well, their fur is the same color,’ or, ‘Mom has a patch of black hair here and the baby doesn’t.’ We want them to look at detail.”

She added, “We want them to get used to being a detective.”

The science standards that have been in place for the past decade fulfills the first dimension of three-dimensional modeling.

Doing something with that knowledge satisfies the second dimension, and the third dimension requires teachers to apply to their lessons a “cross-cutting concept” — strategies that students can apply to any subject, like identifying patterns or sequences.

Under the existing standards, a student may not have been introduced to physical science until the third grade. But starting next year, Tennessee schoolchildren will learn about life science, physical science, earth and space science, and engineering applications, beginning in kindergarten and continuing through high school.

“I do believe that this is the best our standards have ever been, because of the fact that they are so much more detailed than they have been in the past,” Davis said.

About a thousand Shelby County teachers made their way to trainings this week, which were free and open to all educators. Several administrators also met to discuss ways they can ensure the new standards are implemented in their schools.

As with anything new, Jay Jennings — an assistant principal at a Tipton county middle school and an instructor at Wednesday’s training — expects some pushback. But he’s optimistic that his district will have every teacher at benchmark by the end of the 2018–2019 school year.

“We talked before about teachers knowing content, and that’s important,” he said. “But what we want to see is kids knowing content and questioning content. We want to see them involved.”

He reminded other school leaders about last year’s changes to English and math standards, a transition that he said was challenging but smoother than expected.  

“Teachers are going to go out of their comfort zone,” he explained. “But it’s not changing what a lot of them are already doing.”