the evolution of research

Beyond the test score horse race: 5 big questions researchers are asking about charter schools

PHOTO: Dylan Peers McCoy

The latest big charter school study was sweeping in scope, looking at thousands of students in 26 states across three school years.

But the study (and lots of other research on charter schools) uses that data to answer a relatively narrow question: How do students, usually in grades 4-8, perform on math and reading tests compared to students in traditional public schools?

This could be called the “test score horse race.” Some researchers are moving beyond that, to try to understand issues like what specific charter approaches are most effective and how charter schools affect larger communities.

“A number of new research studies are beginning to investigate some more nuanced questions with regard to charters,” University of Michigan professor Brian Jacob wrote recently.

Here are a few of the big questions that some researchers are examining — and other important questions that have received little attention.

1. How do charter schools impact students beyond standardized test scores?

In education research, test scores are the coin of the realm because they are readily available. But experience and research suggest that schools affect a lot more: from attendance and behavior to college attendance, future employment, and earnings. A key question is whether test scores predicts any of those longer-term outcomes.

For answers, researchers have looked at charter schools in Boston, Florida, and Texas, as well as specific networks of schools including the Harlem Children’s Zone and the Noble Network in Chicago. Results have been mixed so far, and none of the studies has been national in scope.

2. Why are some charter schools especially effective?

We know that certain charter schools are better than others at raising test scores — but why?

There have been only a handful of studies on this, and research from New York City and Massachusetts indicate that tenets of “no excuses” charters — like extra instructional time, intensive tutoring, and frequent feedback for teachers — make a difference.

There may be other reasons for high test scores: additional resources, peer effects, harsh discipline, teaching to the test, or pushing out low-achieving students. Existing studies on those explanations have been limited in scope.

“I’d like to see more work done on how charter schools operate differently than traditional public schools — a little bit [of] getting in the black box,” Jacob said. “What are the differences in policies and practices?”

3. Why do charter schools in some places outperform charters elsewhere?

Many point to differences among authorizers, the entities — often state or local school boards — that approve and oversee charter schools. Some argue that tight controls on which schools open and the closure of low-performing schools is essential to the success of charters.

There are a handful of studies on how individual authorizers are related to charter performance, as well as the impact of charter school closures.

State policies, like the extent to which charter schools can grow, how much autonomy they have from regulations, and how much funding they get, also likely make a difference. There is remarkably little research on these questions, and what does exist is correlational.

4. How are charter schools changing over time?

“The Evolution of Charter School Quality” in Texas

Most research on charter schools functions as a snapshot that may be less useful over time. Meanwhile, the number of students attending charter schools is growing in many states, and the sector is evolving in other ways, too.

Studies in Texas and North Carolina find that charter performance improves over time, but the schools serve more advantaged students. Research in New Jersey and Arizona also suggest charters as a sector may get better as low-performing ones close down.

5. How do charter schools affect public education more broadly — including finances and segregation?

Looking only at the relative performance of charters against district schools ignores their overall impact. If charters cause traditional public schools to do better or worse through competition, for example, horse-race studies won’t capture that.

Research has found that charter schools generally have no impact or small positive effects on the test scores of students in surrounding public schools, though it is difficult to nail down cause and effect.

The financial impact of charter expansion has been studied less. Existing research has shown that charters create additional costs for districts, but that places with large charter sectors can adapt over time.

On the issue of segregation, there is evidence that charter schools in North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Indianapolis, Michigan, and Texas have exacerbated racial segregation; other studies of multiple states and using national data have found little or no impact, however.

Studies of New Orleans’ public school system, which is composed of nearly all charters, have shown that expansion of charters (as well as a number of other reforms) led to large gains in student achievement, but also caused modest increases in racial segregation in city high schools.

Jacob said he is currently working on a study of the evolution of Michigan’s charter sector. More work needs to be done, he says, to track how the expansion of choice reshapes how families select schools.

Tough talk

State ed officials rip into ‘insulting’ SUNY charter proposal and ‘outrageous’ Success Academy chair

PHOTO: Monica Disare
State Education Commissioner MaryEllen Elia and Board of Regents Chancellor Betty Rosa

The state’s top two education officials did not pull punches at a panel Wednesday that touched on everything from last weekend’s racist violence in Charlottesville to recent charter school debates.

State Education Commissioner MaryEllen Elia took an uncharacteristically combative position against SUNY’s proposal to let some charter schools certify their own teachers — arguing it would denigrate the teaching profession and is not in the best interest of children.

“I could go into a fast food restaurant and get more training than that,” Elia said about the proposal, which would require 30 hours of classroom instruction for prospective teachers. “Think about what you would do. Would you put your children there?”

Board of Regents Chancellor Betty Rosa denounced Success Academy’s board chair, Daniel Loeb, whose racially inflammatory comment about state Senate Democratic Leader Andrea Stewart-Cousins drew headlines, and pointedly referred to New York City officials’ reluctance to talk about school segregation.

Wednesday’s conversation was sprawling, but its discussion of race and education had a particular urgency against the national backdrop of Charlottesville — and the president’s reluctance to denounce neo-Nazis and white supremacists in its aftermath.

The following are some of the most charged moments of the panel, held at the Museum of Jewish Heritage and hosted by City & State:

Segregation — “you’ve got to name it”

In response to a question about New York City’s diversity plan, which was widely criticized for not using the word “segregation,” Rosa suggested the city should have gone further.

“We committed to, as a department and as a Board of Regents, [the] notion of naming it,” Rosa said, referring to the state’s draft integration statement, which referred to New York schools as the most segregated in the country. “You’ve got to name it.”

Elia chimed in too, tying integration to the recent events in Charlottesville.

“I would say the last six days have pointed out to all of us that, clearly, this is something that must be on the agenda,” Elia said.

Dan Loeb — “absolutely outrageous”

Loeb ignited a firestorm over the past week with a Facebook post that said people like Stewart-Cousins, an African-American New York State Senator he called loyal to unions, have caused “more damage to people of color than anyone who has ever donned a hood” — an apparent reference to the Ku Klux Klan. (He has since taken down the post and apologized.)

Rosa strongly condemned the comments in the same breath as she denounced the violence in Charlottesville, and said children of color at Success Academy would be “better served” without Loeb leading the board.

“I am outraged on every single level,” she said. “Comparing the level of commitment of an African-American woman that has given her time and her commitment and dedication, to compare her to the KKK. That is so absolutely outrageous.”

Elia seemed to pick up on another part of Loeb’s statement, which referred to “union thugs and bosses.”

“For anyone to think that we can be called thugs,” Elia said. “People [do] not realize the importance of having a quality teacher in front of every child.”

SUNY proposal — “insulting”

SUNY Charter Schools Institute released a proposal in July that would allow some charter schools to certify their own teachers. The certification would require at least 30 hours of classroom instruction and 100 hours of teaching experience under the supervision of an experienced teacher.

But as the requirements currently stand, both Elia — who compared the training to that of fast food workers — and Rosa took aim.

“No other profession, not the lawyers who are sitting in that SUNY Institute, would accept that in their own field. So if you don’t accept it for your very own child, and you don’t accept it for your very own profession, then you know what? Don’t compromise my profession. I think it’s insulting,” Rosa said.

Joseph Belluck, the head of SUNY’s charter school committee, said earlier this month that the committee is considering revising those requirements before the draft comes to the board for a vote. But he fired back after Rosa and Elia bashed the proposal on Wednesday.

“Commissioner Elia and Chancellor Rosa are proponents of the status quo,” Belluck said in an emailed statement. They have “no substantive comments on our proposal — just slinging arrows. Today, they even denigrated the thousands of fast food workers who they evidently hold in low esteem.”

on the record

Eva Moskowitz sends letter calling Success board chair’s comments ‘indefensible’ — but also defending his record

PHOTO: Monica Disare
Eva Moskowitz, founder and CEO of Success Academy

In response to widespread criticism of a racial comment made by Success Academy’s chairman, the leader of the charter network, Eva Moskowitz, sent a letter Tuesday to parents, teachers and staff.

In the letter, Moskowitz used strong language to condemn Daniel Loeb’s comments. On Facebook last week, Loeb wrote that Andrea Stewart-Cousins, an African-American state senator whom he called loyal to unions, does “more damage to people of color than anyone who ever donned a hood” — an apparent reference to the Ku Klux Klan. Loeb later apologized and deleted the comment.

In today’s letter, Moskowitz called the comments “indefensible,” “insensitive” and “hurtful,” a more aggressive rebuke than her previous statement.

Yet she also defended Loeb’s track record in the letter, pointing out his commitment to Success and various social causes. A spokeswoman for Success Academy confirmed that Loeb remains the board’s chairman.

The racist violence that ensued this past weekend in Charlottesville put an even more damaging spin on his comments. At a rally Monday to support Stewart-Cousins, the Senate’s minority leader, she made the connection between her situation and the events in Charlottesville.

“That is extremely hurtful given the legacy, certainly, of people of color — my ancestors,” said Stewart-Cousins. “We all got a chance to see it in Charlottesville, what that represents.”

Moskowitz made a veiled reference to the weekend’s events in the letter, saying that engaging students is “all the more important in the face of the broader trauma and crisis we are facing as a country.”

Here is the full text of the letter: