getting to graduation

New York City graduation rate ticks up to 76 percent in 2018

PHOTO: Alex Zimmerman/Chalkbeat
Chancellor Richard Carranza talks at New World High School about the city's latest graduation rates.

New York City continued the trend of steadily increasing its graduation rate, as the percentage of students who received diplomas climbed to almost 76 percent in 2018, according to state data released Wednesday.

That’s a 1.6 percent increase in the number of New York City’s seniors who graduated compared to 2017, when 74.3 percent earned diplomas. City graduation rates have steadily increased since 2005, when the graduation rate was 46 percent, amid efforts by the state to make earning a diploma easier.

The city’s graduation rate, which includes students who entered high school in 2014 and graduated by August 2018, improved at a higher rate than the state overall, which rose from 80.2 to 80.4 percent.

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Graduation rates at charter schools fell by 2.5 percent across the state, but they increased in the city by .7 percentage points, to 76.3 percent, according to city officials. 

Like last year, the city’s dropout rate slightly fell to 7.5 percent from 7.8 percent, making it the lowest rate on record. The Bronx was the only borough where dropout rates slightly increased after almost five years of declines.

City officials touted the results as evidence of mayoral control and setting a goal under former Chancellor Carmen Fariña to reach an 80-percent graduation rate. “This city has proven public education can surpass all expectations, and it’s happening very, very rapidly,” said Mayor Bill de Blasio at a press conference.

However, the rising graduation rates continue to be affected by changes in state graduation requirements made before last year, meaning the trend may not entirely reflect gains in student learning. Graduation rates have been rising nationwide, but test scores on the National Assessment of Educational Progress, considered the gold standard for measuring student achievement, have not always shown a commensurate increase, data analyzed by Chalkbeat shows.

In one of the more significant changes, the state began allowing students to opt out of a social studies exit exam, substituting other assessments in math, art, or career and technical education. Across the state, 11,200 students took advantage of one of these options, up from about 9,900 the year before. In New York City, 2,454 students opted for one of the alternative options, compared to 2,060 the year before. This year, 170 New York City students used an additional option of taking tests in one of four different languages.

State officials have also made it easier to appeal a low score on high school exit exams. Last year, roughly 2,754 city students successfully appealed low scores, more than five times as many as before the new policy took effect in 2016.

Of all city graduates, 66.6 percent were also deemed college-ready, according to a benchmark created by City University of New York. That’s up from 63.5 percent last year, when CUNY eased readiness requirements.

The state maintained Wednesday that the gains are not artificial. “It’s not as though we are decreasing the rigor,” said State Education Commissioner MaryEllen Elia in a call with reporters. “We’re not. We’re just offering other options.”

And students are still required to complete 22 credits, so “even though we may have pathways to graduation, you still have students taking the 22 credits that are required,” Elia said.

De Blasio’s administration urged caution when state test scores were released last year because changes at the state-level made results almost impossible to compare year to year. That idea is different when it comes to graduation rates, de Blasio said on Wednesday, which are a more “tangible thing” and are “so clear and consistent that I think it transcends the various adjustments.”

He called the multiple measures and pathways to graduation legitimate. “No one is getting a pass,” Chancellor Richard Carranza said.

Graduation rates rose overall for low-performing schools in de Blasio’s Renewal and Rise program, an effort to turn around struggling schools with a mix of new social services and academic support. Overall, grad rates increased almost 7 percentage points last year, to roughly 72 percent.

Gaps continue to exist between the graduation rates of white, black, and Hispanic students in New York City and statewide. Elia called this “troubling” and in need of more work at the state level, though the discrepancies are shrinking.

In New York City, the graduation rate among black and Hispanic students was 72.1 and 70 percent, respectively, compared to 84.2 percent among white students.

Graduation rates improved among students learning English as another language and students with disabilities, but remained relatively flat for economically disadvantaged students, city data shows.

In a tweet, advocacy group Advocates For Children New York said the improvements were encouraging, but that “gaps remain massive” — 34.7 percent of English language learners and 50.4 percent of students with disabilities graduated on time.

This story has been updated to reflect the most current number of students who graduated on appeal and the citywide charter school graduation rate.

making the rounds

Tennessee’s new education chief ‘very confident’ that online testing will be smooth in April

PHOTO: Shelby County Schools
Tennessee's new education commissioner Penny Schwinn (second from left) met with Douglass High School students and Shelby County Schools leaders Friday.

As Tennessee’s new education commissioner wrapped up her second week on the job by visiting four schools in Shelby County, Penny Schwinn said she feels “very confident” the state has learned from its mistakes in online testing.

During the more than three-hour ride to Memphis on Friday, Schwinn said she continued to pore over documents showing evidence that the corrections the state department staff have put in place will work.

“I feel very confident that our team has looked into that,” she told reporters in a press conference after meeting with students. “They’re working with the vendor to ensure that testing is as smooth as possible this year.” Currently the state is working with Questar, who administered TNReady online last year.

She also said the state’s request for proposals from testing vendors, which is already months behind, will be released in about two weeks.

PHOTO: Shelby County Schools
From left: John Bush, principal of Douglass High School; Penny Schwinn, Tennessee Education Commissioner; and Joris Ray, interim superintendent for Shelby County Schools.

“No later than that,” she said. “We hope and expect to have a vendor in place before the end of the fiscal year,” in late June.

The day Schwinn was hired, she said getting state testing right would be her first priority. Three years of major technical failures have severely damaged the trust educators and parents have in the state’s test, TNReady. It is the main measure of how schools and teachers are doing, but state lawmakers exempted districts from most testing consequences in 2018.

From Schwinn’s first day on the job: Tennessee’s new education chief wants to ‘listen and learn’ with school visits

Prior to talking with reporters, Schwinn said she heard “hard-hitting questions” from several students at Douglass High School in Memphis about what the state can do to improve education. Schwinn has said she will visit Tennessee schools throughout her tenure to ‘listen and learn’ by talking to students and educators.

Reporters were not allowed to attend the student discussion with Schwinn and some Shelby County Schools leaders.

Douglass High entered Shelby County Schools’ turnaround program, known as the iZone, in 2016 and saw high academic growth in its first year. But test scores fell this past year as the state wrestled with online malfunctions.

Timmy Becton Jr., a senior at Douglass High, said he hopes for fewer tests and more projects to demonstrate what a student has learned. Those kind of assessments, he said, can help a student connect what they are learning to their daily life.

PHOTO: Shelby County Schools
Tennessee’s new education commissioner met with students at Douglass High School and Shelby County Schools leaders.

“We figured it would be a different way to measure and see how much knowledge a student really has on a specific subject,” he told Chalkbeat after meeting with Schwinn during a student roundtable session. “It’s a good alternative to taking tests.”

He said he was “surprised and happy” to see Schwinn actively seek student perspectives.

“I really think that’s the most important part because students are the ones going to school every day,” Becton said. “So, if you want to find a good perspective on how to solve a problem, it’s really great to talk to the people who are actively involved in it and the people who are actually experiencing these problems directly.”

The state’s annual testing window runs from April 15 to May 3.

School discipline

Michigan schools have expelled fewer students, but that may not be cause for celebration

PHOTO: Getty Images

Michigan schools have expelled far fewer students since the state enacted laws aimed at cutting back on expulsions. But an advocate who’s pushed for an end to zero-tolerance policies pointed out persistent problems and told elected state education leaders this week that, “We shouldn’t start celebrating yet.”

This is why: Peri Stone-Palmquist, executive director of the Ypsilanti-based Student Advocacy Center, told State Board of Education members that in the 18 months since the new laws took effect in 2017, expulsions have dropped 12 percent. But she’s concerned that too many school leaders don’t understand the law or are ignoring its requirements. And she believes some schools are finding other ways of kicking kids out of school without expelling them.

Michigan did away with zero-tolerance policies that had earned it a reputation for having some of the toughest disciplinary rules in the nation. In their place, lawmakers instituted new rules, such as requiring schools to consider seven factors — including a student’s age, disciplinary record, disability and seriousness of the incident — in making expulsion decisions.

“We have had districts and charters tell advocates that they would not consider the seven factors at all,” Stone-Palmquist said. Others aren’t sharing with parents and students how those seven factors were used. And she said there’s a general “lack of understanding of lesser interventions and the persistent belief that lengthy removals remain necessary.”

That’s a problem, she and others say, because of the negative consequences of kicking students out of school. Studies have shown that students kicked out of school are often missing out on an education and are more likely to get into trouble. Advocates also worry that expulsion exacerbates what they describe as a “school-to-prison” pipeline.

She said advocates are noticing that more students are receiving long suspensions, an indication that some schools are suspending students rather than expelling them. Hiding students in suspension data won’t work much longer, though. Michigan now requires schools to collect such data, which soon will be public.

Stone-Palmquist also said that some schools aren’t even going through the expulsion process, but simply referring students with discipline issues to “understaffed virtual settings.”

“Once again, the students who need the most get the least, and no one has to report it as an expulsion.”

Stone-Palmquist gave an example of a ninth-grader involved in a verbal altercation who was expelled for a long time for persistent disobedience, “despite our team lining up extensive community resources for him and despite the district never trying positive interventions with him.”

In another case, a fifth-grader was expelled for 180 days for spitting at another student who had done the same to them first. Stone-Palmquist said the seven factors weren’t considered.

“We were told at the appeal hearing that the student’s behaviors were too dangerous to consider lesser interventions.”

She and Kristin Totten, an education lawyer for the ACLU of Michigan, provided board members with statistics that some members found alarming. Totten noted that an ACLU review of data collected by the federal government shows that for every 100 students in Michigan, 38 days are lost due to suspension. In Oakland County, 26 days are lost for every 100 students. In Macomb County, it’s 35 days and in Wayne County, it’s 55 days.

One child who’s experienced trauma for years was repeatedly suspended from multiple schools. The 11-year-old has been diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. This school year, she’s been suspended for 94 days.

“Never once were the seven factors mentioned to her mother,” Totten said.

Stone-Palmquist asked board members to consider recommendations, including developing a model student code of conduct that incorporates the new rules, partnering with the advocacy center to request an attorney general’s opinion on what districts are required to do, and expanding data collection.

Tom McMillin, a member of the state board, asked whether the state should consider financial penalties, such as withholding some state aid.

“I’m a fierce advocate for local control. But in areas where the incentives might not be there to do what’s right … I’m fine with the state stepping in,” McMillin said.

Board member Pamela Pugh said she appreciated the push for the board to “move with great speed.” She said the data and stories provided are “compelling, as well as convincing.”

Stone-Palmquist said that despite her concerns, there have been some successes.

“Districts that used to automatically expel 180 days for fights, for instance, have partnered with us to dramatically reduce those removals with great outcomes,” she said. “We know alternatives are possible and that they actually help get to the root of the problem, prevent future wrongdoing and repair the harm.”

The Detroit school district didn’t come up during the hearing. But on the same day Stone-Palmquist presented to the state board, Detroit Superintendent Nikolai Vitti gave a presentation to his local board of education about what’s happened in the months since the district embarked on an effort to improve school culture by revising the student code of conduct, hiring deans for each school, and providing training on alternative discipline methods.

The bottom line: Vitti said that schools are booting out dramatically fewer students and greatly increasing alternative methods of discipline. In-school suspensions are up, given the push against out-of-school suspensions.

But the changes have also raised concerns. Some school staff have said the new rules are tying their hands. Vitti said it will take time for the changes to take hold, and he outlined some areas that need to improve, including more training.