Wanting the ball

Why one Memphis charter operator thinks it can save an ASD school from closing

PHOTO: Caroline Bauman
Frayser Community Schools CEO Bobby White has seen the highs and lows of the turnaround district.

Bobby White believes his charter organization has what it takes to save one of the state’s sinking turnaround schools in Memphis.

White says his Frayser Community Schools managed to grow enrollment of MLK College Preparatory High by 24 percent since taking charge of the Memphis school in 2014. He believes he can do the same for Humes Preparatory Academy Middle, another state-run school whose enrollment shrank by 13 percent last year alone.

The Memphis-based charter organization founded by White is the only operator that’s stepped forward and applied to succeed Gestalt Community Schools as overseer of Humes.

The state’s Achievement School District held a community meeting Wednesday night at the school to examine the application and ask questions of White and his team. About 40 people attended, and most questions centered around whether Frayser could bear the expense of running a second school, especially with Humes’ low enrollment.

If the ASD approves Frayser’s bid, the organization will have to grow the school’s enrollment while also turning it around academically — a challenge that Gestalt leaders said they had not been able to meet in five years of operating Humes.

Humes has just over 300 students in a space meant for 900 and is located in North Memphis, where the school-age population has decreased in recent years and forced Shelby County Schools to shutter Northside High School last year.

But White, a former Memphis City Schools principal, believes he can use the same recruitment strategies at Humes that helped his organization grow MLK to 640 students. Those include recruitment booths in grocery stores and community centers, targeted phone calls, and home visits.

“Representatives from the school will conduct promotional activities by speaking at those elementary schools that will feed into Humes,” according to Frayser’s application. “As a follow-up, FCS administrators, staff and volunteers will make neighborhood visits to areas likely to have high school aged children and knock on doors, distribute flyers and have informal conversations about the school.”

Currently, MLK is the only school operated by Frayser Community Schools, but White has said he wants to grow the organization. MLK’s state test scores have not improved, especially in math, but the school received an overall composite achievement score of 4 out of 5, and raised its ACT average by 1.6 points to 16.

Although Frayser is the only operator to apply, ASD officials say it’s not guaranteed a match. Leaders hope to have a decision by Feb. 1 after gauging public opinion and looking at Frayser’s application and data.

There’s also a chance that Humes could close. ASD Superintendent Malika Anderson announced earlier this week that Gestalt’s other state-run school, Klondike Preparatory Academy Middle, will close at the end of this school year. Anderson said that, just as with Klondike, the ASD would work with Shelby County Schools to reassign students to nearby schools if it decides to shutter Humes.

Here are some of the biggest takeaways from Frayser’s application for Humes, and the public hearing:

Building a neighborhood school.

White expects Humes would see an initial decrease, from 310 to 265 students, during the transition. But within five years, enrollment is projected to grow back to 300.

Humes would be marketed as a neighborhood school, which historically has been a pillar of the city’s public education system. Under state law, ASD schools also are allowed to recruit up to 25 percent of students from outside of their neighborhoods. But Frayser’s recruitment focus would be on students in the traditional zone, similar to its approach at MLK.

“What we did, in year one (for Humes), was we decided we were not going to count anything other than students that are currently zoned in the community,” White told Chalkbeat. “As we build a brand, two things will happen. When you start to build pride in community schools, the children who are currently in the neighborhood who are attending other schools will notice. We’re counting on that. We’re also counting on keeping kids who are current 5th graders in the neighborhood.”

Cut expenses, seek philanthropic support.

Gestalt leaders said their impending pullout is necessary because Humes’ student enrollment and related funding can’t pay for the supports needed to turn the school around. Frayser says it can run a leaner machine, albeit one that relies heavily on foundation dollars.

Frayser expects to receive $100,000 in philanthropic support from local organizations and foundations such as Pyramid Peak, Hyde Family and Poplar, according to its financial summary.

White said his team has run the numbers based on an enrollment ranging from 260 to 300 students, and that his charter operation could stay in the black.

ASD officials asked the Frayser team about their plan if philanthropic dollars fall through.

“We do depend on philanthropy and have done so in past,” said Jeffrey Gayhart, who is in charge of finances for Frayser. “We do feel very confident that the $100,000 in the budget is understated. If philanthropy doesn’t come through, Mr. White and I would comb through the budget and prioritize items that could be cut, especially those that don’t affect student outcomes.”

Teachers and staff

Humes principal John Crutchfield would be retained, which would help ease the transition and community-building process. Teachers would have to reapply for 24 positions expected during the first year, but any teacher recommended by Crutchfield would get priority.

Those not coming on board would be provided the information for next steps as well but would be expected to stay for the duration of the current school year,” according to Frayser’s application. “Although we do not anticipate teachers not returning, we do have a pool of qualified substitutes to ensure proper coverage in case there is a number of folks who resign and capable replacements cannot be secured before the year ends.”

Teacher pay at Humes would take a hit — a projected decrease that prompted Anderson to ask how Frayser planned to retain highly effective teachers when “the proposed salaries look very different than what’s currently at this school.”

“When people apply, that’s when we’ll have a better understanding of what we’ll be able to do,” White answered.

The meeting allowed people to ask questions of both ASD and Frayser leaders. Several spoke in support of Frayser Community Schools, including Shelby County Schools board member Stephanie Love, who has children who attend MLK.

Editor’s note: This story has been updated with details from Wednesday night’s community meeting.

NEXT LEADER

Here are the four candidates to be the next superintendent of the Achievement School District

PHOTO: Kyle Kurlick for Chalkbeat
Students outside a school that's part of the state-run Achievement School District.

Four candidates are in the running to become the next leader of Tennessee’s state-run turnaround district, including one who is based in Memphis.

The state Department of Education released to Chalkbeat on Wednesday the list of candidates to lead the Achievement School District. Three candidates are from outside of the state, and all four are men with experience in charters, turnaround work, or state departments of education.

One of these candidates would take the helm following the September resignation of Malika Anderson, the district’s second superintendent since it launched in 2012 with the goal to transform Tennessee’s lowest-performing schools by taking over district schools and replacing them with charter organizations. Anderson was hand-picked by Chris Barbic, the district’s founding superintendent, following his departure in 2015.

The new superintendent would oversee 30 schools — the majority of which are run by charter organizations in Memphis — at a time when the Achievement School District has much less authority than when it started under Barbic.

Now the district is considered a tool of last resort under the state’s new education plan unveiled last year. Under-enrollment continues to plague many of its schools and was a big factor in the decisions of four charter operators to close their schools or exit the district.

Here are the candidates, and what we know about their education backgrounds so far:

Keith Sanders, former chief officer of school turnaround at the Delaware Department of Education. Sanders currently runs a consulting group bearing his name in Memphis.

Sanders led turnaround efforts for Delaware’s state department from 2012-2014. He helped to run the state’s Partnership Zone, which launched in 2011 as an effort to boost Delaware’s lowest-performing schools. (Tennessee is embarking on its own Partnership Zone in Hamilton County.)

Sanders was a principal at Riverview Middle School in Memphis before co-founding the Miller-Mccoy Academy in New Orleans, an all-boys charter school that shuttered in 2014.

Brett Barley, deputy superintendent for student achievement with the Nevada Department of Education.

Barley is currently leading the Nevada Achievement School District, which was modeled in part after Tennessee’s turnaround district. He was previously the vice president for StudentsFirst (now named 50CAN), a political lobbying organization formed in 2010 by Michelle Rhee, the former school chancellor of Washington D.C. public schools. His career in education started with Teach For America as a fourth-grade teacher in San Jose, California.

Stephen Osborn, chief for innovation and accelerating school performance at the Rhode Island Department of Education.

Osborn has worked with the Rhode Island department since 2014 and currently oversees the department’s charter school authorization and school improvement efforts. Osborn spearheaded the creation of the Rhode Island Advanced Coursework Network, a course choice platform. He was previously an assistant superintendent with the Louisiana Department of Education and a chief operating officer with New Beginnings Charter School Network in New Orleans.

Adam Miller, executive director of the Office of Independent Education and Parental Choice at the Florida Department of Education.

Miller has overseen charter school expansion and operations at the Florida department since 2008. He also now oversees tax-credit scholarships for low-income students, scholarship programs for students with disabilities, education savings accounts, and private schools. He was previously with the Florida Developmental Disabilities Council and was the executive director of Hope Center Charter School in Jensen Beach, Florida, which focused on children with autism.

The four candidates were identified over the last three months through the help of a search firm, K-12 Search Group.

The candidates have already interviewed with “key members of the ASD, charter, and funding community in Memphis,” said Sara Gast, a state spokeswoman. That group will provide feedback to Commissioner Candice McQueen, who will then narrow the list to two final candidates, Gast said. The last phase of the process will include public meet-and-greet opportunities before McQueen names the next superintendent.

Achievement School District

Here’s why another state-run charter school is closing in Memphis

PHOTO: Caroline Bauman
GRAD Academy students work on a writing assignment during an African-American history class. The South Memphis charter school will shutter this summer.

The high cost of busing students from across Memphis to maintain the enrollment of GRAD Academy was a major factor in a national charter network’s decision to close the state-run high school.

Project GRAD USA announced plans last week to shutter its only Memphis school after four years as part of Tennessee’s Achievement School District. Besides high transportation costs, the burden of maintaining an older school building and a dip in enrollment created an unsustainable situation, charter organization officials said this week.

“Higher-than-projected transportation and facilities costs were major contributors to the operational challenges that GRAD Academy encountered,” CEO Daryl Ogden told Chalkbeat.

GRAD Academy will become the third state-run charter school to close in Memphis since the ASD began operating schools in the city in 2012. KIPP Memphis and Gestalt Community Schools closed one school each last year, citing low enrollment and rising operational costs.

This is the first school year that GRAD Academy didn’t meet its enrollment targets, according to Ogden. The high school started the school year with 468 students, a drop of about 13 percent from the 2016-17 year.

Ogden said enrollment constraints significantly hurt the operator’s ability to recruit students to the South Memphis school.

Unlike most ASD schools, GRAD Academy started from scratch. It was not an existing low-performing school taken from the local district and assigned to a charter operator with the charge of turning it around. As a “new start,” the high school could only recruit students zoned to other state-run schools or the lowest-performing “priority schools” in Shelby County Schools.

Most of the ASD’s 31 remaining schools were takeovers and are allowed to recruit up to 25 percent of their student bodies from non-priority schools. (Now, a 2017 state law prohibits the ASD from creating new schools.)

GRAD Academy was not required to provide cross-city transportation but, because the school did not have a neighborhood zone, chose to as a way to build enrollment.

“Students were coming from all over Memphis, since there is not a zoned area around the school, and that began to be a challenge with attracting students,” said Kathleen Airhart, the ASD’s interim superintendent. “Their transportation costs were much higher than their counterparts in the ASD.”

Airhart said the State Department of Education has been working closely with GRAD Academy since becoming aware of its financial issues last October. She noted concern over whether the school had the funds to stay open through May, and the state worked with administrators to reduce expenses and streamline funding.

PHOTO: Chalkbeat Tennessee
GRAD Academy rented and maintained the building that formerly housed  South Side High School, originally built for 2,000 students and shuttered in 2015 by Shelby County Schools.

Both state officials and Ogden declined to specify how much the school spent annually on transportation and building maintenance but said that the cost of facilities was also an issue. GRAD Academy rented and maintained the building that formerly housed South Side High School, originally built for 2,000 students and shuttered in 2015 by Shelby County Schools.

Airhart is working with two other ASD charter operators — Green Dot Public Schools and Frayser Community Schools — to offer GRAD Academy students a high school option next year. ASD officials will host a meeting at the school Tuesday evening to answer questions from parents and students about the closure and their options.

The impending closure of GRAD Academy is another blow to the ASD. It’s the state-run district’s highest-performing high school and has its largest percentage of high school students scoring on grade level, according to state data from 2017.

Airhart commended the school for its career and technical focus on engineering and coding — two pathways that could lead to dual certification for students.

“The goal would be to transition the two programs and equipment to Frayser Community Schools or Green Dot,” Airhart said, adding that the details haven’t been finalized.

Many GRAD students felt their voices were lost in the decision to shutter their school, according to Kyla Lewis, a 2017 alumna who is still involved in the school’s poetry team. She called the news “heartbreaking but not surprising” and added that teacher and principal turnover was high during her years there.

“South Memphis has seen so much school closure and this hits hard for kids actually from the neighborhood,” said Lewis, now a freshman at the University of Memphis. “I don’t agree with the decision, but the main issue I saw was the thinning out of teachers. Once the best teachers left, by my senior year, the school culture was starting to fall apart.”

Ogden commended his team for the school’s academic strides, but acknowledged that “faculty and staff turnover associated with urban school reform” was a major challenge.

“There has been a continual need to reinvest in our staff and introduce our culture process and learning and development philosophy to new colleagues, which can slow academic momentum,” he said. “There is a persistent national, state, and local shortage of highly qualified, experienced math teachers which we, along with all of our fellow Memphis school operators, especially at the secondary levels, have had to work hard to overcome.”

Editor’s note: This story has been updated to show that a Nov. 18 parents meeting has been rescheduled to next week due to wintry weather.